Music of the Fourth of July: A Year-by-year Chronicle of Performances and Works Composed for the Occasion, 1777-2008 - PDF Free Download (2024)

Music of the Fourth of July

ALSO

BY JAMES

R. HEINTZE

The Fourth of July Encyclopedia (McFarland, 2007)

Music of the Fourth of July A Year-by-Year Chronicle of Performances and Works Composed for the Occasion, 1777–2008 JAMES R. HEINTZE

McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers Jefferson, North Carolina, and London

LIBRARY

OF

CONGRESS CATALOGUING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA

Heintze, James R. Music of the Fourth of July : a year-by-year chronicle of performances and works composed for the occasion, 1777–2008 / James R. Heintze. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7864-3979-9 softcover : 50# alkaline paper 1. Fourth of July — Songs and music — Chronology. 2. Fourth of July — Songs and music — Bibliography. 3. Patriotic music — United States — History and criticism. 4. Fourth of July celebrations — Chronology. I. Title. ML3561.F68H45 2009 781.5' 990973 — dc22 2009010115 British Library cataloguing data are available ©2009 James R. Heintze. All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Cover photograph ©2009 Comstock Manufactured in the United States of America

McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers Box 611, Jefferson, North Carolina 28640 www.mcfarlandpub.com

Acknowledgments Special thanks to Dennis R. Burian, Head, Marine Band Branch, Division of Public Affairs, U.S. Marine Corps, MGySgt Michael Ressler, Chief Librarian, Sergeant Kira M. Wharton, and GySgt Jane Cross of the U.S. Marine Band Library for providing access to their archives and for permissions, materials, and photographs; thanks to Philip Koslow, executive director, and Keith Neel, director of operations/special events of the Las Vegas Philharmonic for a tour of their executive office and copies of photographs and concert programs; to Donald Hester, euphonium player in the City of Fairfax Band, for his information on the band; to Earl R. Kreder for information on the St. Charles Municipal Band; to George Arnold, reference librarian, American University, Washington, D.C., for his photographs and information on the George Washington monument in Paris, France; to David and Ginger Hildebrand for information on their Fourth of July concerts; John Slader, superintendent, and Susan Juza, researcher, of Fort Atkinson State Historical Park for information and photographs; to Cecelia and Christopher Jaquez for information and photographs of the Richmond Concert Band and to Mark W. Poland, band director; Lawrence Robinson for a tour of the carillon in the World War I memorial in Richmond, Virginia; Jeff Stockton for information and photograph of the Excelsior Cornet Band; Bridget P. Carr, archivist, Boston Symphony Orchestra, for information and programs of the BSO; Gail H. Tyler, Northern Mariposa County History Center, Coulterville, Califor-

nia, for a photograph of the Coulterville Band; thanks to John Bisharat, who provided a compact disc of his piece I Am St. Joseph; to Debra Adleman, Hilary Caws-Elwitt and Betty Smith of the Susquehanna County Historical Society and Free Library Association for photographs and information regarding the soldier’s monument in Montrose, Pennsylvania; to Rebecca Bayreuther Donohue for information on celebrations in Mystic, Connecticut, in 1876 and 2008; to Kim Campbell, executive director, Becky Geddes, operations manager, and Courtney Dodson, past operations manager, of the Dallas Wind Symphony for information and photographs; to Eileen O’Donnell, vice president, Westfield Community Band, for information on the band’s performances; Bob Sandeen of the Nicollet County Historical Society for a photograph of the Redman Band; Dave Haight, president of the Palatine Concert Band, for information on the band’s performances; to SFC Sarah Anderson for concert programs of the U.S. Army Field Band and Soldiers’ Chorus; to G. Thomas Cherrix, conductor of the Greenbelt (Maryland) Concert Band for helpful information; to Scott Dettra and Christopher Jacobson, organists at Washington National Cathedral for concert programs; to Douglas A. Beck, organist at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Alexandria, Virginia, for a concert program; to David T. Kehler, association conductor of the Dallas Wind Symphony for information on his concerts; thanks to Piotr Gajewski, conductor of the National Philharmonic Orchestra at Strathmore near Washington, D.C.,

v

Acknowledgments for an illustration of a score by Andreas Makris; to Liz Barrett, founder/director, All Children’s Chorus of Annapolis, for a photograph and information; to Olivia Gentile and Donna Trent of The Cathedral Shrine of the Diocese of Virginia for information on the annual Bishop’s Bluegrass Festival; to Dianne S.P. Cermak, public relations officer, North American Guild of Change Ringers, and Geoffrey Davies, professor, Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, for information regarding bell ringing at The Church of the Advent in Boston; to Pam Picard, producer, Boston 4 Celebrations, for

vi information on the performance of the 1812 Overture in Boston; to Jonathan Silberman, American University Library, for scanning a photograph; to my son Terry Heintze for photographs of the Lafayette monument in Paris; to my wife, Yolanda Heintze, for her encouragement and for assisting me in selecting photographs for this volume; to the following composers who provided helpful information about their compositions: James A. Beckel, Jr., Phillip Bimstein, Nolan Gasser, Bruce Craig Roter, David Schiff, James Stephenson, and Barbara White.

Table of Contents v

Acknowledgments 1

Preface

Research Methodolog y

13

The Chronology 15 Notes

333

Bibliography First Line Index General Index

vii

363 367 377

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Preface This is the first comprehensive reference work on music and the Fourth of July, the most important holiday in the United States. The chronology provides examples of musical performances that took place over the course of the nation’s history and musical compositions composed especially for Independence Day. The information highlights the importance of patriotic music on the Fourth and points to musicians whose contributions to the heritage and traditions deserve attention, as well as the locations of those events. Although extensive, this study is not exhaustive. It is intended, however, to demonstrate the trends and changes in the myriad ways music has been used to express patriotism and how performances served to reflect the expressions and sentiments that individuals felt about the founders of this country, those who served in the Revolutionary War, the many Americans who were called into public service and the freedoms we all enjoy. The significance of music on the Fourth of July over its history has been remarkable. Bands and orchestras, vocal groups, small ensembles, and soloists performed popular tunes and patriotic songs on Independence Day for audiences that frequently numbered in the thousands. An invitation to perform for a parade or ceremony was considered an honor and musicians were held in high esteem by their respective communities. Some of the favorite orchestras, bands, and vocal ensembles that had wide-spread prominence included: Boston Brigade Band; Dodworth’s Band, Nyer’s Twelfth Regiment Band, Gilmore’s Band; Seventh

Regiment Band; Goldman Band; Schreiner’s Orchestra; Fort McHenry Band; Dudley Buck Glee Club; Tammany Glee Club; Kaltenborn Symphony Orchestra; Naval Academy Band; New York Philharmonic; Seidl Orchestra; Hugo Riesenfeld’s symphonic orchestra; Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra; Vermont Symphony Orchestra; Nashville Symphony; Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra; St. Louis Symphony; Atlanta Symphony; and the National Symphony Orchestra; “The President’s Own” United States Marine Band; United States Navy Band, Sea Chanters, and Commodores; United States Air Force Concert Band and Singing Sergeants; United States Army Field Band and Chorus; U.S. Coast Guard Band; Boston Pops; Las Vegas Philharmonic; and many others. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many ensembles representing the working classes performed on the Fourth, including: New York Banks Glee Club; Brooklyn Letter Carriers’ Band; Escondido Merchants’ Associations Band; First Hose Fife, Drum and Bugle Corps (Hagerstown, Maryland); Ogden Business Men’s Band; U.S. Engineer Band; Naval Gun Factory Band; and Manhattan Concert Band of the Works Progress Administration. Ensembles of minorities and ethnic groups included: Native American bands of upper New York state; African-American Band of Boston; American Ladies Orchestra; Female Brass Band of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin; Ladies’ Symphony Orchestra; Italian Bersaglieri Band; Worcester French and Irish Bands; United German

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Preface Societies; Mozart Maennerchor; Swedish Brass Band; Washington Federation of Colored Church Choirs; and New York Mainzer Carnaval Verein. Among the many composers who wrote music for the Fourth were Leroy Anderson, George Antheil, Robert Russell Bennett, William Billings, Dudley Buck, Carl Busch, George F. Bristow, Arthur Farwell, Arthur Foote, George Geib, Rubin Goldmark, Morton Gould, Ferde Grofé, Anthony Philip Heinrich, James Hewitt, Uri K. Hill, Alan Hovhaness, Charles Ives, George K. Jackson, Edwin Jocelyn, Edwin Markham, Lowell Mason, Robert George Paige, Victor Pelissier, William H. Santelmann, William Schuman, William Selby, Oliver Shaw, John Philip Sousa, Max Spicker, Igor Stravinsky, Rayner Taylor, and John Williams. In recent years, there has been a surge of new music written for the Fourth, some for specific orchestras, such as Andreas Makris, Fourth of July March (1982), for the National Symphony Orchestra, and Richard McGee, Las Vegas Rhapsody (2005) for the Las Vegas Philharmonic. Other composers received grants under the auspices of the Contential Harmony Project (2000–2008) for composing music that reflected regional areas of the country with many works premiered on the Fourth of July. Some vocal and instrumental soloists active on the Fourth included: William Dempster, Louise Natlie, Conrad Behrens, Crystal Waters, Eddie Cantor, Ethel Ennis, Rosemary Clooney, Johnny Cash, Willie Nelson, Gloria Estefan, Vic Damone, Lena Horne, Pearl Bailey, and Maureen McGovern, vocalists; Edward Reményi, violinist; Jules Levy, Walter Emerson, Waino Kauppi, and Adam Seifert, cornetists; Bruce Hall and Doc Severinsen, trumpet players. In the nineteenth century, ensembles consisted of trios, quartets, brass, cornet, and reed bands, and in the early twentieth century full orchestras, as well as jazz bands. After 1950 rock groups were added to the mix. Throughout the nation’s history music performed included both sacred and popular

2 genres, as well as ceremonial music used to heighten the merrymaking in parades, public dinners, and other entertainments. Although in the nineteenth century such songs as “Hail Columbia,” “The Star-Spangled Banner,” “America” (“My country, ’tis of thee”) and “America the Beautiful” achieved national anthem status on the Fourth, there were other tunes that also gained similar patriotic popularity, such as “The Flag Without a Stain,” “Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean,” “Flag of the Free,” “American Hymn,” and “Sword of Bunker Hill.” Music to honor presidents and other politicians was also performed on the Fourth. Favorites were “President’s March,” “Washington’s March,” “Hail to the Chief,” “Jefferson’s March,” “Madison’s March,” “Monroe’s March,” “Jackson’s March,” “Van Buren’s Grand March,” and “Clay’s March.” This compilation lists numerous songs that were premiered on the Fourth of July with the greatest activity during the 1790s to the 1840s. Lyrics were often printed in newspapers, which provided dissemination over wide geographical areas. Some of the outstanding nineteenth-century poets and lyricists represented in this volume include, among others: Thomas Dawes, Francis Hopkinson, Samuel Low, Daniel George, Della Crusca, Robert Treat Paine, Jr., James Flint, Hannah Flagg Gould, Alexander Wilson, Edward C. Holland, Anne C. Lynch, Margaretta V. Faugeres, William B. Tappan, A.M. Wells, William Pitt Smith, Jonathan Mitchell Sewall, Walter Townsend, Nathaniel H. Wright, Francis Scott Key, Samuel Woodworth, Samuel Francis Smith, Lydia Huntley Sigourney, Henry Mellen, Joseph W. Brackett, B.B. French, William Cullen Bryant, Willis Gaylord Clark, John Greenleaf Whittier, Julia Ward Howe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sidney Lanier, Bayard Taylor, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Harriet Prescott Spofford, and Katharine Lee Bates. Music was directly connected to a number of different traditions on the Fourth. For example, the practice of accompanying fireworks displays with instrumental music began in the early nineteenth century. On July 4,

3 1804, in Hudson, New York, “a beautiful and excellent display of fireworks, consisting of rockets, wheels, bee-hives, shells, serpents, &c.” was “accompanied by music from the band.” Another early instance of this “pleasing effect” occurred in Newburyport, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1806, when the Newbury Band played from a church steeple as 2000 persons gazed in merriment at the fireworks. Another instance occurred in New York on July 4, 1822, when musical interludes were provided during a fireworks spectacle. On that same day in Boston, fireworks on the Common were “accompanied by national airs from a full band.”1 The Fourth of July also gave rise to the use of multiple choirs and bands performing in tandem, sometimes referred to as “monster concerts.” Beginning in the latter half of the nineteenth century, German singing societies staged gigantic instrumental and choral performances and introduced music by European composers, such as Beethoven, Schumann, and Wagner, to American audiences. In Newark, New Jersey, on July 4, 1891, 5,000 Saengerbunders accompanied by an orchestra of 200 instrumentalists programmed an aria from Wagner’s Tannhauser in tandem with the “Star-Spangled Banner” and other patriotic music. In the same city on July 4, 1906, the Northeastern Saengerbund of America, Carl Lenz, bund president, staged another festive event with 100,000 persons attending. On July 4, 1902, 600 members of United German Societies of Allegheny (Pennsylvania) sang “The Star-Spangled Banner” in Schenley Park, Pittsburgh, for President Theodore Roosevelt. Other spectacular events included 3,000 voices that sang “My Old Kentucky Home” in honor of Stephen Foster, in Bardstown, Kentucky, on July 4, 1933. Popular also were musical plays, pageants, ballets, and other patriotic productions performed on the Fourth: The Fourth of July, or the Sailors Festival (1788); Fourth of July or, Temple of American Independence (1799); The Feast of Terpsichore, in the Temple of Independence (1800); Federal Oath; or, the Independence of 1776 (1802); The Glory of Columbia:

Preface Her Yeomanry (1803, 1804, and 1820); Point of Honor, or, A School for Soldiers (1803, 1815, 1820, 1821, and 1826); Poor Soldier (1797, 1805, 1815); He Would Be a Soldier (1806, 1821); Independence of Columbia (1809); The Rival Soldiers (1810); Fourth of July, Or, Huzza for Independence!! (1811); American Naval Pillar, or, A Tribute of Respect to the Tars of Columbia (1812); The Prize (1813); The Launch of the Independence (1814); Soldier Daughter (1814); Hero of the North; or, The Deliverer of His Country (1815); The Purse, or The American Tar (1817); Battle of New-Orleans, or, The Glorious 8th of January (1818); Tars from Tripoli, or the Heroes of Columbia (1819); She Would be a Soldier, or the Plains of Chippewa (1819 and 1821); The Launch, or, the Pride of America, Her Navy (1820); Capture of Major Andre (1824); Patriotic Volunteer (1824); Jubilee, or the Triumph of Freedom (1826); The Dragon’s Flight! Or The Pearl Diver (1847); Fourth of July in the Morning (1862); National Guard (1862); At Freedom’s Gate (1902); Girl of the Golden West (1910); The Spirit of Preparedness (1916); The Call of the Allies (1917); The Continental Congress (1917); “Fighting for Freedom”: Independence Day Pageant (1918); Our Own United States (1924); The Story of America (1926); The Spirit of the Snohomish (1928); Pageant of the Years (1929); Never-the-less Old Glory (1930); Gettysburg (1938); Three Cheers (1941); Minstrels of the Masses (1944); 1776 (1969); Forge of Freedom (1976). Noteworthy occasions and topics in this compilation include music at the White House and the presidents, music by immigrant and ethnic groups, musical associations active on the Fourth, cornerstone ceremonies, dedications of statues and monuments, artillery salutes, construction of railroads, canals and other civic projects, social movements; military bands, municipal bands and orchestras; symphony and philharmonic orchestras; significant occasions representing milestones of the nation’s progress, including the Centennial (1876) and Sesquicentennial Exposition (1926) in Philadelphia, World’s Columbian Exposition (1893), The Trans-Mississippi and Inter-

Preface national Exposition in Omaha, Nebraska (1898), Chicago World’s Fair (1934), New York World’s Fair (1939), and Bicentennial (1976). Also included are events in other countries, musicians’ strikes on the Fourth, music that accompanied balloon ascensions, music in prisons, circuses, and music played on steamboats and other vessels, amusem*nt parks such as those on Coney Island, New York, and at Glen Echo, Maryland; music at the Capitol, Independence Hall, Faneuil Hall, Mount Vernon, and other patriotic landmarks, educational institutions, and naturalization ceremonies.

Celebratory Music to the Civil War A precedent for American patriotic music and verse was in place prior to declaring independence and was carried over into community life after the Revolutionary War. John Dickinson’s “Liberty Song” (1768), for example, was written to protest the British Stamp Act of 1765 and became a rallying cry for independence. Other songs gained popularity and helped to foster a tradition of heralding the struggles and similar heroic efforts of the patriots. Some songs represented local areas while others were topical, such as those that described specific battles. “Siege of Savannah” expressed how Americans were held off the coast of Georgia by the British and “On Christmas day in seventy-six” (first line), described the battle of Trenton.2 One of the favorite tunes of the period was “Chester” composed by William Billings and published in 1770 in his tunebook The New-England Psalm-Singer. The tunebook’s second edition (1778) included the tune with the popular lyrics “Let tyrants shake their iron rod.” Notable performances of “Chester” on the Fourth included Marblehead, Massachusetts (1801), and Boston (1806 and 1808). In the twentieth century William Schuman used the Billings tune in the third movement (“Chester”) in a three-part orchestral work titled New England

4 Triptych (1956). Schuman’s version was one of the most popular classical works played on the Fourth of July beginning with its first identified performance on July 4, 1958, by the United States Marine Band at the dedication of Theodore Roosevelt Island in the Potomac River in Washington, D.C. Following the Revolutionary War, numerous songs and tunes were written for and performed on the Fourth of July to commemorate not only the battles waged, but also the Americans who had fought gallantly on behalf of their new country. Subsequent wars such as the War of 1812 and Civil War provided additional opportunities for composing new music for Independence Day. Another important aspect of the Revolutionary War era that greatly influenced the years that followed were the formation of militia bands and fife and drums corps whose purpose it was to provide music for military, social, and ceremonial events. These bands were typically described as “martial music” in newspaper reports to distinguish them from other bands and they often led Independence Day parades of military regiments, citizens, and town officials that marched usually in the morning from designated points of assembly, such as taverns, hotels, and court houses, to the meeting houses, churches, and other sites where the official exercises or ceremonies were held. Early bands were modeled according to “customs borrowed from the British army” in pre–Revolutionary America. Instruments included clarinets, oboes, French horns, and bassoons.3 Fife and drums, usually associated with field music in wartime, were performed on the Fourth in ceremonies, such as flag raisings, and at dawn to signal the arrival of the holiday. Other parade bands consisted of both amateur and professional musicians who either volunteered to perform for the day or were paid for their services. The marching order of the bands in the parades, the “order of exercises” and music for the ceremonies, and the locations and times of the events, were typically arranged well in advance by committees selected for that purpose and the information

5 was often published in local newspapers on or before the day of celebration. One of the most important bands in the history of celebratory music was the United States Marine Band (“The President’s Own”), established by act of Congress in 1798, making it the oldest professional musical organization in the country. The band played its first Independence Day events in Philadelphia in 1800 and at the White House in 1801. Its skilled musicians and extensive repertoire quickly elevated the ensemble’s status as the single most important military band that performed on the Fourth of July during the nineteenth century. By the 1840s, brass bands were common with such notable ensembles as Flagg’s Brass Band (Boston), Dodworth’s Band (New York), Brooklyn Brass Band, and Salem Brass Band, followed by cornet bands in the 1850s, such as Bond’s Boston Cornet Band, Lowell Cornet Band, Mahawie Cornet Band, and Hodge’s Cornet Band of North Adams, Massachusetts. Newspapers provided descriptions about the music and performers. For example, vocal groups sang popular songs as they marched in parades on Independence Day. Vocalists also marched in tandem with local bands (Mendham, New Jersey, 1799, and Shoreham, Vermont, 1802) each performing alternately as the groups progressed through city streets (Bloomfield, New Jersey, 1815; Lebanon, New Hampshire, 1819; and Scituate, Massachusetts, 1820).4 In Deerfield, Massachusetts (1813), singers in the choir marched in pairs. The music sung and played in processions was mostly secular and included favorite marches and patriotic tunes. Some new works were written specifically for these parades. For example, Philadelphia composer Alexander Reinagle wrote a “Grand March” for his city’s parade in 1788. Other parades featured the popular standard tunes of the day. In Killingworth, Connecticut (1802), citizens marched to the tune “Jefferson’s March,” and in Southhold, New York (1809), spectators heard the strains of “Yankee Doodle” performed by its local band. Some of the parades had multiple

Preface bands, such as in Salem, Massachusetts (1802), and Castleton, Vermont (1809). The revelry provided by these parades was lively and pleased spectators, such as the event in Patterson Landing, New Jersey (1814), where a band of “martial musick” and 186 ladies “all dressed in white, and heads trimmed with ribbon, singing Columbia at every interval of the martial music” paraded. Some towns had multiple celebrations, each with its own music, such as Ballston Spa, New York (1816), and Salem, Massachusetts (1834). When parades reached their destinations, musicians continued to play as persons entered the churches and meeting houses (Worcester, Massachusetts, 1798, and Bloomfield, New Jersey, 1815). Exercises frequently began with a musical selection and followed a pattern similar to a typical Protestant church service in which the usual scripture readings and sermons alternating with the singing of hymns and psalms were replaced with readings of the Declaration of Independence, orations, alternating with patriotic or other festive music. Some exercises included both instrumental and vocal music. Organ voluntaries were popular. Psalms, hymns, anthems, and oratorios were sung, and numerous odes were composed and set to both previously written and newly composed tunes. Female, mixed, and juvenile choirs were common. The number of choristers were occasionally mentioned in the sources studied. A Scotch Plains, New Jersey (1811), report describes “forty young ladies all dressed in uniform” who sang several odes that day. Sometimes the reports described the seating arrangements for the musicians. For example, musicians at the New Dutch Church in New York (1791) and the choir members at the Second Baptist Meeting House in Newport, Rhode Island (1811), and the church in Hackensack, New Jersey (1817), sat in the front galleries. Another important facet of Fourth of July celebrations were the drinking of patriotic toasts, usually a ritual for males only. Toasting was accompanied by secular music, huzzahs, and the firing of artillery or muskets.

Preface There were “regular” and “volunteer” toasts, the regulars written by or submitted to a committee for approval in advance of the celebration while the volunteers were offered on the spot by visitors, guests, and others who were not part of the official program.5 Frequently the lists of toasts with names of presenters and the music performed were printed in local newspapers following the event and were circulated widely throughout the states. Reading these newspapers was one way for musicians to learn more about the repertoire performed elsewhere.6 Sets of regular toasts numbered either thirteen, symbolizing the original number of states, or the number of states in the union in the year of the event. The number of voluntary toasts varied. Cheers were offered in sets of 3, 6, and 9. The tremendous noise created by artillery blasts heightened the effect of the music.7 The order of presentation and subjects for toasts were carefully considered. Many were presented to honor important persons, such as the country’s founders, notable political figures, clergymen, Revolutionary War heroes, and military leaders, while other toasts were topical, some touting the country’s advances in agriculture, manufactures, commerce, and arts and sciences. Usually, someone on the organizing committee was requested to arrange for the music that was to accompany the toasts and to assist the musicians if needed in choosing pieces that connected to the specific sentiments and themes presented. For example, in Newburgh, New York, on July 4, 1806, the tune “Liberty Tree” was sung or played to accompany a toast to “The Rising Generation,” and in Washington, D.C., on July 4, 1811, the song “How Sweet through the Woodlands” was performed after a toast to “roads and canals.” Whereas raising glasses to Revolutionary War heroes resulted in much cheering and general revelry, toasts to George Washington were often presented standing and in silence in remembrance of his death. Usually a solemn dirge such as “Death March,” “Pleyel’s Hymn” or “Roslin Castle” was played in the background by a

6 small band. When a more upbeat effect was desired, “Washington’s March” was played. By tradition, the last regular toast was offered in honor of women. Frequently designated “The American Fair,” females were toasted for their physical beauty and stewardship of freedom and patriotism; for example, the toast “May they set up the love of country as the standard of fashion, and we shall all become patriots” was followed by the tune of “Rural Felicity” in Scituate, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1814. Other tunes frequently sung or played on behalf of the women included “Come Haste to the Wedding,” “Barney Leave the Girls Alone,” “Lass of Richmond Hill,” and “Columbia’s Fair.” Other tunes accompanied these specific topical toasts: “The President’s March” and “Hail to the Chief,” for politicians; “Speed the Plough” for agricultural interests; “Ode to Science” for science. Some tunes were selected to accompany derogatory sentiments. For example, “Rogue’s March” was played to deride or mock specific individuals for their political views or their handling of issues in their official duties as in Baltimore (1803) and Hudson, New York (1806). Another derisive tune was “Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself,” played in Perrysburg, Ohio (1813), to ridicule “enemies” of the country and in Granby, Connecticut (1805), after a toast that mocked the Constitution of Connecticut. The popular ditty “Oh! Dear What Can the Matter Be” was sometimes sung or played to highlight misgivings about persons in political leadership positions. For example, a band performed the tune in 1811 in New York at a meeting of the Hamilton Society after this toast to “present rulers” was offered: “Like idiots gazing on a brook, they leap at stars — and fasten in the mud.” Another tune used to encourage scornful laughter following certain toasts was William Billings’ unusual and dissonant tune “Jargon,” performed in Roxbury, Massachusetts (1813), Hanover, New Hampshire (1814), and Boston (1815, 1819, and 1820). The rise of social movements such as abolition, education, temperance, and suffrage

7 saw the introduction of new music and lyrics for the Fourth of July that advocated nationalism, the importance of extending equality to all, good citizenship for youth, immigrants, and the general population, as well as the abstinence of alcohol. “My country, ’tis of thee,” premiered by a juvenile choir led by noted music educator Lowell Mason on July 4, 1831, in Boston, inspired a sense of nationalism. Anti-slavery and temperance movements were influenced by such songs performed on the Fourth as “Freedom’s Jubilee” (1830), “Shall Afric’s children be forgot” (1832), and “Soon Afric’s long enslaved sons” (1835), “Daughter of Temperance, arise from thy mourning” (1836), and “The Life Boat: A Cold Water Song” (1837). Music was introduced in Fourth of July celebrations on the frontier in the 1790s with the arrival of settlers and their musical traditions. One of the earliest Independence Day celebrations that included music west of the Alleghany Mountains occurred in 1788 in Lexington, Kentucky, and took place at an entertainment held at Captain Thomas Young’s tavern. A festive ode written especially for the event celebrated “Kentucke, the land most favour’d of the earth” and was sung to the tune “Rule Britannia” by the ladies and gentlemen assembled there.8 On the Tennessee frontier at Nashville on July 4, 1800, a fife and drum ensemble played “Washington’s March,” Roslin Castle,” “Hail Columbia,” and “Yankee Doodle” at a liberty pole raising ceremony.9 Musical traditions were also carried west by military units, for example, the 6th U.S. Army Regiment Band, first active in Plattsburgh, New York, ca. 1817–19, and later on the Fourth of July at Fort Atkinson (now Nebraska) in 1824. Their repertoire consisted of no less than twenty-four works, some performed both in Plattsburgh and Fort Atkinson. Another military unit was the Independence Volunteers Band of Ohio and Kentucky at Fort Meigs (1813) with a repertoire of 16 works, in presentday Perrysburg, Ohio. By the early 1850s, annual musical events for Fourth of July celebrations in Salt Lake City, Utah, had been established.

Preface The secession of six southern states in 1860 signaled the end of Fourth of July celebrations in the South while northern states continued to celebrate throughout the war years with parades, fireworks, and celebratory ceremonies that included the singing and playing of Union songs and military marches. Traditional tunes and lyrics that all Americans sung each year on the Fourth were reprinted in small songsters that Union soldiers carried with them on the battlefield. On July 4, 1862, General George B. McClellan encouraged his bands to perform patriotic music for the Army of the Potomac camped along the James River in Virginia, an event that suggests how important it was to continue the Fourth of July musical traditions in wartime. Brass and cornet bands, as well as larger military bands often predominated musically at Fourth events in northern cities and towns. Some of the more outstanding bands included the Grafulla and Gilmore bands, as well as the performances of the Seventh Regiment Band (New York), New Boston Cornet Band (New Hampshire), and the Union Cornet Band (Buffalo, New York). Popular minstrel groups performed on the Fourth, such as Christy’s Minstrels (Brooklyn, New York), Rainford’s Empire Minstrels (Cincinnati), and Sharpley’s Minstrels (Chicago), and helped ease the tensions from the war, if only temporarily. A surge of new music was composed during the war years that served as inspiration and hope for millions of Americans as they waited eagerly for news from the front. New songs focused on flags and other similar American icons. New battle hymns were penned, with the most endearing example, “Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord,” lyrics by Julia Ward Howe to a tune by William Steffe, first performed on July 4, 1862, in Newton, Massachusetts, at a Grand National Union Concert presented by Sabbath and public school children. Many in the North continued to believe strongly in the abolition of slavery as witnessed by the performance of new anti-slavery songs during early years of the war. After Lincoln issued the

Preface Emanicipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the anti-slavery song movement was replaced with civil rights causes. In 1865, some Fourth of July celebrations featured public readings of the proclamation and most cities favored festive music by bands and choirs on the Fourth that reflected the end of the war.

Celebratory Music after the Civil War During the 1860s and ’70s important musical organizations gave concerts on the Fourth including the Theodore Thomas Orchestra (New York), Blanchard-Fitzgerald Band (Los Angeles), Worcester National Band, Mayer’s 47th Regiment Band, and Hall’s First Regimental Band. Cornet and brass band concerts continued to be popular events. The Centennial celebration in 1876 (see discussion, 1876) was a catalyst for spectacular concerts across the nation as well as inspiration for new music composed especially for the occasion. That year also marked the formation of the Music Teachers National Association (MTNA) in Delaware, Ohio, by Theodore Presser and a group of teachers. The association’s mission was directed to “mutual improvement by interchange of ideas, to broaden the culture of music, and to cultivate fraternal feeling,” as well as to foster the performance of American music. Some of their meetings were held on the Fourth of July, including Cleveland (1884); Indianapolis ( July 5, 1887) which featured the first MTNA concert whose program consisted entirely of American compositions; Chicago (1888); Philadelphia (1889); Detroit (1890); Chicago, a World’s Fair musical congress including the MTNA, Women’s Musical Congress, College of American Musicians, and Illinois Music Teachers’ Association (1893); Saratoga Springs, New York (1894); Put-in Bay, Ohio (1902).10 Following the Centennial, new musical trends emerged. First, women vocalists were encouraged to participate as soloists on Independence Day, and especially in the singing

8 of the national anthem, a tradition that continues today. Some of the “Star-Spangled Banner” performances included Clara Louisa Kellogg in Hartford, Connecticut (1876); Miss Anna L. Fuller in Philadelphia (1880); Miss Agnes B. Huntington in London (1882); Miss Lida Clinch in Sacramento, California (1885); Mrs. Mamie Perry Davis in Los Angeles (1886), Miss Mollie Phelan in Ogden City, Utah (1888), Miss Josie Welden in Downey, California (1890), Miss Sadie Marsh in Asbury Park, New Jersey (1894), Mrs. Celia Fisher in Los Angeles (1895), Mattie Wade and Mrs. Thomas C. Noyes in Washington, D.C. (1898 and 1906, respectively), Hannah Larsen in Castledale, Utah (1901), and Luella Guymon of Huntington, Utah (1905). Second, a new sense of nationalism was reflected in Independence Day ceremonies and events, especially in immigrant communities. German Männerchor and Sängerbunders, for example, hosted large Independence Day musical events in Chicago, New York, Washington, D.C., and cities in New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Some of these events were massive in scope. An Irish parade in New York on July 4, 1921, featured 50 bands totaling 922 musicians. A significant musician during this period was Charles Ives (1874–1954) who was the first American composer recognized for his combining unique compositional techniques with distinctive American themes. His work Variations on “America” for organ, which he played in concert in February 1892,11 became a favorite piece in its orchestral arrangement (1964) by William Schuman with numerous performances on the Fourth beginning in 1974. Another work, Holidays (1909–13), includes the boisterous “Fourth of July” movement in which Ives was the first composer to have orchestral instruments depict the raucous sights and sounds — cannons, multiple bands marching in parades, and fireworks — of the typical Independence Day celebration he experienced growing up in his hometown of Danbury, Connecticut. Ives commented on his Independence Day experience in a series of essays he wrote:

9 His festivities start in the quiet of the midnight before, and grow raucous with the sun. Everybody knows what it’s like — if everybody doesn’t — Cannon on the Green, Village Band on Main Street, firecrackers, shanks mixed on cornets, strings around big toes, torpedoes, Church bells, lost finger, fifes, clam-chowder, a prize-fight, drum-corps, burnt shins, parades (in and out of step), saloons all closed (more drunks than usual), baseball game (Danbury All-Stars vs Beaver Brook Boys), pistols, mobbed umpire, Red, White and Blue, runaway horse,— and the day ends with the skyrocket over the Church-steeple, just after the annual explosion sets the Town-Hall on fire. All this is not in the music,— not now.12

By the 1920s large symphony orchestras, military service bands, and other new bands had been established and provided exciting patriotic musical programs on the Fourth. John Philip Sousa rose to unprecedented fame as a band leader and composer of such popular marches as The Stars and Stripes Forever and The Liberty Bell March and was among the first to introduce American patriotic music to European audiences. Classical composers saw the holiday as an opportune time to have new works heard. The Fourth of July (1909) and A Chant from the Great Plains (1920) by Carl Busch had holiday premieres. Concerto Grosso for Small Dance Band and Symphony Orchestra by Robert Russell Bennett and Circus Day by Deems Taylor had their New York premieres at Lewisohn Stadium on July 4, 1934. Other premieres included This Is Our Time and Prayer 1943 by William Schuman at Lewisohn Stadium and the Watergate in Washington, D.C., on July 4, 1940, and July 4, 1943, respectively; Lincoln Portrait (Washington, D.C. premiere) by Aaron Copland on July 4, 1942; Hudson River Suite by Ferde Grofé at Lewisohn Stadium on July 4, 1955. Another important aspect that influenced future musical events on the Fourth were the creation of outdoor amphitheaters that provided for enjoyable concerts under the stars. Notable examples include the Sylvan Theater (1917), the first government-owned and -funded outdoor amphitheater located on the grounds of the Washington Monument, the

Preface Hollywood Bowl (1922) in Los Angeles, and the Hatch Shell (original structure, 1928) at the Charles River Esplanade in Boston. The first Independence Day concert given by Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Symphony Orchestra at the Esplanade in 1929 and subsequent concerts by later directors after the permanent Hatch Shell was built also drew huge crowds and influenced other cities to build outdoor theaters. During this period, jazz and swing band music was performed on the Fourth, and new songs that expressed sentiments about World War I and II were typically included on ceremonial programs. An important American patriotic song introduced and still a favorite today was “God Bless America,” composed by Irving Berlin and first sung by the popular vocalist Kate Smith on Armistice Day, November 11, 1938. The song was quickly catapulted to American heritage status with numerous historic performances, two of which occurred on July 4, 1940: one rendition sung at the New York World’s Fair by 100 children and another sung at the presentation ceremony of Hyde Park Library to the federal government by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.13 Beginning in the 1920s, musical performances broadcast by radio and later TV, reached mass audiences across wide areas of the country. Some of these included the “Parade of States” broadcast over KFI on July 4, 1932; the dedication of Morristown National Historical Park, with the U.S. Marine Band over WEAF, on July 4, 1933; and The Stars and Stripes Show, hosted by TV personality Ed McMahon, and broadcast over NBC-TV on July 4, 1972. The Bicentennial celebration (see discussion, 1976) was the largest Fourth of July occasion in the twentieth century. At least twelve new musical works were written for the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of the country. The 1980s are noted for the performance of well-known movie themes on the Fourth of July. John Williams, who was named conductor of the Boston Pops in 1980 and gave his first Independence Day concert at the Esplanade that year, greatly influenced this

Preface trend, due largely to the numerous popular movie scores he wrote, many of which had excerpts subsequently performed on the Fourth by bands and orchestras across the country. Some of his scores programmed included Jaws, Star Wars, Return of the Jedi, Superman, Raiders of the Lost Ark, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Born on the Fourth of July, Jurassic Park, and Schindler’s List. Williams also composed some noteworthy patriotic pieces performed on the Fourth, including Liberty Fanfare for the rededication ceremony for the Statue of Liberty on July 4, 1986, and Celebrate Discovery for the five hundredth anniversary of the 1492 discovery voyages on July 4, 1990, in Boston. Also popular during this period were the mega-entertainments that featured popular headliners, such as Boston Pops events, “Sunoco Welcome America” celebrations in Philadelphia, “Capitol Fourth” annual events in Washington, D.C., “Fair St. Louis,” and New York’s “Macy’s Fourth of July” fireworks shows. Performers that emerged as post–1950s American icons included the Beach Boys, Statler Brothers, and singers Willie Nelson and Don McLean. The Beach Boys14 became closely identified with Independence Day, due largely to the popularity of the American themes in their California-inspired music such as “Surfin’ U.S.A.” and “California Girls” and the furor from their fans that resulted from being banned from performing on the Mall in Washington on the Fourth of July in 1983 by order of James Watt, secretary of the interior. Watts wanted to dissuade “the wrong element”— youths that consume alcohol and drugs — from attending the celebration. Undaunted, the group gave a free Independence Day concert that year in Atlantic City, New Jersey. In 1984 the Beach Boys were invited back to the Mall on July 4 and performed to a crowd of 200,000. The Statler Brothers were one of the top country music groups for nearly forty years. From 1970 to 1994, they gave an annual “Happy Birthday U.S.A.” concert for charities in their hometown of Staunton, Virginia, drawing tens of thousands of music fans.15 Willie Nelson started a series of Fourth

10 of July picnics, the first in 1973 in Dripping Springs, Texas, where non-mainstream country artists such as Waylon Jennings, Charlie Rich, and Kris Kristofferson were featured, with the 2008 show in Houston, Texas. Don McLean has had numerous Fourth of July concerts over the years.16 He released his tophit single “American Pie” in 1971 and the song became a significant popular work in America’s vocal literature. Recently the song has served as an American theme at recent Independence Day celebrations, such as “American Pie with Don McLean: A 4th of July Celebration,” in Irvine, California in 2008 and on July 3–5 of that year at the Freemont Street Experience in Las Vegas where a Viva Vision light and sound show titled “Don McLean’s American Pie,” based on the story behind the album, was premiered.17 During this period, retrospective musical tributes to Leroy Anderson, Harold Arlen, Louis Armstrong, the Beatles, Irving Berlin, Nat “King” Cole, Stephen Foster, John Philip Sousa, George Gershwin, George M. Cohan, Glenn Miller, Richard Rodgers, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, and Bruce Springsteen continued to be popular. In 1984 Lee Greenwood released an outstanding patriotic song, “God Bless the U.S.A.” With its passionate lyrics and powerful tune, it created a sensation after the beginning of Operation Desert Storm in 1991 and has had innumerable performances on the Fourth of July since then. “This Land Is Your Land,” written in 1940 by Woody Guthrie18 and popular as a folk anthem in the 1960s, was once again revitalized with new performances on the Fourth beginning in the mid–1980s. Similarly “This Is My Country,” a song composed in 1940 by Al Jacobs, had numerous performances on the Fourth beginning in 1949 in Washington, D.C. An important orchestral composition performed annually on the Fourth was the 1812 Overture by the Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. First performed in Moscow in 1882, Tchaikovsky’s score called for both live carillon (pealing bells) and live cannon shots. The first identified American pa-

11

Preface

This site and grouping of permanent metal chairs in Staunton, Virginia, was dedicated to the Statler Brothers (“A tribute Don Reid, Harold Reid, Phil Balsley, Jimmy Fortune & Lew DeWitt”) who from 1970 to 1994 presented Fourth of July concerts in this their hometown and with all proceeds going to local charities. A plaque reads: “A tribute to Staunton’s own The Statler Brothers. The most awarded group in country music history. Dedicated July 5, 2004 with pride, appreciation and affection by the people of Staunton” (author’s photograph).

triotic performance for Independence Day occurred at the Century Theatre in New York in 1911 by an orchestra conducted by Elliott Schenck.19 Other early performances with the added sounds included two in Chicago by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the first with live gunfire, given on July 4, 1935, at Grant Park with Eric DeLamarter, conductor,20 and another “with bells and cannon crackers” on July 4, 1942, at Ravinia Park with Dimitri Mitropoulos, conductor.21 On July 6, 1950,22 the National Symphony Orchestra under the baton of Howard Mitchell, performed the 1812 Overture accompanied by the sound of four 75mm live Howitzer cannons. The cannons were paired off and

placed in different locations. Musicians Fritz Maile, a violinist in the orchestra, and Emerson Meyers, a Washington, D.C., pianist and composer, stood next to the artillery and signaled the appropriate moment to fire the guns.23 Another milestone in the performance of the work occurred on July 4, 1974, when Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops utilized live cannons, church bells, and fireworks in tandem with orchestral instruments (see also 1974). Since then, each year the bells are rung live at The Church of the Advent on Beacon Hill and amplified electronically onsite at the Esplanade through the technical facilities of Boston 4 Celebrations.24 By the 1990s, the Richmond (Virginia) Concert Band had the

Preface distinction of performing the 1812 Overture in Richmond’s Dogwood Dell with live artillery, live bells from the World War I Memorial Carillon in Byrd Park located adjacent to the concert site, and added fireworks.25 In the 1980s and 1990s, orchestral performances on the Fourth increased annually, including those by important symphonies representing the cities of Akron, Austin, Bismarck-Mandan, Carmel, Chautauqua, Corpus Christi, Houston, Indianapolis, Johnstown, Lancaster, Longmont, Nashville, New Bedford, San Diego, San Francisco, Santa Rosa, South Bend, St. Joseph, Syracuse, and Vallejo. Notably, the first two major symphony orchestras ever to give their debut performances on Independence Day were the Hollywood Bowl

12 Orchestra (re-established) on July 2–4, 1991, and the Las Vegas Philharmonic on July 4, 1998. The community volunteer band and chorus movement also gained considerable momentum during this period. Popular classical works that were programmed with regularity included: Lincoln Portrait and Fanfare for the Common Man by Aaron Copland; Overture to Candide and selections from West Side Story by Leonard Bernstein; and American Salute by Morton Gould. At least two works were written in memory of September 11, 2001, and both premiered on July 4, 2002: Singing in the Dark for jazz alto saxophone and string quartet by David Schiff in Portland, Oregon, and Tribute for Orchestra by James Grant in Gadsden, Alabama.26

Research Methodolog y Two publications were helpful in confirming the identification of many early American works cited in this volume: Oscar Sonneck’s Early Concert-Life in America: 1731– 1800 (1907) and A Bibliography of Early Secular American Music (1945). His studies had considerable impact in establishing widespread recognition of the significance of American music and helped to encourage further research. Richard J. Wolfe’s Secular Music in America: 1801–1825 (1964) provided a guide to important sources, composers, and performers of music in the period studied. Several online databases were consulted, including: American Periodical Series Online (1740–1900; Proquest); An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera (Library of Congress); California Sheet Music Project (Museum Informatics Project, University of California, Berkeley); Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers (Library of Congress); Colorado’s Historic Newspaper Collection (Colorado State Library, Colorado Historical Society, and the Collaborative Digitization Program); Early American Imprints, Series 1: Evans, 1639–1800 (Readex); Early American Newspapers, Series 1, 1690–1876 (Readex); Eighteenth Century Collections Online (Gale); Historic Missouri Newspaper Project; Historical Newspapers of Washington; Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection; Kentuckiana Digital Library; Maryland Early State Records Online; 19th-Century American Sheet Music Digitization Project (University of North Carolina); Northern New York Historical Newspapers (Northern New York Library

Network); Pennsylvania Civil War Newspapers; Utah Digital Newspapers (University of Utah); Broadsides Collection (Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University); Winona Newspaper Project (Winona State University, Minnesota); and LexisNexis Academic. Stand-alone digital and other online newspapers examined included: Atlanta Constitution (1868–1929), Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Chicago Tribune (1849–1985), The Columbia Spy (1830–89), Lancaster Journal (1816–36), Los Angeles Times (1881–1985), New York Times (1851–2003), Pennsylvania Gazette (1728– 1800), Quincy Daily Herald (Illinois, 1835– 1919), and Washington Post (1877–1996). Research was supplemented by examining relevant print and microfilm copies of newspapers held at the Library of Congress and the University of Maryland at College Park. Collections examined individually include musical programs of the Boston Symphony and Pops in the archives of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and collections held in the United States Marine Band Library, Washington, D.C. Information on performances of the “The President’s Own” U.S. Marine Band, the oldest musical organization in the country, are based on “Leader (beginning in 1916)” and “Library Logs” of the band, as well as individual program information held in vertical files; all hereafter cited in this volume as “Program Records.” Information in book is arranged chronologically by year and divided by Publications, listed alphabetically, and Performances, alphabetically arranged by state and city. Sources

13

Research Methodology are cited in chronological order and variant spellings of musical works are cited as identified in the sources, particularly in the period up to the Civil War. Wherever first lines for poetry and songs are cited, full lyrics are found in the sources provided. Most of the performances included in this compilation occurred on July 4, but if that date fell on Sunday, secular performances were frequently postponed until the following day. The years that July 4 fell on a Sunday include 1779, 1784, 1790, 1802, 1813, 1819, 1824, 1830, 1841, 1847, 1852, 1858, 1869, 1875, 1880, 1886, 1897, 1909, 1915, 1920, 1926, 1937, 1943, 1948, 1954, 1965, 1971, 1976, 1982, 1993, 1999, 2004. Some programs are cited in full to provide readers a better understanding of the order in which musical works were performed. Primary materials are

14 generally cited in their respective entries, with the addition of notes for additional primary and secondary sources or further interesting and noteworthy information, or both. A handy reference work that can be used in tandem with this work is the author’s The Fourth of July Encyclopedia (McFarland, 2007) which includes general articles on the history of the Fourth of July, complemented with information regarding some musical performances on Independence Day. The book includes a number of facsimile pages from relevant scores, songsters, and other primary material, as well as examples of buildings and churches where Independence Day events occurred. A bibliography, index of first lines of poetry, and general index complete this volume.

THE CHRONOLOGY opposite the upper Table, was erected an Orchestra.... As soon as Dinner began, the Musick consisting of Clarinets, Hautboys, French horns, Violins and Bass Viols, opened and continued, making proper pause, until it was finish.32

1777 Performances Massachusetts Boston: At the General Court, “the following Hymn from Dr. [Isaac] Watts’s collection, somewhat altered, was sung upon the occasion.” First line: “Nature with all her pow’rs shall sing.”27 (The Separation of the Jewish Tribes, after the Death of Solomon, accounted for, and applied to the Present Day in a Sermon Preached before the General Court, on Friday, July the 4th, 1777 being the Anniversary of the Declaration of Independency. By William Gordon28 (Boston: Printed by J. Gill, 1777, 37).

1779 Massachusetts Boston: At Concert Hall, Boston, “This day being the 5th July, 1779, will be a concert33 of vocal and instrumental music, to celebrate the independency of America — at which time will be performed an Ode suitable to the occasion — Tickets to be had at Mr. Gill’s, Printing-Office, and at Messr. Drapes and Folson’s, at 25 dollars each. Note: no tickets to be delivered, or money taken at the hall-doors” (Independent Ledger, and the American Advertiser, 5 July 1779, 4). The concert was postponed to July 9.

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: The Hessian Band of music “taken in Trenton the 26th of December last, attended and heightened the festivity with some fine performances suited to the joyous occasion” at a dinner prepared for Congress in Philadelphia.29 Toasts were accompanied by “a suitable piece of music by the Hessian Band” (Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser, 24 July 1777, 2; Providence Gazette, 2 August 1777, 4; Virginia Gazette, 18 July 1777, 2–3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: On Sunday, July 4, members of Congress attended “divine worship” in Christ Church. Then they assembled at the Catholic chapel by “invitation from the honorable the Minister of France” where there heard a “Te Deum solemnly sung by a number of very good voices, accompanied by the organ and other kinds of music.” On July 5, Congress, in turn, provided an entertainment for the French minister that included music, toasts and “thirteen vollies” (Independent Ledger, 26 July 1779, 2).

1778 Performances Pennsylvania

1780

Philadelphia: Newspaper reported a “Band of Musick”30 provided celebration music at the City Tavern in Philadelphia. William Ellery31 writing in his diary provided an excellent description:

Publications “God Bless the Thirteen States,”34 to be sung on the 4th of July. “Made by a Dutch gentleman at Amsterdam.” According to the Providence Gazette, this and another song, “God Save the Thirteen States!” were written at the Hague “for the Americans at Am-

The glorious fourth of July I celebrated in the City Tavern with Brother Delegates of Congress and a number of other gentlemen, amounting [sic] in the whole to about 80.... The entertainment was elegant and well conducted. At the end of the Room

15

16

1781

A “faithful reconstruction” of City Tavern, established in 1773, on its original site in Philadelphia. This was the location for numerous musical occasions and concerts on the Fourth beginning in 1778, when a “band of musick” serenaded members of Congress at a Fourth of July dinner. The U.S. Marine Band gave its first Independence Day performance here in 1800 (author’s photograph). sterdam” at the July 4, 1779, celebration (Pennsylvania Packet, 1 January 1780, 4; Providence Gazette, 1 January 1780).

1782

1781

“A Song. Composed and sung on the anniversary of American independence.”35 first line: “To hail the day that annual rolls” (Virginia Gazette, and Weekly Advertiser, 27 July 1782, 4).

Performances Pennsylvania Philadelphia: Congress, military officers, citizens, and others celebrated in the hall of the university where commencement exercises were held that day. “An excellent band of musick striking up,” as Congress entered the hall “and playing until his excellency the president and the hon. Board of Trustees and faculty of the university were seated, ushered in the exercises of the day, and by interludes, between the several performances [speeches] of the young gentlemen, heightened the pleasure of the entertainment” (Massachusetts Spy, 2 August 1781, 4).

1783 Performances Massachusetts Boston: William Billings’ anthem: “Independence” (“The States, O Lord, with songs of praise”),36 performed at the Brattle Square Church ( J.I. Young, “The Pioneer of American Church Music,” Potter’s American Monthly [October 1876]: 255–56).

17 New York Poughkeepsie: A dinner celebration included the singing of a song, with the first line: “Columbia, Columbia, to glory arise” (New York Packet, 17 July 1783).

North Carolina Salem: Governor Alexander Martin of North Carolina issued the first state order on 18 June for celebrating the Fourth which in turn prompted the Moravian community of Salem to create a special service and musical “Lovefeast” on the 4th of July. Music included, in part, a Te Deum “sung to trombone accompaniment,” “a musical psalm of thanksgiving,” and “in the evening, after the hymn of praise: Praise be to Thee, that dwells above the Cherubim, is sung in the Gemeinsaal, there will be a procession with music and song through the town which will be illuminated.”37

South Carolina Charleston: After a city parade, members of the militia, the Governor and his “Privy Council,” and other dignitaries enjoyed a collation at the governor’s residence. Toasts were offered accompanied by the following music performed by a band: God Save the Thirteen States — Jove in His Chair — King of France Guard March — The Hero Comes — Dirge38 (South Carolina Gazette and General Advertiser, 5 July 1783, 4; Pennsylvania Gazette, 30 July 1783).

1784 Publications “The following was sung at the celebration of the anniversary of American Independence, at Portsmouth in New Hampshire.” First line: “Thus the sons of Columbia, retired from arms” (Independent Journal, 24 July 1784, 2; Massachusetts Spy; or, Worcester Gazette, 29 July 1784, 3; Political Intelligencer and New-Jersey Advertiser, 3 August 1784, 4; Vermont Journal, 25 August 1784, 4). “Song for the Fourth of July. Tune, ‘Gaho Dobbin.’” First line: “When America’s sons were fast bound in a chain.” Song begins with a “Recitative,” (Pennsylvania Packet, and General Advertiser, 13 July 1784, 3).

1785

1786

Performances Massachusetts Boston: “At twelve o’clock the trains of artillery, belonging to this town and Roxbury, commanded by Majors Davis and Spooner, with the Band of Musick, escorted His Excellency the governour, his Honour the Lieutenant Governour, the Hon. The Council, Senate and House of Representatives to the Stone Chapel” (Massachusetts Centinel, 6 July 1785, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: “Citizens were agreeably entertained in the Hall of the University, by a display of music and oratory ... before as large an audience as ever convened there on any occasion.... Both the English and German music, which heightened exceedingly the festive celebration, did much honor to the courtesy and abilities of the performers” (Independent Gazetteer, 9 July 1785, 3; Maryland Journal, 12 July 1785, 2).

1786 Publications “Anniversary Ode, for the Fourth of July, in Commemoration of American Independence.” “Written by a gentleman at New-York.” First line: “As time rolls ceaseless round the sphere” (Daily Advertiser; Political, Historical, and Commercial, 4 July 1786, 2; “Cabinet of Apollo: Original Poetry,” Massachusetts Centinel, 12 July 1786, 4; Essex Journal, 19 July 1786, 4; Worcester Magazine, 22 July 1786, 204; Massachusetts Spy; or, Worcester Gazette, 27 July 1786, 204; Cumberland Gazette, 24 August 1786, 4). “‘Columbia.’ A Cantata for the Fourth of July, 1786.” First line (recitative): “Where Alleghany rears her lofty brow.” Includes three airs (Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser, 21 July 1786, 3; Worcester Magazine, 8 August 1786, 228). “Song, for the New-York Society of the Cincinnati, July Fourth, 1786 (Tune —‘The Dushy Night’). “ First line: “This happy day renews our joy” (“Poets’ Corner,” Independent Ledger and the American Advertiser, 24 July 1786, 4; New-Hampshire Mercury and the General Advertiser, 2 August 1786, 4). “‘A Song,’ on the Anniversary of American Independence. Tune—‘Rule Britannia.’ July Fourth, 1786.” First line: “Th’ auspicious morn again is come” (NewYork Journal, or the Weekly Register, 6 July 1786, 3).

Publications

Performances

“Ode for the Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1785. Tune, ‘That Power Who Form’d the Unmeasur’d Seas.’” First line: “Sons of Columbia all attend”39 (“Poetry for the Columbian Herald,” Columbian Herald, 15 July 1785, 4).

Boston: At the “Chapel-Church,” after an oration given by Jonathan L. Austin, “an anthem [was] performed on the organ, and vocally, entitled Independence” (American Recorder and the Charlestown Advertiser, 7 July 1786, 3).

18

1787

1787

Church, in Race Street” where services were held (Independent Gazetteer, 6 July 1787, 3).

Virginia

Publications “A New Song. Sung on the Fourth of July, 1787.” First line: “In a chariot of light, from the regions above.”40 “From the Petersburg (Virginia) Intelligencer,” and printed in Worcester Magazine, 23 August 1787, 275; Providence Gazette and Country Journal, 1 September 1787, 4). “Ode on the Anniversary of American Independence.” First line: “Still does reluctant peace refuse” (Massachusetts Centinel, 1 August 1787, 156). “Song, composed and sung on the celebration of American Independence. Tune, “Vain Britons boast no longer.” First line: “Come, come, fill up your glasses” (“Miscellany, from the (New York) Daily Advertiser,” as published in Massachusetts Centinel, 18 July 1787, 139; New Hampshire Spy, 21 July 1787, 312).

Performances Connecticut New Haven: At the brick meeting house the exercises attended by town officials, president and “scholars of the university,” clergy, and “gentlemen of the town seated themselves and “a federal salute was fired. The 18th Psalm set to music adapted to the occasion was then sung by a number of Gentlemen and Ladies, who had been pleased to prepare themselves for the performance of this very entertaining part of the exercises of the day.” After a prayer, “another Psalm was then sung, after which David Daggert Esq favoured the audience with an Oration, the sentiment, style and delivery of which did him great honour as a man of genius.... A most pleasing Anthem closed the exercises” (New Haven Chronicle, 10 July 1787, 3; NewHaven Gazette, and the Connecticut Magazine, 12 July 1787, 166).

Massachusetts Boston: An “Ode to Independence,”41 by Thomas Dawes and “set to musick by Mr. [William] Selby was admirably performed (“solo parts by Mr. Deverell”)” at the Stone Chapel, “the solo parts by a select company of singers” (first line: “All hail! Sublime she moves along.”). John Quincy Adams was in the audience. (Massachusetts Centinel, 4 and 7 July 1787; Massachusetts Gazette, 6 July 1787, 3; American Herald, 9 July 1787, 2; Boston Gazette, 9 July 1787, 3; Salem Mercury, 10 July 1787, 3; Essex Journal, 11 July 1787, 3; Worcester Magazine, 12 July 1787, 194; Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser, 13 July 1787, 3; Independent Gazetteer, 17 July 1787, 2; Adams 2: 249; McKay, 621); a number of military units and the State Society of Cincinnati “marched in procession, with accompaniments of music from martial instruments, and ringing of bells, to the new German Lutheran

Petersburg: “A number of citizens of this town” gathered at the establishment of Robert Armistead to celebrate. In addition to the firing of artillery, “a song composed on the occasion, was sung” (Maryland Chronicle, or the Universal Advertiser, 19 July 1787, 3).

1788 This was an important year for the Fourth of July as the country continued its deliberations for the ratification by all states of the Constitution of 1787. Philadelphia mounted a spectacular parade along city streets designed to garner unity and additional support for the Constitution. Referred to as the “Grand Federal Procession,” the event was organized largely by Francis Hopkinson, a musician, poet, and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Perhaps as many as 5,000 persons, many in costumes representing the city trades, marched with their banners in the parade, and others attended a collation feast that followed the procession. For the amusem*nt of spectators, the journeymen, tradesmen, musicians, and others busily demonstrated their crafts and skills as they marched. The parade included a band (see Performances below) and a float drawn by four horses with a ninefoot-stage with a fully operating printing press issuing copies of the ode “Oh for a muse of fire!” composed for the occasion by Hopkinson (see Publications below). Hopkinson’s “The Raising: A Song for Federal Mechanics” (first line: “Come muster, my lads, your mechanical tools”42 was also written for this Independence Day celebration, as were a number of other songs.

Publications “Anniversary Ode for July 4th, 1788.” First line: “Fair freedom, the glory of man in all stations.” (“Poetry,” New Jersey Journal, 9 July 1788, 4; New-Hampshire Spy, 22 July 1788, 104; Fairfield Gazette; or, The Independent Intelligencer, 23 July 1788, 4.) “Anniversary Ode on American Independence, for the Fourth of July, 1788. Tune, ‘In a Mouldering Cave,’ &c.”43 First line: “In the regions of bliss, where the Majesty reigns.” (An Oration Delivered at Portsmouth, New-Hampshire, on the Fourth of July, 1788, being the Anniversary of American Independence. By one of the inhabitants [Jonathan Mitchell Sewall (1748–1808]. (Portsmouth: Printed by George Jerry Osborne, 1788, 21–23; Vermont Gazette or Freemen’s Depository, 29 September 1788, 4.) “Cantata for the Fourth of July, 1788.” Consists of airs, a duet and trio. First line: “Rise, America! Rise!” (“Pegasus of Apollo!,” Worcester Magazine, 24 July 1788, 4.)

19 “A Federal Song. Composed for the 4th of July, 1788.” First line: “Of their tutelar saints let the nations be vain.” (“Poetry,” Massachusetts Gazette, 15 July 1788, 4; City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 26 July 1788, 4; United States Chronicle, 31 July 1788, 4; Connecticut Gazette and the Universal Intelligencer, 1 August 1788, 4). “Ode for the Federal Procession, upon the Adoption of the New Government. Composed by Mr. [Samuel] L[ow].” First line: “Emerging from old ocean’s bed.” Broadside, New York?: 1788?; Daily Advertiser, 25 July 1788, 2; New-York Packet, 25 July 1788, 2; Independent Journal, 26 July 1788, 3. “An Ode for the 4th of July” (Phil: printed by M. Carey, 1788).44 By Francis Hopkinson. First Line: “Oh for a muse of fire! to mount the skies.” (“The following Ode, composed by Francis Hopkinson, Esq. was printed at the Federal Press, during the Grand Procession in Philadelphia, on the 4th ult. and distributed among the people.”) (Pennsylvania Mercury, 5 July 1788, 4; New-York Packet, 11 July 1788, 3; “Poets Corner,” Carlisle Gazette and the Western Repository of Knowledge, 23 July 1788, 4; City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 24 July 1788, 4; Albany Journal, 4 August 1788, 3; reprinted, “Poet’s Corner,” New-York Journal and Patriotic Register, 6 July 1790, 4. Facsimile in Library of Congress, An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. “On the Anniversary of American Independence. Tune —‘Rule Britannia.’ ‘July Fourth.’” First line: “Th’ auspicious morn again is come.” (“Heliconian Fount,” New-Hampshire Spy, 26 July 1788, 108.) “A Song for the anniversary of American independence, on the supposed ratification of the Federal Constitution. To the tune of ‘Rule Britannia.’” [“From the Gazette of the State of Georgia.”] First line: “Ye friends to this auspicious day!” (“Poetry,” Columbian Herald or the Independent Courier of North-America, 4 August 1788, 4.)

Performances Connecticut Hartford: The Society of the Cincinnati met at the Council Chamber and then marched to the North Meeting House for the exercises. “In the intervals, several select pieces of vocal and instrument music, were performed by the gentlemen and ladies of the town; a numerous and respectable collection of people from this and the neighboring towns graced the assembly. To add to the splendour of the day, there arrived, at the moment of concluding divine service, a letter to the President [of the Society], announcing the ratification of the new Constitution by the State of Virginia; upon the communication of which every face brightened and every hand clapped for joy, ad the same instant the Music performing a pleasing symphony, closed the joyful scene” (Connecticut Courant, 7 July 1788, 2). New Haven: After a “grand procession through the city streets to the “brick” meeting house, “the literary

1788 exhibitions were begun, under the superintendence of the Rev. Dr. Stiles, by the reading of the monumental act of independence, by Josiah Meigs, Esq. After which was sung the 67th hymn” (“Barlow’s version” according to another newspaper). After a prayer and oration, “the exhibitions at the meeting-house were closed by singing a federal hymn, composed for the occasion by Mr. Barna [sic] Bidwell, one of the tutors of Yale College.” (“Litchfield, July 14,” Weekly Monitor, 14 July 1788, 3; Massachusetts Gazette, 18 July 1788, 4; Boston Gazette, and the Country Journal, 21 July 1788, 2; United States Chronicle, 24 July 1788, 2).

Delaware Dover: In the morning after an artillery salute, “the friends of freedom paraded the square with their artillery under flying colours and music” and then processed outside of town near the Dover River where the exercises were held (Independent Gazetteer, 11 July 1788, 2).

New Hampshire Portsmouth: At the close of the town’s entertainment, “several songs (sung by Major Flagg, in his usual stile of excellence) accompanied by a band of musick” were performed. Another newspaper reported: “Several federal songs were sung, in a masterly style, by Major Flagg, J.M. Sewall, Esq. and other gentlemen, accompanied by a band of musick” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” New-Hampshire Spy, 5 July 1788, 83; New-Hampshire Gazette, 10 July 1788, 2).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: The “Grand Federal Procession,” the largest parade on the Fourth of July in the 18th century, included a band of musicians performing “a grand March” composed for this event by Philadelphia composer Alexander Reinagle. At the Opera House at Southwark, “a concert; between the parts will be delivered (gratis) a comic lecture, in five parts, on the ‘Disadvantage of Improper Education.’ . . to which will be added, an opera, in one act The Fourth of July, or the Sailors Festival” (Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1788, 3; Independent Gazetteer, 4 July 1788, 3).

Rhode Island Providence: The town celebrated “in commemoration of the adoption of the Federal Constitution by nine states” and the exercises at the Baptist Meeting House, “some select pieces of music were interspersed, and well performed, instrumentally as well as vocally, in the latter of which some female voices added inimitable grace” (United States Chronicle: Political, Commercial and Historical, 10 July 1788, 3).

20

1789

1789 Publications “Anniversary Ode, for July 4th, 1789. Tune —‘Columbia.’” First line: “Let laureates endeavor their monarchs to praise.” Christian’s, Scholar’s, and Farmer’s Magazine, 1/4 (October/November 1789): 518–19; New-York Packet, 1 August 1789, 2. “Faederal march as performed in the grand procession in Philadelphia, the 4th of July 1788.45 Composed and adapted for the piano forte, violin, or German flute by Alexander Reinagle” [Philadelphia?: s.n., 1789?]. “The following ode was sung at Boston, on the day of independence. Ode.” First line: “Once more we hail the happy day” (“Independence,” American Herald and the Worcester Recorder, 16 July 1789, 4). “Ode for American Independence ( July 4, 1789).46 Words by Daniel George, music by Horatio Garnet.” First line: “’Tis done! The edict past, by heav’n decreed.” Boston: Isaiah Thomas & Company, 1789. The Massachusetts Magazine 1/7 ( July 1789): 453; Gazette of the United States, 1 July 1789, 91; Pennsylvania Packet, 4 July 1789, 2; New York Journal and Weekly Register, 16 July 1789, 4; Worcester Magazine, 16 July 1789, 4. “A Federal Song, composed at New York for the Fourth of July, 1789.” First line “Ye friends to this auspicious day!” Tune: “Rule Britannia.” (Gazette of the United States, 20 June 1789, 79; Federal Gazette and Philadelphia Evening Post, 23 June 1789, 3; Herald of Freedom and the Federal Advertiser, 30 June 1789, 124; American Herald and the Worcester Recorder, 16 July 1789, 4; American Herald and the Worcester Recorder, 16 July 1789, 4; Worcester Magazine, 16 July 1789, 4).

Performances Connecticut New Haven: “On Thursday, the 9th instant, was celebrated in this city, the Anniversary of American Independence, by the Society of Cincinnati of the State of Connecticut.” They first met at the State House and marched to the brick meeting house where a prayer, sermon, and oration by Col. David Humphreys was presented. “The music performed by a splendid collection of gentlemen and ladies added greatly to the beauty and harmony of the day” (Daily Advertiser, 25 July 1789, 2).

1789, 3; Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Advertiser, 16 July 1789, 2). See Publications above. Raynham: A procession to the meeting house included “thirteen young ladies, belonging to the Musical Choir-eleven of whom were dressed in white.”47 At the meeting house, the troops opened, and paid the salute, while the gentlemen and ladies walked in, and took the seats previously assigned them; the troops then marched in, while the fifes, violins, and bass-viol, were tuned in symphonious accord to the martial step. When seated, a select choir of musicians, under the direction of Capt. Hall, their instruments introduced the exercises by singing the tune called “Amity,” set to the following words, viz. How pleasant ’tis to see, Kindred and Friends agree, Each in their proper station move, And each fulfil their part, With sympathizing heart, &c.

While several speakers addressed the assemblage, “at proper intervals, eleven pieces of music, both vocal and instrumental, were excellently performed; all conspiring to heighten those joyous sensations, the natural result of the occasion” (“Celebration of Independence at Raynham,” Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser, 23 July 1789, 4.)

New Hampshire Portsmouth48: “Mr. [Horatio] Garnet49 intends performing a concert of vocal and instrumental music on Monday Evening the 6th inst. At the Assembly Room — Consisting of some new federal songs, choruses, etc which he hopes will give satisfaction to those who shall honour him with their attendance. The concert will begin precisely at half past six o’clock, P.M. and at eight will be opened a ball....” (Osborne’s New Hampshire Spy, 30 June 1789, 73); on July 4, after a parade by the militia, at the Globe Tavern, “a number of patriotic toasts were drank and several excellent songs were sung, accompanied with instrumental musick” (Osborne’s New-Hampshire Spy, 23 June 1789; New-Hampshire Gazette, 9 July 1789, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: A parade of the Society of the Cincinnati and milita from the State House to the Second Presbyterian Church included “martial music” (NewYork Daily Gazette, 13 July 1789, 674).

1790

Massachusetts Boston: At the municipal celebration, a “Concert of instrumental and vocal music,” and “the ceremony at the Chapel concluded with an Ode, sung by Mr. Eaton, accompanied by Mr. Selby on the Organ; the chorus by a select choir of singers” (Boston Gazette, 6 July 1789, 3; Herald of Freedom, 7 July 1787, 131; Salem Mercury, 7 July 1789, 3; Worcester Magazine, 9 July

Publications “A new song. For the Fourth of July. Tune —‘The Dauphin.’” First line: “Behold an empire’s day.” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 16 August 1790, 4.) “Ode on the Fourth of July, 1790.” First line: “In the

21 regions of bliss where the majesty reigns.” Gazette of the United States, 24 November 1790, 652.

Performances Connecticut Hartford: The Society of the Cincinnati processed from the State House to the North Church. “The joy of the day [was] enlivened by music” (Connecticut Journal, 14 July 1790, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At Christ Church, on Sunday, July 4, the Reverend Blagrove from Virginia presented a sermon in the afternoon and “sang an anthem,50 which had a most enchanting effect. His voice is admirably fine, clear, and melodious, and he displayed great taste and judgment in the management of it. We do not recollect ever to have been so delighted with church music” (New York Daily Gazette, 9 July 1790, 650); At Gray’s Gardens, on July 5, a “Duet” (first line: “Peace and Science! heav’nly maids!”) and an ode (first line: “Amidst the joys of this auspicious day”) were part of a concert presented (Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1790, 1; Universal Asylum and Columbian Magazine 5/1 ( July 1790): 57; Federal Gazette, 10 August 1790, 1; at Gray’s Ferry, a group of participants in costume, at the “Federal Temple, performed the ode on Federal Liberty; towards evening they sang in a grove the federal love-song — the shepherds with full music began ‘The man of independent soul,’ and continued the two first verses: the shepherdesses then replied, ‘yet feels the sway of sacred love,’ and performed the latter verses in a different, very pathetic, tune, supported only by the violins; then the last verse was repeated by the whole band vocal and instrumental, to wit: ‘His country and his virtuous fair, Close to his heart united lie, They are his joy, his darling care, For them he lives, for them will die.’

In the evening an ode, in honor of France, was performed with vocal and instrumental music, at the place where the arms of the United States, and of France were entwined by liberty. Is this: ‘Amidst the joys of this auspicious day.’” (Federal Gazette and Philadelphia Evening Post, 12 July 1790, 2.)

1791 This year marks the 15th Anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The editor of a New York City newspaper printed the following: Monday next, the 4th July, will complete fifteen years since the glorious declaration of American Independence, by the Congress of the United States, John Hanco*ck, president — The importance of this

1791 then astonishing event hourly increases, and the augmentation of the political duties of the Sons of America is witnessed by every diurnal revolution of yon great orb of light — May it be the pride of Americans to acquire such knowledge as is requisite to the preservasion of the “Rights of Man”— and may they glory in transmitting to latest posterity those principles of freedom and good government, which now inspire them to celebrate this memorable day.51

A musical highlight on this day was the first Independence Day performance on the new Tannenberg organ in Zion Church in Philadelphia.

Publications “‘A Favorite Song.’ Sung on the Fourth of July, by a number of the true Sons of Columbia. Tune, ‘God Save Great Washington.’” First line: “All hail auspicious day”52 (Mail; or, ClayPoole’s Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1791, 2). “An Ode, composed for the occasion, at the request of the Society. By Dr. William Pitt Smith.” First line: “Now elevate your hymns of joy.” (The Blessings of America: a Sermon Preached in the Middle Dutch Church, on the Fourth July, 1791, being the Anniversary of the Independence of America; at the Request of the Tammany Society, or Columbian Order. By William Linn, D.D.”) “Ode for July 4, 1791. Composed by Mr. Lathrop of Boston.” First line: “Fill! Fill to Washington” (NewHampshire Gazette and General Advertiser, 7 July 1791, 3). “Ode, for the 4th of July, 1791.” First line: “While changeful seasons shall on earth appear” (“From the New-York Magazine as published in New-York Journal and Patriotic Register, 2 July 1791, 207). “Ode for the Fourth July, 1791.” First line: “Hail smiling cherub, child of light”53 (Gazette of the United States, 9 July 1791, 83).

Performances Massachusetts Worcester: At the town’s exercises, “previously to the delivery of the Oration, the following Ode, composed for the occasion, was performed by the Musicians of this town, vocally and instrumentally. ‘An Ode for July 4th, 1791.’ (Tune —‘God save the King.’)”54 First line: “Hail blest America!” The ode was composed by O. Fiske. (An Oration, Delivered at Worcester, on the Fourth of July, 1791. Being the Anniversary of the Independence of the United States. By Edward Bangs,55 Esq. Worcester, MA: Isaiah Thomas, [1791]; Worcester Magazine, 7 July 1791, 3; The Mail, or, ClayPoole’s Daily Advertiser, 13 July 1791, 2).

New Hampshire Dover: “The procession formed and moved on to the meeting-house, where, after an introductory ode,

22

1792 an animated, learned and elegant oration was delivered by William Atkinson, esquire, after which the duties of the day were closed by an ode composed by Henry Mellen [1757–1809],56 esquire, and set to music” (Mail, or, ClayPoole’s Daily Advertiser, 22 July 1791, 3).

New York New York: The Tammany Society’s services were held at the New Dutch Church. Musicians sat in the front gallery. Music was performed while the audience took their seats (Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1791, 2).

Pennsylvania Elizabethtown: A “divine service” was held “which was accompanied with the enchanting music of Mr. Spicer and his brilliant choir of scholars” (Mail, or, Claypoole’s Daily Advertiser, 19 July 1791, 1). Philadelphia: “Grays’ Gardens. A concert of vocal and instrumental musick will begin on Monday, the glorious Fourth of July at 6 o’clock in the morning, and conclude at ten at night, should the day be fair, to celebrate American Independence. Songs, with harmony and martial musick, in honor of the day, will be performed” (Pennsylvania Gazette, 29 June 1791; Mail, or, ClayPoole’s Daily Advertiser, 1 July 1791, 4; Pennsylvania Mercury and Universal Advertiser, 2 July 1791, 1; General Advertiser and Political, Commercial, Agricultural and Literary Journal, 4 July 1791, 3); at Zion Church, the Society of the Cincinnati, militia, and citizens assembled for the exercises. “The excellent organ57 of Zion Church accompanied with fine vocal music added much to the pleasures of the day” (Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post, 5 July 1791, 2).

1792 Publications “Independence, an Ode.” Includes a recitative, airs, and choruses. First line: “Bowing, immortal Liberty, to you” (Mail; or, Claypoole’s Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1792, 2). “An ode, performed at Taunton, July 4th, 1792 — at the celebration of American independence. Tune— ‘Great George.’ By Mr. Stoddard.” First line: “Come all ye sons of song” (“Poet’s Corner,” United States Chronicle: Political, Commercial, and Historical, 23 August 1792, 4).

Performances Massachusetts Taunton: At the town’s exercises, “an ode, composed by the orator [A. Stoddard] of the day, was performed with much applause” (“Sixteenth Anniversary of American Independence,” Mail; or, Claypoole’s

Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1792, 2). See Publications above.

New Hampshire Hanover: At the college chapel of Dartmouth College, the senior class convened for a ceremony that included “a piece of musick, performed almost inimitably by the Musical Society” (Connecticut Courant, 30 July 1792, 3; Norwich Packet, 2 August 1792, 3).

Pennsylvania Carlisle: “Citizens of this borough and its vicinity” met at Mr. Robert Gibson’s Farm. The group “formed a large circle” and “toasts were drank, accompanied with three cheers and instrumental music.” After the toasts “the celebrated song, viz. O’er the vine cover’d hills and gay regions of France, &c. was sung by a number of excellent voices, accompanied by instrumental music” (Carlisle Gazette, and the Western Repository of Knowledge, 18 July 1792, 3).

Virginia Norfolk: The cornerstone laying ceremony for Bignall’s Norfolk Theatre took place and included a procession and “band of music” (Mail; or, Claypoole’s Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1792, 2).

1793 Publications “Columbia; Ode for the Fourth of July. First lines, respectively: “Columbia, Columbia, to glory arise” and “Come, let us join the cheerful song.” Broadside, Boston (?), 1793 (?). Place and date of publication suggested by description of ceremony below. Copy in Brown University. “The Declaration of Independence: a Poem, Accompanied by Odes, Songs, &c. Adapted to the Day. By a Citizen of Boston [George Richards (1755?– 1814)].”58 Boston: [Isaiah Thomas & E. T. Andrews,] 1793. Copy in Library of Congress. A reprint (Tarrytown, NY: W. Abbatt, 1929) contains an “anthem composed for Thursday morning, July 4, 1793,” pp. 51–52. “The following ode was composed by a young gentleman in this town [Portsmouth], for the 4th of July, 1793 and sung at one of the parties assembled to celebrate the anniversary of that day.” First line: “Full sev’teen years their round have run” (Oracle of the Day, 6 July 1793, 3). “A Hymn on Peace.” First line: “Behold, array’d in light.” Attributed to Abraham Wood. Sung at a “Tammany, or Columbian Order” celebration. Broadside ([New York]: J. Harrisson, printer [1793]). Copy in New York Historical Society. “Mr. Brown, the following was composed for a select company, and intended to be sung on the Fourth

23 of July; if you think a corner of your paper would not be improperly filled therewith, it is very much at your service.” First line: “While loud Bellona’s thunder roars” (Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post, 12 July 1793, 2; Salem Gazette, 30 July 1793, 4). “New York. The following ‘Song’ was sung on the 4th inst. at the house lately called Belvedere Club House, but now known by the name of Liberty Hall. Air—‘Indian Chief.’” First line: “When a nation’s obsorb’d under tyranny’s chain” (New Jersey Journal, 10 July 1793, 4). “Ode for Independence, 1793. Composed and set to music by Dr. Willard.” First line: “Behold! the glorious day appears!” (A Sermon, Delivered in Stafford, on the Anniversary of American Independence, July 4th, A.D. 1793. By Nathan Williams, A.M. Pastor of the Church of Christ in Tolland. Hartford: Printed by Hudson and Goodwin, 1793.) “‘Song’— to follow the Prayer. Tune —‘Rule Britannia,’ &c.” First line: “When exil’d Freedom, forc’d to roam.” “To conclude the Service. To the tune of ‘Dorchester’s March.’” First line: “At length War’s sanguine scenes are o’er.” (An Oration, Delivered at Elizabeth-Town, New-Jersey, Agreeably to a Resolution of the State Society of Cincinnati, on the Fourth of July, M.DCC.XCIII. Being the Seventeenth Anniversary of the Independence of America. By Elias Boudinot, L. L. D. Elizabeth-Town: Printed by Shepard Kollock, at His Printing-Office and Book-Store, 1793; New Jersey Journal, 10 July 1793, 3; Dunlap’s American Daily Advertiser, 16 July 1793, 3; Oracle of the Day, 27 July 1793, 4).

Performances Maine Portland: Citizens and members of the Artillery Company marched from the Assembly Room to the Rev. Deane’s Meeting House where the exercises were begun with an oration. “After the oration, a piece of music was performed by a choir of singers composed of young ladies and gentlemen from the several societies in this town, and accompanied by bass viols — words from Dr. Belknap’s Centenary Discourse59: [first line]‘When guided by the Almighty Hand.’” Later at Mr. Motley’s New Tavern, a “Song, God Save Columbia’s Son! &c” by N. Fosdick, Esq.”60 was sung. Another “Song-in celebration of the day” was sung by Col. May (“Fourth of July,” Eastern Herald, 6 July 1793, 3).

Maryland Baltimore: A band of music played “through the streets” on the eve of the Fourth. Also, “a large and respectable company also partook of an elegant entertainment at Mr. Gray’s at Chatsworth where “the harmony of a well chosen band of music had a most pleasing effect” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July in Baltimore,” Daily Advertiser, 12 July 1793, 2); at the Theatre the Maryland Company had the following

1793 production on July 5, America’s Independence; or, Fourth of July with the performance concluding with “Hail Columbia”61 (2 July 1793, Maryland Journal 62). Chestertown: The citizens marched to the church, “where divine service was performed by the Rev. Citizen Walker, closed by a patriotic Hymn.” At a dinner, “a number of French citizens joined in our festive joys, and the patriotic Song of ‘Ca Ira,’ was sung with very happy effect” (Chestertown Gazette, 9 July 1793, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Universal Meeting House, Mr. [George] Richards recited a poem titled “The Declaration of Independence,” in which “every patriot, from New Hampshire to Georgia” who signed the original document is included. Below are the instructions for including music in the recitation: A celebrated band of singers, eminently distinguished for their accurate knowledge in the science of vocal harmony, have generously offered their assistance, on the present occasion. A much admired Ode to Independence63 will open the performance. A momentary pause at the 120th line of the Poem, will be succeeded by an Ode to Freedom, generally supposed to have been composed by Della Crusca,64 and allowed to be unrivalled in the compass of language. A second momentary rest will be made at the 234th line, and afford room for the introduction of “Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise,”65 written by the animated and animating Dr. Dwight.66 At the conclusion of the 360th line, an original Anthem, of the high Hallelujah metre, and never before published, will be sung, accompanied by Instruments.

“Concluding Anthem composed for Thursday morning, July 4, 1793.”67 First line: “Hail! the first, the greatest blessing.” (Columbian Centinel, 3 July 1793, 3; Federal Gazette, 29 July 1793, 3.) See Publications above.

New Hampshire Portsmouth, see Publications above.

Rhode Island Providence: After a large military parade, exercises at the Baptist Meeting House included the performance of “an Ode suited to the occasion, accompanied with vocal and instrumental music, especially adapted to it.... After the oration another Ode was performed, attended with vocal and instrumental music” (Providence Gazette and Country Journal, 6 July 1793, 2; United States Chronicle: Political, Commercial, and Historical, 11 July 1793, 2).

24

1794

1794

ton and the firing of “15 guns” (Eastern Herald, 5 July 1794, 3).

Maryland

Publications “Ode for Independence.68 Composed and set to music by Dr. Willard.” First line: “Behold! the glorious day appears!” (Dunlap’s American Daily Advertiser, 7 August 1794, 3.) “An ode for the eighteenth anniversary of American independence. To the tune of Columbia.” First line: “America’s birth-day bids freemen arise.” A note preceding the ode states: “The following Ode was sung in the Presbyterian Meeting-House in Newark, on Friday the 4th instant” (Philadelphia Gazette, 12 July 1794, 3). “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hail lovely maid! hail power devine!” (Weekly Museum, 5 July 1794, 2). “Ode on the Fourth of July, 1794. Tune —‘A Dauphin’s Born,’ &c.” First line: “Eventful point of time!” (Weekly Museum, 5 July 1794, 2). “‘On Liberty.’ The following elegant Hymn was sung at Hartford, at the anniversary meeting of the Cincinnati, on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Behold a glorious theme.” (“Apollo’s Museum,” Norwich Packet, 28 August 1794, 4; Oracle of the Day, 4 October 1794, 4.) “The following Song,69 composed for the occasion, upon request, by a citizen of Lancaster, was sung to the tune of the Marseilles Hymn,70 by the different companies on the 4th of July.” First line: “Hail! Sons of Freedom! Hail the day.” (Dunlap’s American Daily Advertiser, 2 August 1794, 3.) “The two following Songs were composed for the occasion, and sung at the celebration of American Independence, at New-Port, Rhode Island, July 4, 1794. (By a young gentleman. ‘Columbia Relieved.’71 Tune—‘The Death of General Wolfe.’” First line: “To a mouldering cavern, the mansion of woe.” “God Save Great Washington.” First line “To Heaven’s empyreal height.” One newspaper reported the songs were sung with instrumental accompaniment at the Baptist Meeting House (Daily Advertiser, 21 July 1794, supplement 2; American Apollo, 24 July 1794, 4). “Song — for the Fourth of July, 1794. And sung at Windsor Hall. Tune —‘Jack, the brisk young drummer; The Vicar of Bray; or, Yankee Doodle.’” First line: “When freedom’s sons, at heav’ns command.”72 (Independent Gazetteer, 9 July 1794, 3.) “‘A Song’ for the Fourth of July 1794. Tune of Great Washington.” First line: “Hail thou auspicious day.” (New Jersey Journal, 9 July 1794, 1.)

Performances Maine Portland: At a local tavern, N.F. Fosdick sang “God Save Columbia’s Son” after a toast to George Washing-

Baltimore: The 5th and 27th Maryland regiments marched, “music playing,” to the grand parade of military units. Throughout the day “many toasts and songs were given on the occasion” (Baltimore Daily Intelligencer, 7 July 1794, 3).

New Jersey Newark: At the Presbyterian Church, citizens, militia, and 260 students assembled for the exercises. “In the intervals between the prayer, the reading the Declaration of Independence and the oration, and at the close, Mr. Kimbal’s singing school bore their part in the celebration of the day, by singing several hymns and anthems calculated for the occasion. The young ladies of the school were dressed in white — the elegance of their persons and melody of their voices, merits a distinguishing rank in the honors of the day.” Later 160 citizens had dinner and after that toasts were drunk, “in the intervals of which, a number of patriotic songs were sung, which, while they exhilarated the spirits, animated the mind with flowing sentiments of liberty. The French citizens performed the Carmagnole and the Marsellois Hymn and although the language was their own and but little understood, yet the animation which accompanied their song, made a sensible impression on the minds of every hearer” (Philadelphia Gazette, 15 July 1794, 3). See Publications above.

New York New York: At the Tammany Society meeting, “toasts were drank, and interspersed with a number of songs sacred to the cause of liberty” (Columbian Gazetteer, 7 July 1794, 3; Diary or London’s Register, 8 July 1794, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: “On Friday next, the 4th of July, the 18th year of American Independence, there will be held at Harrowgate a Concert of Vocal and Instrumental Music, to begin at ten o’clock in the morning precisely, and conclude in the evening, should the weather prove fail.... Tickets to be had at the front of the house, at one quarter of a dollar each, by the public’s most obedient and very humble servant, George Esterly” (Dunlap’s American Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1794, 2); at a “civic feast” held at Gen. Brewster’s by a number of men from the university and others, an “Ode to Independence” composed and set to music by Mr. Abner Cheny, and happily adapted to the joyful occasion, was inimitably performed, with instruments and voices, on a stage erected for that purpose, over the ‘civic’ table, amidst a respectable crowd of spectators, who crowned the exhibition with applause” (“Fourth of July,” General Advertiser, 15 July 1794, 2; Dunlap’s American Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1794, 2).

25 West Chester: “At 11 o’clock agreeably to notice, they all [Republicans] met at the court house; and after Washington’s March had been played by Major Frazer on the flute, and Mr. P. Derrick on the Forte Piano, Mr. Jos. Hemphill delivered an excellent oration, suited to the glorious occasion of the meeting.” The group then marched to Liberty Grove to the accompaniment of “martial music.” After a dinner the “procession returned to the court house where “the company being seated in the court, Messrs. P. Derrick, Frazer, [Major. John] Shippen and Hemphill sang a patriotic ode, composed for the day by Mr. P. Derrick, to the tune of ‘Rule Britannia,’ chorus by numbers. After the song, three cheers were unanimously given in compliment to the author. The whole company then dispersed with due order and decorum” (Dunlap’s American Daily Advertiser, 16 July 1794, 4).

1794 exercises were held at the Baptist Meeting House and begun with “an Ode, performed with music vocal and instrumental, a second Ode performed after a prayer, and an anthem.” “The Odes were elegant, poetical and ingenious — the composition of a young gentleman of this town, whose abilities in this way had already honourably distinguished him” (Providence Gazette and Country Journal, 5 July 1794, 3). See Publications above.

Virginia Alexandria: The militia and citizens met at the Presbyterian Meeting House. Included in the exercises, “an anthem, prepared for the occasion, with other pieces, were sung, accompanied with instrumental music” (Dunlap’s Daily American Advertiser, 15 July 1794, 3).

Rhode Island Providence: A military parade included “excellent martial music belonging to the Troop of Horse.” The

The Old Presbyterian Meeting House in Alexandria, Virginia, constructed in 1775 but rebuilt (shown here) after an 1835 fire, was one of numerous meeting houses along the Eastern Seaboard that served as venues for musical performances on the Fourth of July. This meeting house hosted an Independence Day ceremony in 1794 when an anthem and other works, accompanied by musical instruments, were sung (author’s photograph).

26

1795

1795 Publications “Anthem for the Fourth of July.” First line: “With songs of honour chanting high” (“Court of Apollo,” Weekly Museum, 4 July 1795, 4). “Hymn, composed by Barnabus Bidwell, and sung at a celebration at Richmond [Massachusetts], in 1795.” First line: “Once more on freedom’s holiday.” The text of this hymn was presented to the chief marshall of the celebration of Independence Day in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, on July 4, 1855 (“The Celebration of the Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 12 July 1855, 2). “From the Dartmouth Eagle. An Ode composed and set to music, for the celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence.” First line: “Columbians join in the festival lay” (“Parnassian Blossoms,” Amherst Journal and the New-Hampshire Advertiser, 14 August 1795, 4). “A Song, for the Fourth of July, 1795. Sung at the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, at the celebration of the independence of America, July 4. Tune — Indian Chief.” First line: “Ye sons of Columbia, come forth and rejoice” (“Poet’s Corner,” Greenleaf ’s New York Journal and Patriotic Register, 11 July 1795, 4).

elegant and animated Oration was delivered by Barnabas Bidwell, Esq. to a large, respectable and approving audience.” The Ode was set to the tune of “Denmark”; first line: “Behold once more the glorious day” (“Celebration of Independence,” Western Star, 7 July 1795, 3; An Oration, Delivered at the Celebration of American Independence, in Stockbridge, July, 1795. By Barnabas Bidwell, Esquire. Published at the request of the committee. Stockbridge, [MA], Loring Andrews, 1795). Worcester: A dinner at Free Mason’s Hall for the men included the singing of “a song — Hail, America, Hail, &c.” (Massachusetts Spy, 8 July 1795, 3).

New York New York: “The joint societies, viz. the Democratic, Tammany, Mechanic, and the Military” assembled at the Battery at 11 A.M. and marched to the Presbyterian Church, where the exercises where held. The included the performance of “a piece of solemn vocal music.” The end of the ceremony concluded with “chanting the following Ode to Freedom, composed by Mr. S.A. Law, upon the occasion”: first line, “Behold a glorious theme.” The societies dined at various locations. For example, the democrats at Hunter’s Hotel where “toasts were given, interspersed with patriotic songs, amid bursts of applause” (“American Independence,” Greenleaf ’s New York Journal and Patriotic Register, 8 July 1795, 1). See Publications above.

Rhode Island

Performances Maine Portland: The town’s procession moved from the Columbian Tavern to “Rev. Dr. Deane’s meeting house” where “the service of the day commenced with musick.” After an oration, “a Symphony composed by Mr. Boullay”73 was performed. “The following Ode, composed by a citizen for the occasion, and set to musick by Mr. Herrick,74 was intended to have been performed, but omitted: ‘Ode to Independence.’ [first line] ‘Strike, strike, with joy, the festive lyre.’ ... As the procession entered the house, the French Marseillois Hymn was performed; and Washington’s March as they retired....A number of jovial and patriotic songs were sung among which was the following composed for the day and sung by N. Fosdick, Esq.”: “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1795. By Mr. D.G.”75 First line: “Hail! Hail! auspicious day” (“American Independence,” Eastern Herald, 6 July 1795, 3).

Massachusetts Stockbridge: “On Friday last a very considerable number of Gentlemen from various parts of the County, assembled in this town to commemorate the era of American Independence. About noon, the company moved in procession from Mr. Seymour’s to the meeting house, where, after an excellent prayer by the Rev. Doct. West, an Ode, composed for the occasion, was sung by a select choir of singers — after which an

Newport: “At 11 o’clock, A. M., a procession” consisting of citizens and military units marched to the Baptist Church where, among the exercises, “the vocal music, previously prepared for the occasion, gave pleasure to the audience, and did honour to the ladies and gentlemen who performed” (“Fourth of July,” Newport Mercury, 7 July 1795, 3; “Fourth of July,” Philadelphia Gazette & Universal Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1795, 2).

1796 Publications “‘Hymn to Liberty.’ For the Fourth of July, 1796. Tune, ‘Rule Britannia.’ Sung at the celebration of the Independence at Maumouth, on the 4th inst.” First line: “When Exil’d Freedom, forc’d to roam” (Greenleaf ’s New York Journal and Patriotic Register, 12 July 1796, 2). “An Ode composed by B. Bidwell, Esq. for the celebration of independence, at Richmond [Massachusetts], July 4th, 1796.” First line: “Once more, on freedom’s holiday” (Western Star, 26 July 1796, 4; Gazette of the United States, 3 August 1796, 3; Columbian Herald, 22 August 1796, 4). “Ode to be sung at Christ-Church [‘New York’], next Monday, being the Fourth of July.” First line:

27 “Nations rejoice, Jehovah reigns.” (“For the Weekly Museum,” Weekly Museum, 2 July 1796, 4; The Argus, or Greenleaf ’s New Daily Advertiser, 5 July 1796, 3; Spooners Vermont Journal, 29 July 1796, 4; Rural Magazine; or, Vermont Repository 2/8 [August 1796]: 415.) One newspaper reported that an anthem was also sung at Christ Church. “Ode. Written on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hail, independence! Freedom, hail” (“Court of Apollo,” Weekly Museum, 16 July 1796). “‘Ode,’ written on the 4th of July, 1796. From the Pennsylvania Herald, printed at York.” First line: “’Tis true I’m proud to greet the day.” (“Tongue of Apollo,” Rural Repository, 4 August 1796, 4.) “Odes for the Fourth of July, 1796.” First line: “Dread Goddess on this happy day.” First line: “Symphonious numbers loud and clear.” Broadside. [Providence, RI:, 1796]. Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans. “‘A Song,’ for the Fourth of July, 1796, Composed at Patterson [NJ]. Tune—‘Nature’s Holiday.’” Messrs. Editors, by inserting the following, you will much oblige a constant reader.” First line: “Well met, ye Sons of Liberty” (“Poet’s Corner,” Centinel of Freedom, 9 September 1796, 4).

1797 New Jersey Middletown Point: “At 12 o’clock, being announced by the discharge of a field piece, an oration was delivered to a respectable assemblage of ladies and gentlemen, by the Rev. William Hobrow. A hymn to liberty, composed by the same gentleman, was then sung, accompanied by the audience, with all that animation which the subject must ever inspire in the breasts of Americans” (Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 16 July 1796, 3).

North Carolina Halifax: At Mr. Hopkin’s Tavern, “toasts were drank, each accompanied by a patriotic song.” Later, “the evening closed with a ball at the Long-Room, at which were present a brilliant assemblage of ladies” (“Halifax, July 11,” North Carolina Journal, 11 July 1796, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: According to George Esterly, plans were made for “an elegant concert of music at Harrowgate, the gardens ... in complete order and considerably improved since the last season” (“Concert at Harrowgate, July 4, 1796,” Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 1 July 1796, 3).

Performances Massachusetts Boston: The Boston Artillery’s dinner event held at Faneuil Hall had the following music provided by the Artillery musicians after each successive toast: Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Warren’s March — Governor’s March — Lieutenant Governor’s March — He Comes, the Hero Comes — La Carmignole — Rural Felicity — Wayne’s March76— Massachusetts March (“Boston, July 6,” Gazette of the United States, 12 July 1796, 2).

New Hampshire New Ipswich: A parade started at 2 P.M. and ended at the meeting house. “After the audience was seated a piece of music was performed by voices and instruments. The notes being part of Handel’s Oratorio of Saul and David: Recitative [first line] ‘Already see the daughters of the land.’” After singing of the Recitative, a procession of ladies dressed in white walked up the broad ile [sic]. An oration was then pronounced, by Samuel Worcester, A.B. Then were sung the following Songs — To the tune of the Wanderer [first line] ‘Here let joy and mirth abound.’ After singing of the two last lines, Ceres was represented by a young lady, attended by two young misses, strewing flowers &c.— to tune of British Here, and 2d verse of the same.—‘Prepare, prepare, your songs prepare.’ To the tune of Vicar of Bray [first line] ‘Our yoke is broken, we are free’ [Rising Sun, 2 August 1796, 3].

Virginia Alexandria: “The Fourth of July; or, American Glory,”77 performed on July 4.

1797 Publications “Anthems sung on the occasion [Newark, NJ]”: first lines, “With songs of honor chanting high”; “Hail! the first, the greatest blessing.” “Hymn on War”: first line, “While sounds of war are heard around.” (An Oration Delivered in the Presbyterian Church at Newark, on the Fourth of July, 1797, at the Request of the Citizens of Newark it being the Twenty-First Anniversary of American Independence. By Isaac Watts Crane, A. M. Newark: Printed by John Woods, 1797, 22–24; Centinel of Freedom, 12 July 1797, 4). “Cantata, for the celebration of American Independence.” Includes recitatives, airs, and choruses and was sung in New York (The Diary or Loudon’s Register, 4 July 1797, 3). “‘Hymn to Liberty.’ For the Fourth of July. Tune— Rule Britannia.” First line: “When exil’d Freedom, forc’d to roam.” (“Poet’s Corner,” Centinel of Freedom, 4 July 1797, 4.) “An Ode for the Fourth of July, 1797. Tune —‘God Save America.’” First line: “Let acclamations roll” (The Herald; a Gazette for the Country, 8 July 1797, 3). “Ode (composed for the occasion, by P. Freneau)78

28

1798 the musick performed by the Uranian Society.” First line: “Once more our annual debt to pay.” In Means for the Preservation of Public Liberty: An Oration Delivered in the New Dutch Church on the Fourth of July, 1797. By G.J. Warner.79 (New York: Printed at the Argus Office for Thomas Greenleaf and Naphtali Judah, 1797); Diary of Loudon’s Register, 5 July 1797, 3; Greenleaf ’s New York Journal and Patriotic Register, 5 July 1797, 3; Time Piece; and Literary Companion, 10 July 1797, 208. “A Song, composed, and sung by Capt. Hamilton, at the anniversary of American independence, in this town, July 4th, 1797.” First line: “Let all Americans combine.” (“Pegasus of Apollo,” Massachusetts Spy, or, the Worcester Gazette, 12 July 1797, 4.)

Performances Connecticut Guilford: “At 4 o’clock in the morning the day was ushered in by a discharge of canon, ringing of bells, & martial music.” At noon a procession of 600 citizens and others marched to the meeting house where “three Odes composed for the occasion, were also handsomely sung, accompanied by instrumental music” (Connecticut Journal, 19 July 1797, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: “The commander in chief was escorted to Boston, by a brilliant military band” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 3 August, 1797, 2). Salem: A comic opera titled The Mountaineers and “the celebrated musical entertainment called The Poor Soldier were performed at Washington Hall (Salem Gazette, 4 July 1797, 3).

New Jersey Caldwell: Sixteen young Ladies uniformed in white, with garlands in their hats, conducting another in their centre bearing the Cap of Liberty, enwreathed with laurel and all singing Columbia in concert with the German flute.... The Declaration of Independence was then read, with an animated descriptive introduction by Dr. Cyrus Pierson. Immediately after which Independence was happily performed in a Chorus of Vocal and Instrumental music [Centinel of Freedom, 7 July 1797].80

Newark: At the service, “several hymns and anthems are to be sung in church, and some instrumental music given by a number of gentlemen of the town. It is likewise expected, that a concert will be given under the Bower on the Common, when they young lads and lasses may ‘Dance on the Green’” (“American Independence,” Centinel of Freedom, 4 July 1797, 3). See Publications above.

New York New York: After a procession by several societies, including the New-York Coopers’ Society, the Democ-

ratic Society, General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, and the Tammany Society, to the New Dutch Church, the exercises included “Billings’ Anthem of Independence, sung by the Uranian Society, and accompanied by the organ.” After an oration, “an Ode composed for the occasion, [see Publications above] was sung by the Uranian Society, accompanied by the organ, with great applause” (Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1797, 1; “The Fourth of July,” Weekly Museum, 8 July 1797, 3); “Vauxhall Garden, Broadway, no. 112, will be decorated and illuminated in a beautiful manner, and the ever memorable day will be celebrated with music and singing; the whole will call to mind the American heroes who have contributed to its independence.... A concert of vocal and instrumental music — as follows”: Act I. Grand Overture, Haydn Song, “Little Sally,”81 Miss Moller Quartetto, for the French Horn, Violin, Tenor and Bass, Messrs. Dupois, Hewit, Gilfert and Dezeze Song, “Three Sweethearts I Boast,” Miss Moller Glee, “Lightly Tread This Hollow Ground” Battle Overture, in commemoration of the 4th of July, Hewitt82 Act II. Concerto flute, Mr. Saliment Song, “Tantivy Hark Forward,” Miss Moller Sonata, Piano forte, Mr. Moller Song, “I Am in Haste,” Miss Moller Glee, “Here in Cool Grot”83 Finale, Pleyel

(“Fourth of July,” Minerva & Mercantile Evening Advertiser, 4 July 1797. 3); “Peter Thorin, respectfully informs his friends and the public in general, that he has fitted up New Vauxhall Garden, no. 5 Pearl Street, near the Battery, in as elegant a manner as the place would admit for the reception of ladies and gentlemen on the 4th July, when he will have a regular band of music and fire works to entertain the company. The music to commence precisely at 7 o’clock. Admittance as usual” (Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1797, 3).

1798 Publications “Anthem for the Fourth of July.” First line: “With songs of honor chanting high.” (Weekly Museum, 30 June 1798, 2.) “The following Patriotic Song, wrote by a citizen of Philadelphia, and sung at the Theatre with great applause, is intended to be sung on the 4th of July next, in this town [Elizabethtown, NJ], accompanied with instrumental music. Tune — The President’s March.” First line: “Hail Columbia! happy land” (New-Jersey Journal, 3 July 1798, 4). “To-Morrow will be published, and for sale at

29 S. Sower’s printing-office, no. 67, Market-street, at his book-store in Fayette-street, and at Thomas, Andrews and Butler’s book-store (Price, eleven-pence) The Patriotic Songster, for July 4th, 1798. (Addressed to the Volunteers of Baltimore.) Containing all the later Patriotic Songs that have been published. Also, a Song for the 4th of July, tune ‘Hail Columbia,’ and many others that have never before appeared in print. June 29” (Federal Gazette & Baltimore Daily Advertiser, 3 July 1798, 1). “Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise,” in American Musical Miscellany: a Collection of the Newest and Most Approved Songs Set to Music, by Andrew Wright.84 Northampton, Mass, 1798; reprint, Da Capo, 1972. “The Farmer’s Patriotic Ode. By P. Pencil. Tune — Vicar of Bray.” First line: “From th’ soil our fathers dearly bo’t.” At end of poem: “N.W. corner of Mess. Colon & Spendee’s shop, July 4, ’98. [Walpole, NH?]” (“Native Poetry,” Farmer’s Weekly Museum, 31 July 1798, 4). “The Genius of Columbia. A Song.” First line: “Awake from delusion, ye sons of the brave” (“The Fount,” Columbian Centinel, 4 July 1798, 4). “An Ode for the Fourth of July”85: first line, “Come all ye sons of song”; “an Ode for the Fourth of July. By Daniel George — set to music by Horatio Garnet”: first line, “’Tis done! the edict past.” (American Musical Miscellany (1798), 130–32 and 142–47, respectively.) “An Ode, for the Celebration of Independence.” First line: “Columbian voices tune the lay.” Broadside. [Sag Harbor, NY: Printed by David Frothingham, 1798.] Copy in the American Antiquarian Society. “Ode for the 4th of July, 1798.”86 A Collection of Songs selected from the Works of Mr. Dibdin to which are added, the newest and most favourite American patriotic songs. Philadelphia: J. Bioren for H & P Rice, 1799, 323–25. First line: “There’s Ichabod has come to town.” “An Ode or Song, for the Fourth of July, 1798. To the tune of ‘God Save the King.’” First line: “Columbian Patriots! rise! (A Poem, on the Fourth of July, 1798. Being the Anniversary of the Independence of the United States of America. By John Miller Russell, A.M. Boston: Printed by Manning & Loring, 1798.) “Ode sung at Mendham the Fourth of July.” First line: “Columbia, Columbia, thy glory decays” (“Selected Poetry,” Carey’s United States’ Recorder, 21 July 1798, 4). “An Ode. Sung at the celebration of the Fourth of July, in this town [Newark, NJ]. To the tune of— ‘Unity.’” First line: “Hail, ever-memorable day!” (The Centinel of Freedom, 10 July 1798, 4). “Ode to Liberty.” First line: “Hail, liberty! thou goddess bright.” Signed “Sylvia” (Weekly Museum, 30 June 1798, 2). “A Patriotic Song, for July Fourth, 1798. Tune — ‘Dauphine.’ Written by Mr. Dunham, of Hanover, N.H. and sung there in the last anniversary.” First

1798 line: “Hail independence, hail.” Also, “A Parody, of the ‘Marseilles Hymn,’ as sung at the late celebration at Hanover.” First line: “Ye Sons of Freedom, wake to glory!”87 (Oration, for the Fourth of July, 1798; Delivered in the Meeting-House, in the Vicinity of Dartmouth College, at Hanover, in New Hampshire... By Josiah Dunham. 2nd ed. Hanover: Benjamin True, [1798], 14–15; “Independence,” Massachusetts Mercury, 10 July 1798, 2; Courier of New Hampshire, 17 July 1798, 4; Connecticut Gazette, 18 July 1798, 4; Green Mountain Patriot, 20 July 1798, 4; Massachusetts Spy, 1 August 1798, 4; The Companion and Commercial Centinel, 4 August 1798.) The Patriotic Songster for July 4th, 1798. (Addressed to the volunteers of Baltimore.) Containing all the late patriotic songs that have been published.88 Baltimore: printed and sold at S. Sower’s printing office, no. 67, Market Street, at his book-store in Fayette Street, and at Thomas, Andrews and Butler’s bookstore, 1798. “A Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Freedom, blest offspring of the skies.” (Western Star, 3 July 1798, 4.) “Song for the Fourth of July.” Tune—“The Mason’s Daughter.” First line: “Come hail the day, ye sons of mirth” (Massachusetts Spy: or, the Worcester Gazette, 11 July 1798, 3). “Song, sung at a public dinner, in the City of Richmond, on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hail Patriots all! This day combine”89 (“Pegasus of Apollo,” Massachusetts Spy, or, the Worcester Gazette, 8 August 1798, 4; The Companion, and Commercial Centinel, 11 August 1798, 3; Courier, 18 October 1798, 6). “A Song sung [on] the 4th of July. To the tune, “There’s no luck about the house.” First line: “Hail Independence, happy morn” (New-Hampshire Gazette, 31 July 1798, 4). “Song. Tune—‘God Save Great Washington.’” First line: “Columbians all unite” (Alexandria Advertiser, 4 July 1798, 2).

Performances Connecticut Brooklyn: A procession from Capt. Murdock’s Inn to the meeting house was “accompanied with music.” The exercises were “interspersed with three pieces of vocal and instrumental music” (Windham Herald, 19 July 1798, 3). Norwich: A parade to the meeting house included “a band of music.” The exercises included a prayer and oration. “The ceremony [was] interspersed with two pieces of vocal music” (The Courier, 5 July 1798, 3).

Maine Freeport: “The artillery company in uniform paraded; an oration was pronounced by the Rev. Mr. Johnson, and after dinner the usual number of Federal toasts were given, with firings, cheers, and patriotic songs,” including a “Song. Composed and sung

30

1798 by Mr. Burrill.” First line: “Guardians of our nation, stand firm in your station” (Gazette [Portland], 9 July 1798, 2). Wiscasset: At a “sumptuous entertainment given by Gen. Abiel Wood ... several patriotic songs were sung, among which ‘Adams and Liberty’ was not forgotten, but echoed responsively from every heart that glowed with the radiating fire of federalism” (“From Wiscasset,” The Gazette, 16 July 1798, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the exercises “Thomas Edwards, Esq. then announced the orator of the day, and informed the audience that, in addition to the usual exhibition of the anniversary, Mr. Paine’s90 two patriotic Songs, of ‘Rise Columbia,’91 and ‘Adams and Liberty,’92 would be performed by a select choir — This annunciation was received with the greatest applause — The Oration by Josiah Quincy, Esq. followed.” According to the Massachusetts Mercury, Mr. Rea93 sang “Rise Columbia.” “At three o’clock, the officers of the Boston Regiment, in complete uniform ... marched to Julien’s Hotel, accompanied with a band of music (Russell’s Gazette, 5 July 1798, 3; “American Independence,” Massachusetts Mercury, 6 July 1798, 2; see also, Massachusetts Mercury, 3 July 1798, 2). Newburyport: Procession “formed in State-street, with a respectable band of music at their head, under Mr. S. Holyoke”94 (Salem Gazette, 10 July 1798, 3). Salem: At the town’s celebration, “Hail Columbia, and many other Patriotic Songs were sung, among which was the following, composed on that day, for the occasion, by Mr. Honeywood.” First line: “Veterans brave, in battle tried!” (Northern Centinel, 9 July 1798, 3). Worcester: At 11 o’clock, a number of Gentlemen, from various parts of the County, all wearing the national co*ckade, and among them a number of the Clergy, assembled at Masons’ Hall; there formed a procession, and walked to the South Meeting House, headed by the High Sheriff of the County, and escorted by the Worcester Company of Artillery. Music, on various instruments, performed by a number of young Gentlemen, saluted the Procession as it entered the Church. A Prayer well adapted to the occasion, was addressed to the throne of Grace, by the Rev. Mr. Sumner, of Shrewsbury. Music again resounded. The Rev. Mr. Austin, of this town, delivered, with an animated eloquence, suited to the day, a sensible, interesting and patriotic Oration, Which was received with the warm plaudits of a gratified audience. The celebrated song, ‘Adams and Liberty’— uninfluenced by any, and dictated to by none.

At the dinner that followed at another hall the song “Adams and Liberty” was sung after a toast to John Adams and again after a toast to the President. Also sung was a “New Song, to the tune ‘Yankee Doodle.’” (First line: “Sing Yankee Doodle, that fine tune”

(“Worcester, July 11” and “Pegasus of Apollo,” Massachusetts Spy, 11 and 18 July 1798, 3 and 4, respectively).

New Hampshire Portsmouth: After a military parade, soldiers and others gathered at Capt. Whidden’s Assembly Room where they “partook of as elegant an entertainment as could be provided.” Toasts were drank “and many capital songs sung. And among the most celebrated performances of the day, we record with pleasure the following classical effusion from the harmonious pen of a gentleman of Portsmouth [likely Jonathan Mitchell Sewall], which may justly be denominated the Portsmouth Federal Song; and claims literary kindred with the animated pencilings of the Boston Bard [likely Paine]”: “The Song. Tune —‘God Save the King.’” First line: “All hail auspicious day” (“Celebration of Independence at Portsmouth, and the Vicinity,” Oracle of the Day, 7 July 1798, 3). Walpole: At the meeting house, “a sacred ode preceded an appropriate, forcible and happily conceived prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Fessenden, succeeded by the ‘Adams and Liberty’ of Mr. Paine, sung agreeably, and with interest, by a sprightly choir” (Farmer’s Weekly Museum: New Hampshire and Vermont Journal, 10 July 1798, 3).

New Jersey Newark: After a procession by town citizens from the Episcopal Church to the Presbyterian Church, exercises were held and “in the interval” of two orations, “several tunes were sung, suitable to the occasion” (“Anniversary Celebration,” Centinel of Freedom, 10 July 1798, 2). Princeton: In the Princeton College Hall, exercises were held in which “a band of the students, with different instruments, introduced the orations by playing the President’s March.95 In the orchestra, in which they were placed, was inscribed in large characters ‘let independence be our boast.’ The orations were concluded by some piece of musick, and the ladies and gentlemen below joining with their voices, the whole produced a very fine and animating effect.” Later, dinner was provided for 40 men at Mr. Ferguson’s. As toasts were presented, “in the intervals several patriotic songs were sung by the gentlemen” (Gazette of the United States, 11 July 1798, 2).

New York Kinderhook: “The day was ushered in by a federal salute and a display of the national standard from the cupola of the academy. At 10 o’clock A.M., divine service was performed in the church.” After a discourse by the Rev. Isaac Labagh, “the celebrated ode ‘The American Hero,’ was sung to the tune of ‘Bunker-Hill,’ by a select choir in the gallery” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July at Kinderhook,” Albany Centinel, 10 July 1798, 3). New York: “The several Societies having assembled

31 on the Battery, proceeded from thence through Beaver, Broad, Pearl and Beckman streets to the Brick Church in the following order: Citizens, Tammany Society. Coopers Society Band of Music Democratic Society. General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen — and a number of civil and military officers.

Mr. M.L. Davis then read the Declaration of Independence, and Mr. George Clinton, Jun. delivered an Oration, which abounded with many noble and patriotic sentiments, and was received with unbounded applause. An elegant Ode, written for the occasion by Margaretta V. Faugeres, was then sung by a select company” (First line: “Welcome morn, whose genial ray.”) (“Fourth of July: New-York Celebration,” Weekly Museum, 7 July 1798, 3, and 14 July 1798; An Oration, Delivered on the Fourth of July, 1798, before the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, the Democratic Society, the Tammany Society or Columbia Order, the New York Cooper’s Society, and a Numerous Concourse of Other Citizens. By Geo. Clinton, Jun. New York: Printed by M. L. & W.A. Davis, 1798); “Columbia Garden, Grand Concert, and Transparent Paintings, on the Fourth of July. The Band conducted by Mr. Henri: Part I. Song, Adams and Liberty, Mr. Hodgkinson Song, As Sure as a Gun, Miss H. Westray Song, The Bird When Summers Charm No More, Mrs. Hodgkinson Song, Mr. Tyler Song, Jane of Aberdeen, Miss Brett Duo, Time has not thinn’d my flowing hair, Mr. and Mrs. Hodgkinson Part II. Song, Mr. Tyler Song, The Silver Moon, Miss E. Westray Song, Tantivy, Miss Brett Song, Jen e vois entend pas, monsieur, Mr. Hodgkinson Ladies New Patriotic Song, Washington’s March, Mrs. Hodgkinson96

(“Fourth of July,” Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1798, 3); “Ranelagh Garden, near the Battery, lately known by Vauxhall, this evening, Wednesday, July 4 a grand concert of vocal and instrumental music. B. Isherwood respectfully informs the ladies and gentlemen, that he has taken the adjoining lot for their accommodation, which will afford a pleasant, airy and extensive walk. Ye Sons of Dull Sloth, Mrs. Seymour97 Knowing Joe, or Plowman Turned Actor, Mr. Jefferson How Can I Forge the Fond Hour, Miss Broadhurst In Honour of the Day, the boron

1798 Patriotic Song, Adams and Liberty, Mr. Williamson Where is the Harm of That, Mrs. Seymour Dickey Gossip, Mr. Jefferson Duett Hey Dane: to the Fiddle and Tabor, Mrs. Seymour and Mr. Jefferson Bonny Charley, Miss Broadhurst The New-York Federal Song, Washington and the Constitution, Mr. Williamson The Little Farthing Rush-Light, Mr. Jefferson And, Hail Columbia, Mr. Williamson

“The Garden will be brilliantly with variegated coloured lamps. The concert to begin at 8 o’clock. Tickers 4s. to entitle each the bearer to a glass of ice cream, punch, lemonade, &c. (Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1798, 3).98

Pennsylvania Easton: Several hundred citizens and militia assembled in the church for the exercises. “A German translation of ‘Hail Columbia’ was sung accompanied by the organ.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, performed were “vocal and instrumental music by a band from Bethlehem and Nazareth.” Additional music was performed after an oration in German. Another oration was presented, this one in English, after which was sung “‘Hail Columbia’ in English accompanied by the band” (Gazette of the United States, 11 July 1798, 2). Philadelphia: At a celebration of the Philadelphia Volunteer Company of grenadiers, “the following song, composed and sung by a member of the corps, was received with loud applause.” First line: “Come all grenadiers let us join hand in hand” (Daily Advertiser, 9 July 1798, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: “The Artillery Company partook of a splendid entertainment in the State House, after which the following toasts were drank, accompanied with Patriotic Songs, Martial Music, &c” (Companion, and Commercial Centinel, 7 July 1798, 3).

Vermont Brandon: The exercises were held on the common near the meeting house. The following piece was sung: “Let the poets of Europe write odes on their kings” (first line) (“Communication,” Rutland Herald, 23 July 1798, 3). Rutland: An “ode, composed and set to music for the occasion by Mr. Fessenden,99 was inimitably performed by a numerous and brilliant choir of singers, under the tuition of Mr. Thom. H. Atwell.”100 The Massachusetts Mercury and Newburyport Herald titled this ode “The Stockbridge Federal Ode.” First line: “Ye sons of Columbia, unite in the cause” (Rutland Herald, 9 July 1798, 2; Massachusetts Mercury, 3 August 1798, 4; Newburyport Herald, 7 August 1798, 224; Federal Gazette and Baltimore Daily Advertiser, 13 August 1798, 2; Alexandria Advertiser, 17 August 1798,

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1799 2; Maryland Herald and Elizabeth-Town Advertiser, 23 August 1798, 4; Green Mountain Patriot, 24 August 1798, 4; Farmer’s Weekly Museum, 27 August 1798, 4). See also Publications above.

1799 Publications “Convivial Song. Sung at Windsor (Vermont) on the Fourth of July. Composed for the occasion by Royal Tyler, Esq.101 Tune ‘Here’s to Our Noble Selves, Boys.’” First line: “Come fill each brimming glass, boys” (Broadside, Windsor, VT: Printed by Alden Spooner, 1799; Spooners Vermont Journal, 16 July 1799, 3; Windham Herald, 15 August 1799, 4; The Federal Songster Being a Collection of the Most Celebrated Patriotic Songs, Hitherto Published, with a Variety of Others, Sentimental and Convivial (New-London: James Springer, 1800). “For the Fourth of July. Tune —‘President’s March.’” First line: “Arise ye bards and tune the lyre” (Centinel of Freedom, 2 July 1799, 4). “Fourth of July — an Ode.” By Philip Morin. First line: ’Tis past-another anniversive day.” Philadelphia: Printed for the author. From the press of D. Hogan — and sold at his store, no. 222 South Third-Street, and at the office of the Aurora, December 30, 1799; Centinel of Freedom, 16 July 1799, 4. “‘The Genius of Columbia: An Ode’ for the Fourth of July, 1799.102 Written by the honorable Timothy Todd.”103 First line: “As down a dark valley with shadows surrounded.” (Oration, Delivered at Rutland, in the State of Vermont, on the Anniversary of American Independence, July 4th, 1799. By Nathan Osgood, Esq. Rutland: S. Williams, 1799). “A New Song.” First line: “America, thou glorious nation” (Centinel of Freedom, 16 July 1799, 4). “A new song, calculated to be sung the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Howe’s Invitation.’” First line: “Hail, ye sons of freedom’s cause” (Centinel of Freedom, 2 July 1799, 4). “A New Song, for the Fourth of July. Tune ‘Alknomack.’”104 First line: “Let Columbia enraptur’d rejoice on the day” (“Poets Corner,” Herald of Liberty, 1 July 1799, 4). “Ode for Independence.” First line: “Shades of heroes, chiefs and sages” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1799, 2). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1799. The anniversary of American independence.” First line: “Long sunk beneath disgraceful chains.” Signed “G.T.” (“Miscellany,” Connecticut Gazette, 10 July 1799, 4). “Song composed for and sung on the 4th July, 1799. Tune —‘Rural Felicity.’” First line: “Hail freedom’s birth-day, hail, thou fam’d Fourth of July” (“Miscellany,” Connecticut Gazette, 24 July 1799, 4). “An Ode, composed for the occasion, at the Re-

quest of the Society. By Dr. William Pitt Smith... Set to music by Mr. Van Hagen.”105 First line: “Now elevate your hymns of joy.” The Blessings of America. A Sermon Preached in the Middle Dutch Church, on the Fourth July, 1791, being the Anniversary of the Independence of America: At the Request of the Tammany Society, or Columbian Order. By William Linn, D.D. (New York: Printed by Thomas Greenleaf, 1791), 37–39. “Song for the Celebration of the 4th July, 1799.106 (By J.M. Sewall, Esq. of Portsmouth.) Tune —‘In a mouldering Cave — or the Gods of the Greeks.’” First line: “Late Jove and blue Neptune in conference met”; another song by Sewall, to the tune “President’s March”: first line, “Heav’n and the fates this day decreed” (Oracle of the Day, 6 July 1799, 3; New Hampshire-Gazette, 9 July 1799, 3; “The Blossoms of Parnassus,” Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 24 July 1799, 4). “To Arms Columbia. A new patriotic Song.107 Written by Thos. Paine & sung with great applause by Mr. Barrett at the Theatre on the 4th of July, 1799.” New York: Printed & Sold at J. Hewitts Musical Repository, no. 23 Maiden Lane. Sold also by B. Carr, Philadelphia & J. Carr, Galtimore. In A Collection of New & Favorite Songs (Philadelphia, ca. 1800), 176–77. “Walpole Ode: written by Mr. Alexander Thomas,108 and sung at the late celebration of American independence. Tune—‘President’s March,’” First line: Fa’rite land of freedom, hail!” (New Hampshire Sentinel, 13 July 1799, 4; The Federal Songster Being a Collection of the Most Celebrated Patriotic Songs, Hitherto Published, with a Variety of Others, Sentimental and Convivial [New-London: James Springer, 1800]). “Westminster Ode, for the 4th of July 1799. To the tune of—‘Come now all ye social powers.’” First line: “Join to hail this festive morn” (Farmers’ Museum, or Lay Preacher’s Gazette, 22 July 1799, 4). “Windsor Ode, composed by R. Tyler, and sung at the Celebration of the 4th of July.” First line: “The blushing east displays the dawn” (“Parnassian Rivulet,” Green Mountain Patriot, 15 August 1799, 4; “Poets’ Corner,” Vergennes Gazette and Vermont and New-York Advertiser, 22 August 1799, 4).

Performances Connecticut Hartford: After a procession of city officials, the governor, military and citizens, from the State House to the North Meeting House, “the exercises at the church were introduced by an Anthem, performed by the choir of the society, led by Mr. Benjamin, and accompanied by several instruments. To this succeeded a pertinent, elegant, and fervent Address to the Deity, by the Rev. Mr. Flint, an Anthem, an Oration, by William Brown, Esq. and a Hymn composed for the occasion. It would be doing feeble justice to the performances, to say that they were executed in a highly satisfactory manner” (Claypoole’s American Daily Ad-

33 vertiser, 15 July 1799, 2; Litchfield Monitor, 17 July 1799, 1). Lebanon: A town procession was “led by a group of singers, a band of instrumental music, and four military companies.” The exercises “were closed by the patriotic song of Adams and Liberty” (Norwich Packet, 18 July 1799, 3). Litchfield: In the morning, “Ranney’s company of Regular Troops, Capt. Phelps’s Light Infantry, and the uniformed companies of Captains Goodwin and Kilbeurn paraded, with a double complement of music and a band.” After a parade to the meeting house, “the solemnities were opened by Church music” (American Mercury, 11 July 1799, 3). Warren: A procession “preceded by the militia and music” moved to the meeting house where the exercises included “music (an Ode for the 4th of July).” An oration was “succeeded by music (Dr. Dwight’s celebrated Columbia)” (Litchfield Monitor, 17 July 1799, 1).

Maine Kennebunk: A procession to the meeting house included a band of music (Jenks’s Portland Gazette, 8 July 1799, 2). Portland: After exercises at the meeting house, the assemblage marched to the “New Assembly Hall” where dinner and toasts were accompanied by “several patriotic songs [that] were sung with spirit, and received with applause” (Jenks’s Portland Gazette, 8 July 1799, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: Four militia regiments paraded and each was read the Declaration of Independence followed by the performance of “The President’s March” and “Yankee Doodle” played by two bands (Daily Advertiser, 10 July 1799, 2).

Massachusetts Belchertown: At the meeting house, an anthem was sung “by the lovers of musick”(Political Repository, 16 July 1799, 3). Boston: At the Old Brick Meeting House, after a prayer, “‘Rise Columbia,’ an Ode, [was] sung by Mr. Rea. The whole audience joined in the thrilling chorus: ‘Rise Columbia, brave and free/Poise the glove, and bound the sea!’” “Adams and Liberty” was also sung (“National Puberty,” Political Repository, 23 July 1799, 3). Lancaster: Some eighty male citizens and “two companies of militia” celebrated with a dinner and toasts “accompanied with repeated huzza’s, patriotic songs, instrumental music” (“Celebration at Lancaster,” Massachusetts Spy, 17 July 1799, 2). Petersham: The “inhabitants of this town ... proceeded from Mr. Ripley’s Inn, with music to the Meeting House, where the solemnities of the day commenced with music.... Several select pieces of music were performed, vocal and instrumental” dur-

1799 ing the exercises (“Celebration at Petersham,” Massachusetts Spy, 17 July 1799, 2). Worcester: After a procession from Major Mower’s Hall to the South Meeting House, “a select Band performed a number of appropriate pieces of Music.” Back at the Hall, a “handsome entertainment” was provided including toasts “under the discharge of cannon” and the following pieces of music: Song — ‘American Independence,’ by Mr. William Charles White109— tune, Adams & Liberty. First line: “Let patriot ardor distinguish the day.” This work was sung both at Worcester and Rutland, Vermont (“American Independence,” Massachusetts Spy; or, The Worcester Gazette, 10 July 1799, 2, 4). See also, Rutland, Vermont, below.

New Hampshire Alstead: The exercises included an oration by Samuel Mead, “after which, ‘To thine Almighty arm we owe, the triumphs of the day,’ &c was chaunted by a brilliant choir of ladies and gentlemen, succeeded by a flourish of martial music” (Farmer’s Weekly Museum, 15 July 1799, 3). Claremont: A parade of militia and residents was “preceded by Martial music” and marched to the meeting house. At the end of the exercises, “a tuneful choir chaunted, with spirit, the fashionable ‘Adams and Liberty’” (Farmers’ Museum, 22 July 1799, 3). Hopkinton: A parade that began at the “town house” included the Musical Society and “a select corps of Light Infantry, preceded by martial music.” The exercises took place at the meeting house where the attendees “were highly entertained by a well chosen piece of music” (Courier of New Hampshire, 6 July 1799, 3). Keene: A procession of “Federal citizens” and the Company of Infantry from the “Meeting House common” marched through city streets back to the meeting house, where the services included prayer and oration was presented. “When the orator had closed, several pieces of music were performed by the Society in this town and the Federal songs of ‘Hail Columbia’ and ‘Adams & Liberty,’ sung with spirit and effect. The assembly then retired from the meeting house, and having dined, at three o’clock, P.M. assembled on the common, and in concert with the companies, of militia, drank the following toasts, with military and musical honors” (“Fourth of July, New-Hampshire Sentinel, 6 July 1799, 3). Meredith: At the meeting house, “the attention of a large assembly was given to a federal song, by Simon F. Williams, and Richard Boynton, Jr.— a short comedy was then acted by the same — after which an Oration was delivered by Simon F. Williams, and the exhibition closed by singing the noted and celebrated song called ‘Lady Washington’”110 (“The Ever Memorable 4th of July,” New Hampshire Gazette, 16 July 1799, 3). Portsmouth: The Light Infantry Company and citizens assembled at Capt. Whidden’s Assembly Room

34

1799 for dinner, toasts and music. “Among the songs that received the best applauses, was a most excellent and spirited performance inserted in the Oracle of the 22d ult [“Song for the 4th of July, 1799. To the tune of the ‘Vicar of Bray.’” First line: “While Holland gag’d and fetter’d sprawls!”].111 The author (a gentleman in one of our country towns) is requested to receive the thanks of the company for the pleasure which he has thus afforded them. Two original compositions by J.M. Sewall,112 Esq. were received with high plaudits. And Paine’s Adams & Liberty echoed through the vaulted dome” (“Poetical Repository” and “Independence!” Oracle of the Day, 22 June and 6 July, 1799, 3 and 3, respectively; Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 18 July 1799, 3). See Publications above. Rochester: At the meeting house, included in the exercises were “two Odes also, by the same hand in which the poet and the patriot seemed equal competitors for the muse, were set to music and performed by the singing band to the most lively satisfaction of the assembly.” The dinner included the singing of “a variety of humorous, American, Anti-Gallican songs illustrated with some ingenious drawings by a citizen of this town” (New Hampshire Gazette, 16 July 1799, 3). Walpole: “A procession composed of soldiers and citizens, and cheered by an excellent band of music, proceeded at 11, to the Meeting House.... At intervals several favorite marches were played, and the ‘pleasing sorcery’ of music produced all its enchantment on the mind. An Ode, composed by ‘certain of our own poets,’ was performed to the popular tune of ‘Hail Columbia,’ to which was added, ‘When first the sun o’er ocean glow’d,”113 a well known production of Mr. [R.] T. Paine.... In the evening, a large and brilliant party danced away the merry hours at the inn of Mr. S. Grant” (“Fourth of July,” Farmers’ Museum or Lay Preacher’s Gazette, 8 July 1799, 3; Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1799, 3; Maryland Herald and Elizabeth-Town Advertiser, 25 July 1799, 2; “Fourth of July,” Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser, 6 August 1799, 2). See Publications above.

8. An Ode sung — Tune, “Columbia.” [“Fourth of July,” Centinel of Freedom, 16 July 1799, 2].

Newark: The ceremonies in the Presbyterian Church included the performance of one anthem, one hymn, and two odes (“Fourth of July,” Centinel of Freedom, 2 July 1799, 3). Trenton: Nearly 100 ladies “with an equal number of gentlemen” hosted a tea party at the State House. “After tea, dancing commenced, which concluded with the song ‘Hail Columbia’ by the ladies” (Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 13 July 1799, 2).

New York New York: A procession of “Uniformed Military Corps” from the Battery to St. Paul’s Church included a band of music, third in line. At the Garden of Joseph Delacroix, the sixteen summer house were decorated and the sixteen colors of each was carried to the sound of music to the Grand Temple of Independence (NewYork Gazette and General Advertiser, 5 July 1799, 2); “Columbia Garden. Grand concert of vocal and instrumental music, and transparent paintings.” The order of the concert will be expressed in the bills of the day” (“Fourth of July,” Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1799, 3); a “splendid, allegorical musical drama,” The Fourth of July or, Temple of American Independence, with music by Pelesier116 at the Park Theatre (Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1799, 3; New-York Gazette and General Advertiser, 5 July 1799, 2). Northampton: “The following toasts were drank at Northampton the 4th of July”: Song, Adam and Liberty—A Plaintive Song—A Song—A Song (Spectator, 17 July 1799, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At the Centre House Tavern, proprietor John Mearns presented a Fourth of July “full concert ... presented to the public gratis.” Mearns had recently acquired a “grand organ of the first power and tone” (“Elegant Organ,” Claypoole’s American Daily Advertiser, 3 July 1799, 2).

New Jersey

Rhode Island

Mendham: “The morning was introduced by discharging of cannon, beating of drum, sounding of trumpet, ringing of the bell, and displaying the American flag.” Five hundred individuals marched to the sound of martial and vocal music from Mr. M’Carter’s to the church. The exercises consisted of

Providence: A company of comedians presented a play at the theater titled Isabella or the Fatal Marriage, followed “by a collection of patriotic songs” (Newport Mercury, 9 July 1799, 2).

1. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Armstrong. 2. Psalm sung — Tune, “Montgomery.”114 3. Declaration of Independence read by Mr. Henry Axtell, jun. 4. An Ode sung — Tune, “Joy Inspiring Born.” 5. An Oration, delivered to a very attentive audience, by Mr. Noah Crane. 6. An Ode sung — Tune, “Anacreon.”115 7. Select passages of the United States’ Constitution, read by Mr. Henry Axtell, jun.

Charleston: “Ode. The following ode, by Mr. Heresford, for the Fourth of July, 1799, being the twenty-third anniversary of the sovereignty and independence of the United States of America, was performed in St. Michael’s Church, Charleston, before the Cincinnati and Revolution Societies.” First line: “Lo! the cloud of battle scowls.” Also, “Ode on the anniversary of American Independence. This ode was written for last Thursday’s Gazette, but did not come to hand in time.” First line: “Hail, thou ever grateful

South Carolina

35 day!” Signed “Agricola.” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1799, 3); “Toasts, of the 2d troop, 1st squadron, 8th regiment of cavalry, annexed to the 7th brigade South Carolina militia, on the Fourth of July” included various trumpet calls and music (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 9 July 1799, 3).

Vermont Rutland: A parade from Kelley’s Tavern to the meeting house was “accompanied with martial music. The pleasing solemnities of the day were introduced by the very pertinent and patriotic song of ‘Hail Columbia.’” Following a prayer and oration, “the exercises were closed by an agreeable union of vocal and instrumental music, in a new patriotic, and highly poetical Ode, written by Mr. [William Charles?] White of Worcester.” Later a dinner included toasts “announced by a discharge of cannon and a flourish of martial music” including these pieces: Song, Hail Columbia (sung following toasts 1 and 2)—Song, Adams & Liberty—Song, Hail Godlike Washington—Song, The Farmer’s Patriot Ode — Song, The Farmer — Song, Queen Bess—Hunting Song (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 10 July 1799, 3). Westminster: A parade was led “by a band of martial music.” At the meeting house a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “was followed by a piece of solemn music which prepared their minds for a fervent, solemn, and patriotic prayer.” After an oration there “was chaunted, by a select choir, an Ode, composed for the day, to the tune of ‘Come Now All Ye Social Powers,’ the chorus of which was joined and aided by the harmonious voices of the village fair; to which succeeded Mr. Hopkinson’s ‘Hail Columbia’” (Celebration of Independence,” Farmer’s Weekly Museum, 15 July 1799, 3). Windsor: See Publications above.

1800 “The day has been celebrated with lively ardour in every part of the country from which we have heard. Its importance in the annals of the world has been fully felt. May it ever continue to be realized in the hearts of Americans!”117 The highlight of this year is the first Fourth of July performance by the United States Marine Band (“The President’s Own”) in Philadelphia. This band is the oldest professional musical organization in the country and has served every president since John Adams. It was established by Act of Congress on July 11, 1798.

Publications “Columbia Relieved.” First line: To a mouldering cave, the mansion of woe” (“Court of Apollo,” Constitutional Telegraph, 3 September 1800). “Fourth of July, or an Ode to Independence. By

1800 Thomas Pike Lathy, author of ‘Reparation,’ ‘NewEngland Captive,’ &c. in the press and will be ready in a few days. The author trusts, that no American patriot will think his possession of such a pamphlet dear at 9d. To be had at all the printing offices and bookstores. June 21, 1800.” Boston. (Columbian Centinel, 28 June 1800, 4.) “Freeman’s Holiday. Tune —‘Nature’s Holiday’” First line: “Well met ye sons of liberty” (Kline’s Carlisle Weekly Gazette, 9 July 1800, 2). “Independence — For the 4th of July.” First line: “For ages on ages by tyranny bound.” Printed in The Nightingale; or Rural Songster (Dedham [MA]: Printed by H. Mann, 1800). “A New Song. For the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Rule Brittannia.’” First line: “When God from his celestial throne” (The Federal Songster Being a Collection of the Most Celebrated Patriotic Songs, Hitherto Published, with a Variety of Others, Sentimental and Convivial (New-London: James Springer, 1800). “An Ode composed for the celebration of American independence.” First line: “Lo! from her star throne, plum’d with rays supernal” (Russell’s Gazette, 31 July 1800, 4; Newburyport Herald, 5 August 1800, 4). “Ode for Independence.” First line: “Behold! the glorious day appears!” (Courier, 9 July 1800, 3). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1800. By Samuel Low. Sung after the delivery of the preceding Oration” (Oration, Delivered in St. Paul’s Church on the Fourth of July, 1800; Being the Twenty-Fourth Anniversary of Our Independence, before the General Society of Mechanics & Tradesmen, Tammany Society or Columbian Order, and Other Associations and Citizens. By M[atthew] L[ivingston] Davis, of the General Society of Mechanics & Tradesmen. New York: Printed by W.A. Davis, Greenwich-Street, 1800); “Ode for the 4th of July, 1800. Composed by Mr. Low.” First line: “Again the signal day.” Broadside, New York: W.A. Davis, Greenwich-Street, 1800. Listed in Heard, 182; printed in Samuel Low, Poems (New York: T. & J. Swords, 1800) II: 113. “Ode for the Fourth of July 1800.” First line: “Swift strike the lyre and sweep the sounding string” (Baltimore Weekly Magazine, 5 July 1800, 88). “Union Forever! & the Birth-Day of Freedom!: or, the Fourth of July: a Patriotic Song Written as an Expression of Respect and Good Will for His Adopted Country.” By William Goodwin. New Haven, CT: W. Goodwin [18 —].

Performances Connecticut New London: “The observance of the day commenced with the discharge of cannon at Fort Trumbull; at 12 o’clock, a federal salute was fired, when a procession consisting of three companies of militia, a band of music, the corporation of the city and civil authority of the town, the orator of the day, committee of arrangement, with a long train of private gentle-

36

1800 men, advanced from the parade to the meeting-house” (Connecticut Gazette, 9 July 1800, 3). Norwich: At 11:30 A.M. a procession that had assembled at the hotel, marched, “preceded by martial music and the flag of the United States” to the Rev. Mr. King’s Meeting House. The exercises were “interspersed with two pieces of vocal music” (Courier, 9 July 1800, 3).

Massachusetts Boxford: A procession led by a “band of music.” At the meeting house, “after the musicians had performed a short Ode, the solemnity was opened with prayer by the Rev. Peter Eaton, and an Oration, delivered by Samuel Holyoke, A.M. well adapted to the occasion.— After performing an Ode, composed and set to music by Mr. Holyoke, the procession formed and marched a small distance (the musicians playing the ‘President’s March’).”118 (“Celebration of the 4th of July, 1800,” Newburyport Herald, 15 July 1800, 3). Worcester: “At 12 o’clock a respectable procession was formed at Maj. Mower’s Tavern, composed of the citizens of the town and vicinity under the escort of the company of Artillery commanded by Capt. Healey, which proceeded to the North Meetinghouse, where they were received with instrumental music.” After the exercises, “the procession returned to the Hall of Major Mower, and dined.” Music accompanied the toasts: Song — Dirge (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 9 July 1800, 3).

agreeably to the order of the day, the Declaration of Independence was read by Col. Manning, and at half after 2, they sat down to a very elegant dinner prepared for the occasion” (Centinel of Freedom, 15 July 1800, 3).

New York New York: A “one night only” presentation at the Theatre included a performance of The Feast of Terpsichore, in the Temple of Independence, consisting of music — recitation — song and dance” (“Theatre,” Commercial Advertiser, 3 July 1800, 3). Richmond County (Staten Island): A procession of military companies, “accompanied by a band of music, the clergy, civil officers of the County, the Farmers Society, distinguished by ears of wheat in their hats, citizens and strangers” and “100 lovely girls and boys” marched to “a plain near the Moravian Meeting House.” After dinner toasts were drank and one offered to George Washington was accompanied by “drums muffled, beat the Presidents March. Soon after, Miss Journey, daughter of Mr. Wm. Journey, accompanied by several young Ladies, was introduced, and by particular request, sung the much admired song Hail Columbia, &c. After which she delivered, with peculiar grace and propriety, an Oration in Poetry, most happily adapted to the day, and calculated to inspire her audience with Patriotic enthusiasm, and the highest idea of her sentiments and talents” (Commercial Advertiser, 8 July 1800, 3).

New Hampshire

Pennsylvania

Marlborough: A parade of citizens, clergy, and military “preceded by martial music” to the meeting house where the exercises were introduced with music, followed by a prayer. “When our ears had again received the harmonious sounds of the united efforts of the voice and flute, in chanting a Federal Ode,” an oration followed. “Mr. Paine’s ‘Rise Columbia’ was then handsomely performed which concluded the ceremonies” (“From Marlborough,” New-Hampshire Sentinel, 12 July 1800, 3).

Philadelphia: The U.S. Marine Band,119 overseen by Col. Burrows, provided music for the Society of the Cincinnati celebration held at the City Tavern and is the first performance by this band on the Fourth of July. The “animating notes of martial music by the band” accompanied the toasts presented (Aurora General Advertiser, 7 July 1800, 2; Universal Gazette, 10 July 1800, 1); the Republican Greens met “at the middle Ferry, Schuylkill” and during the toasts “a volunteer song” with the “subject the tr[?] dhery of Arnold” was sung (Universal Gazette, 10 July 1800, 1).

New Jersey Newark: The order of exercises at the Presbyterian Church: Anthem. Prayer. Ode. Declaration. Hymn. Oration. Ode. Prayer. [“Fourth of July,” Centinel of Freedom, 2 July 1799, 3].

Woodbridge: “at 10 o’clock A.M. the republican citizens met at the house of Mr. John Manning; at 1, a song well adapted to the occasion was sung; at 2,

Rhode Island Warren: “The inhabitants of this town, inspired with the spirit of ’76, assembled at the Spread Eagle Tavern, where they participated in a rich repast ... drank a federal round of toasts, and sung a number of patriotic songs, under the shadow of the American flag” (Providence Journal, and Town and Country Advertiser, 9 July 1800, 3).

South Carolina Charleston: A gathering of the Society of the Cincinnati and the Revolution Society at St. Philip’s Church heard “several elegant pieces of music performed on the organ” (“Fourth of July,” City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1800, 3).

37 Virginia Norfolk: At Borough Tavern, citizens and military officers gathered and heard “a variety of toasts and songs well suited to the occasion” (New Hampshire Gazette, 22 July 1800, 3).

1801 This year marks the first Fourth of July musical performance at the White House. This occasion quickly established a tradition that was to continue through several presidencies. In a letter Margaret Bayard Smith wrote in July 1801, regarding the Fourth of July in Washington and at the Executive Mansion, “the city was thronged with visitors from George Town, Alexandria and the surrounding country. They were national festivals, on which the doors of the Presidential mansion were thrown open for persons of all classes, where abundance of refreshments were provided for their entertainment.” When the mayor of Washington approached Jefferson regarding celebrating the president’s birthday “with proper respect,” Smith wrote that Jefferson said, “‘The only birthday I ever commemorate,’ replied he, ‘is that of our Independence, the Fourth of July.’ During his administration it was in truth a gala-day in our city. The well uniformed and well appointed militia of the district, the Marine-Corps and often other military companies, paraded through the avenues and formed on the open space in front of the President’s House, their gay appearance and martial musick, enlivening the scene, exhilarating the spirits of the throngs of people who poured in from the country and adjacent towns.”120

Publications “Columbia. Composed for the 4th of July. The words by a member of the Washington Literary Society. The music by Mr. U.K. Hill.”121 “First line: “Columbians raise your cheerful songs.” For 4 voices. The American Musical Magazine (Northampton, 1801), 40–41. “The following Song, was composed by a gentleman of Great Barrington, in Massachusetts, and sung on the Anniversary of Independence, July 4th. ‘The Ship Constitution.’ Tune, ‘Bill Bobstay.’”122 First line: “Up anchor-clear decks, boys, and each to his station” (Courier, 19 August 1801, 4). The 4th of July. A Grand Military Sonata for the Piano Forte. Composed in Commemoration of that Gorious Day and Dedicated to Mdlle Sansay.123 By James Hewitt. New York: J. Hewitt’s Musical Repository, [1801]. “Lines intended to be sung on the ensuing anniversary: composed for the occasion — by a citizen of Orange.” First line: “Freedom hail! fair child of Heaven!” (“Poetic Recess,” Centinel of Freedom, 30 June 1801, 4).

1801 “The Newport Republican Hymn, for July 4th, 1801.” First line: “Hark! notes melodious fill the skies” (Guardian of Liberty, 11 July 1801, 4). “Ode addressed to the Society of Cincinnati; sung at Trinity-Church, Newport, 4th July, 1801. Tune — ‘God Save Great Washington!’” First line: “Hark! Freedom’s silver horn” (Newport Mercury, 7 July 1801, 4; Columbian Centinel, 11 July 1801, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July. Tune, ‘Rule Britannia.’” First line: “Shades of Columbia’s patr’ot band” (Columbian Courier, 19 June 1801, 4). “Ode, written on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Muse of Freedom snatch thy lyre.” (“Selected Poetry,” Constitutional Telegraphe, 18 July 1801, 4.) “The Rush Light. Sung at a meeting of Irish aliens on the 4th July.” First line: “When Britain’s tame degenerate sons” (“For the American Citizen,” American Citizen and General Advertiser, 16 July 1801, 3). “Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “While fierce Bellons rages wild” (Weekly Museum, 4 July 1801). “A Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Ye sons of sensibility” (Political Repository, 7 July 1801, 4). “‘Song for the Fourth of July.’ From the Wilmington Mirror. Tune —‘Jefferson and Liberty.’”124 “By Dr. Moses Younglove, of Lebanon Springs.” First line: “Fair Independence wakes the song” (American Citizen and General Advertiser, 1 July 1801, 2; Constitutional Telegraphe, 4 July 1801, 4; Vermont Gazette, 6 July 1801, 4; “Divertisem*nt,” Bee, 12 August 1801, 4).

Performances Connecticut Killingworth: Citizens celebrated on July 6 with a parade from the residence of Col. George Morgan to the meeting house “escorted by the artillery company under the command of Capt. Noah Lester, with a band of music.” The exercises included vocal and instrumental music, with performances of “Jefferson and Liberty” and “Washington’s March” (The Bee, 15 July 1801, 2). Norwich: “The rising sun was saluted with the ringing of bells, and the music of the fife and drum” (Courier, 8 July 1801, 3). Stafford: At Hyde’s Inn, citizens celebrated the Fourth on August 13, in order to “provide for his own house” and “not being at leisure on the 4th of July.” The song “Jefferson and Liberty” was sung at the event (“Better Late than Never,” American Mercury, 27 August 1801, 3).

District of Columbia A “Song” (first line: “Hail Columbia! happy land”)125 sung by “Capt. Tingey”126 and “composed for the occasion by Mr. Law,” after a toast to “The Day, and those who value it,” at a dinner celebration for heads of departments, military officers, and foreign officials (National Intelligencer, 6 July 1801, 2; Columbian Centinel, 18 July 1801, 4; Oracle of Dauphin

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1802 and Harrisburgh Advertiser, 27 July 1801, 4; Norwich Courier, 29 July 1801, 1; New Hampshire Gazette, 11 August 1801, 4); U.S. Marine Band127 gave first performance at the Executive Mansion in Washington, D.C. for Thomas Jefferson and guests at a reception there. “The band of music played with great precision and with aspiring animation the Presidents March. ... The band at intervals during the morning, played martial and patriotic airs.... During the dinner, and until the company separated, a full band of music ... played patriotic and festive airs” (National Intelligencer, 6 July 1801, 2; Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 10 July 1801, 2; New-Hampshire Sentinel, 25 July 1801, 2).

Maine Gorham: “A number of gentlemen met at Mr. Staple’s Tavern, and formed a procession to the Meeting-House where an oration was delivered by Mr. John P. Little, adapted to the occasion — the same being accompanied by vocal and instrumental music, consisting of an Ode on Independence, Adams and Liberty, &c.” (“Celebration of Independence at Gorham,” Jenks’ Portland Gazette, 13 July 1801, 3).

Massachusetts Dighton: At the meeting house, included among the exercises: “a choir of vocal and instrumental music, consisting of gentlemen and ladies belonging to the town and vicinity, added very much to the harmony of the day” (“At Dighton,” Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser, 6 July 1801, 1). Marblehead: Billings’ “Chester” was sung “in Billing’s own verses” according to the Rev. William Bentley. “This was as appropriate as the Marseilles Hymn or the French Ca Ira,” he wrote (The Diary of William Bentley ... 5 July 1801, II:378).128

New York New York: The Mechanic, Cooper’s and Tammany societies assembled on Broadway, marched to the Battery and then “through the principal streets in the city, to the brick meeting house, where the following Ode, composed by Mr. Low, was sung, accompanied with appropriate instrumental music.” First line: “O’er the corn-cover’d fields, and each forest-crown’d height.” One newspaper reported the location as the “New Brick Presbyterian Church” (New-York Gazette, 2 July 1801, 3; “Celebration,” American Citizen and General Advertiser, 6 July 1801, 2; Weekly Museum, 18 July 1801); the Franklin Typographical Association met at the house of Philip Becanon where the exercises and an “elegant entertainment” included toasts “interspersed with convivial and patriotic songs” (Gazette of the United States, 9 July 1801, 2; Salem Gazette, 14 July 1801, 2); a set of toasts presented in New York with the following music was printed in a newspaper in Newburyport, MA: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — The Death of the Mammoth — Paddy Whack—Britains Strike Home!—Jefferson’s March—

Great A___Little A___ron [sic]— Rogue’s March (American Intelligencer and General Advertiser, 16 July 1801, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: Stoney Point129— America, Commerce and Freedom130— Ca-Ira — Carmagnole — Handel’s Pastoral Symphony — Hymn to Peace — Jefferson’s March131 (played twice)— Marseilles Hymn — Ou Puet [sic] on etre Mieux, qu’ au Sein de sa Famille132—The People’s March133—Social Power— Soft Music by Mr. Carr — Washington’s Solemn Dirge — Yankee Doodle,134 performed by a “band of music” at Francis’s Hotel with Governor Thomas McKean present (National Intelligencer, 10 July 1801, 4). York: Reported in a Portsmouth, New Hampshire, newspaper: “The following appropriate toasts were given some time past in York, Pennsylvania, at a meeting of the Mechanic Society, and followed respectively by Yankee Doodle, Stony-Point, Washington’s March, and other American tunes. In so interior a part of our country, ‘Carmagnole, Marsailloise, Ca Ira, Go to the Devil, and Shake Yourself,’ are not known. The mechanics of York, it seems, are not Frenchmen, but Americans, without French hotels, French cooks, French airs, or any thing a la Francoise” (New Hampshire Gazette, 21 July 1801, 3).

North Carolina Hillsborough: “The morning was ushered in by the firing of cannon at day break. At 12 o’clock another salute being fired as a signal, the men of the town collected together at the market house, and thence walked in procession, accompanied with the drum and fife, round one of the squares to the court house, where a handsome oration suited to the day, was pronounced by Mr. A.D. Murphy, before a numerous audience of both sexes” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 24 July 1801, 3).

French Guiana Cayenne: In addition to federal salutes and flag raisings, there was a dinner for Americans at the Government House replete with toasts and music: air, Veillons au salut de l’empire — air La victoire ên chantant — Sol mi Music — Celebrons le hon ménage — Le Vengeur — Valeureun Francais-Lodoisha (New-York Gazette and General Advertiser, 11 August 1801, 3; Constitutional Telegraphe, 22 August 1801, 4; Vermont Gazette, 24 August 1801, 3).

1802 Publications “The following song from the pen of Mitchell Sewall, Esq. of poetic fame, was lately sung at Portsmouth. Washington Hall. An Ode for the cele-

39 bration of the 4th of July, 1802. Tune — Adams and Liberty.” First line: “Ye vot’ries of freedom! dire anarchy’s foes!” Several newspapers cite the author as Jonathan M. Sewall (United States Oracle and Portsmouth Advertiser, 10 July 1802, 3; New-York Evening Post, 13 July 1802, 2; New-York Herald, 17 July 1802, 4; Republican, or Anti-Democrat, 19 July 1802, 4; Newport Mercury, 20 July 1802, 4; New Hampshire Sentinel, 24 July 1802, 4; Edes’ Kennebec Gazette, 30 July 1802, 4). “A national song in commemoration of American Independence. Tune — Rise Cynthia.”135 Signed “Americus.” First line: “Rise Columbians Rise” (“Poetry,” Merrimack Intelligencer, 2 July 1802, 4). “New Jefferson and Liberty. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.” First line: “Brave sons of Columbia! salute the blest day” (American Mercury, 5 August 1802, 4). “A New Ode.136 Sung by Mr. Eaton at the Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence, Boston, July 4th 1802. Written for the occasion by Amyntas.” [First line: “See the bright-hair’d golden sun lead Columbia’s birthday on.”] Printed with the consent of the Author by Mallet & Graupner, Conservatorio. [1802]. Copies in Harvard and Brown Universities. This ode was “sung at the Old-South Meeting House on Monday last” and is printed in “Native Poetry,” New-England Palladium, 9 July 1802, 1; “National Birth-Day,” Independent Chronicle, 12 July 1802, 2. “An Ode for the Fourth of July, 1802, sung at Kennebunk [Maine].” First line: “In ages long past when Columbia’s plains” (United States Oracle and Portsmouth Advertiser, 17 July 1802, 3; “The Muses’ Apartment,” Kennebec Gazette, 20 August 1802, 4). Ode for the twenty-seventh anniversary of American independence, July 4th, 1802. Sung in Caldwell Church, New Jersey.” First line: “We hail once more the annual morn” (American Citizen and General Advertiser, 27 July 1802, 2). “Odes, Composed to be Sung on the Anniversary of American Independence, at Plympton [Mass.], July 5, 1802.” Providence: Printed by J. Carter, [1802]. Ode I: “To Independence” (first line: “Hail independence, hail!”); Ode II: “The Triumph of Liberty” (first line: “When ign’rance, wild, with lust and pride.” “Song Sung on the 4th of July.137 Tune —‘Jefferson & Liberty.’” First line: “Fair Independence wakes the song” (American Mercury, 22 July 1802, 2; American Citizen and General Advertiser, 28 July 1802, 2).

Performances

1802 Granby: Men and women from Suffield, Windsor, and Simsbury, and military totaling some 400 persons paraded with a band of music to the meeting house. “Odes appropriate were sung” and later at the green in front of Capt. Joel Clark’s house, “several pleasing airs were performed on the band — and odes suitable to the occasion were sung under the tree of liberty, by a select choir” (American Mercury, 29 July 1802, 3). Hartford: Denmark—Felton’s Gavot138—Guardian Angels — Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Lass of Richmond Hill — New York Fusileers — Orn’s March — Rural Felicity — Smith’s Minuet — Soldier’s Joy — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle, by a band at City Hall with 300 persons present (American Mercury, 8 July 1802, 3). Killingworth: Citizens celebration on July 6 began at the house of Mrs. Mehitable Crane, where a procession was formed and marched to the meeting house, “with the tune of ‘Jefferson’s March’ played by a respectable band of musicians.” The public exercises began with singing and after “the message of our illustrious president Thomas Jefferson, at the commencement of the last session of Congress” was read, “the tune of ‘Jefferson and Liberty’ was then played by the band.” There was additional singing and the exercises closed with a performance of “Washington’s March.” Afterwards, “the precession then formed in the same order as before, and marched with the tune of ‘Jefferson and Liberty’” to the Academy where dinner and toasts took place. The following pieces of music were performed: Columbus — Jefferson’s March — Jefferson and Liberty — Mount Vernon139— Washington’s Farewel [l]— Liberty — St. John’s — Roslin Castle — Orphan Boy140— Yankee Doodle — Matross — Mol o’ the Wad — Green’s March — St. Albans — Lass of Richmond Hill141— Washington’s March (American Mercury, 22 July 1802, 3).

District of Columbia At a dinner celebration, attended by members of Congress, the President’s cabinet, and other distinguished individuals, toasts were given with a “discharge of from 1 to 16 guns, and by a patriotic air, played by Col. Burrow’s Band [U.S. Marine Band], interspersed with songs” at the Navy Yard (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1802, 3; Aurora General Adevertiser, 10 July 1802, 3; “National Birth Day,” The Independent Chronicle, 15 July 1802, 2).

Maryland Connecticut

Bristol: The celebration occurred on July 5 and began with a procession to the meeting house. The exercises included an “ode intitled the Death of Washington, and rise of Jefferson, set to music” that was sung. Later at a dinner prepared by Mrs. Newell, toasts were drank “accompanied by appropriate music by the band” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 22 July 1802, 3).

Baltimore: At Stewart’s Inn at Fell’s Point, a “respectable meeting of republicans and others assembled” and drank toasts accompanied by the following music: Hail Columbia—Washington’s March—Dead March—Jefferson’s March—White co*ckade—Stony Point — Yankee Doodle — Billy’s Undone by the War — America, Commerce and Freedom — Money in Every Pocket — Jack’s Morning Blush — New Convention — New Congress — Erin Go Bragh (Democ-

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1802 ratic Republican and Commercial Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1802, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: On July 5 the exercises included the singing of an Ode “on the occasion, written at Cambridge, and sung by Mr. Eaton, was peculiarly appropriate, and expressive of the harmony of the day” (“Independence,” Boston Gazette, 8 July 1802, 2). See Publications above. Marblehead: At the meeting house of the second parish, “excellent music there filled the soul with rapture.” A repast for 170 guests at the town hall “was abundantly exhibited in numerous toasts and songs, patriotic and convivial” (Salem Register, 8 July 1802, 2). Salem: The Salem Artillery and Salem Cadets paraded through the streets. The officers “were escorted by the non-commissioned officers, accompanied by the regimental music” to Frye’s Tavern to dine. “The Trojan Band142 also honored the day, by marching thro’ the streets, conducted by their preceptor” (“Birth Day of the United States,” Salem Register, 8 July 1802, 2).

Mississippi Natchez: “On Monday, the 5th instant, the inhabitants of Natchez and its vicinity, assembled at the house of Mr. James Moore, where an oration was delivered by William Murray, Esquire, to a crouded [sic] audience of gentlemen and ladies. After which, the following song, composed by the orator, and accompanied with music was sung: Tune, ‘President’s March.’” First line: “Behold! again, Heav’n’s glorious ray” (South-Carolina State Gazette and Timothy’s Daily Adviser, 15 September 1802, 2).

song, music, and cheers, to each toast”: President’s March, song Hail Columbia — music, How Imperfect is Expression144— music, Adams and Liberty — music German Air — music, French King’s March — music, Success to the Farmer—music, How Imperfect is Expression — music, York Fusilier — music, Cold Stream March — music, Rule America — music, Washington’s March — music, Duke of Holstein’s March—music, Greene’s March145—music, Rural Felicity — How Imperfect is Expression (“Independence,” Otsego Herald, 8 July 1802, 2). New York: “The Officers of the Brigade of Military and Regiment of Artillery, met at the City Hotel to celebrate” with a dinner and toasts with the following music: Music, Yankee Doodle, Music, Roslin Castle,146 Music, Presidents March — Music — Music, the General — Music, Hail Columbia — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music — Music — Music — Music, Marsellois Hymn — Music — Music, Dirge — Music, God of Love (Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1802, 3); on July 5 at Vauxhall Garden, a ceremony honoring the heroes of the American Revolution included performances of “Washington’s March” and “Hail Columbia” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” New York Gazette and General Advertiser, 1 July 1802, 3). Rockland County: “On the 3d instant (the 4th falling on Sunday) a very numerous and respectable company met at the house of Mr. Smith, at New City, in Clark’s Town.” The assemblage marched to the Court House for the exercises. “The exercises of the morning were interspersed and enlivened by vocal music, and concluded with a patriotic Ode composed for the day by a lady of Rockland County, and sung by the scholars of Mr. Cole” (“Communication,” American Citizen and General Advertiser, 10 July 1802, 2).

New Hampshire

Pennsylvania

Portsmouth: “On Monday the 5th instant a large company of Gentlemen dined at Jefferson Hall. ... the following Song, composed for the occasion, by John Wentworth, Esq (late Attorney General for his Britannic majesty, for Prince Edward County, Nova-Scotia) was sung and repeated”: first line, “All hail to the day that bids us display”; “a number of respectable citizens dined at Jefferson Hall — after a few toasts, the company demanded a song — John Wentworth, Esq. being distinguished, by a call — he sang derry down, down, hey derry, down ‘one and all’” (United States Oracle and Portsmouth Advertiser143, 10 July 1802, 3; “The Muses’ Apartment,” Edes’ Kennebec Gazette, 30 July 1802, 4); at Piscataqua Bridge, Federalists assembled for an entertainment with toasts. “Adams and Liberty, Hail Columbia, and a number of other patriotic songs were sung, after the song of the day” (“Independence,” The Olio, 29 July 1802, 35).

Philadelphia: On July 5, a “Pantomimical Sketch” titled Federal Oath; or, the Independence of 1776147 is premiered, preceded by a performance of Jefferson’s March by Alexander Reinagle, and ending with A National Invocation and Chorus, music by “Mr. [Benjamin] Carr” (Philadelphia Gazette & Daily Advertiser, 3 July 1802, 2; Aurora General Advertiser, 5 July 1802, 3).

New York Cooperstown: The celebration of toasts at William Stevens’ House included “a volley of small arms, a

Vermont Middlebury: Citizens of the town, including fifty students of Middlebury College, attended the exercises at the Court House where “the audience were highly entertained with some excellent pieces of music, previously selected. The song Adams and Liberty, particularly, was received with much applause.” Later at a “green bower,” the group enjoyed dinner with toasts “accompanied with discharges of musketry, and with martial music” (“Celebration of American Independence,” Middlebury Mercury, 7 July 1802, 3). Shoreham: A procession of military companies and citizens included “martial music” and a group of

41 marching singers made their way to the meeting house where the exercises began with “sacred music” and “appropriate music” after the oration (“Celebration at Shoreham,” Middlebury Mercury, 11 August 1802, 2). Windsor: Republicans met at Mr. Smeed’s Inn and paraded to the meeting house “on entering which, the following lines were sung by a choir of singers who had previously assembled for that purpose” (first line: “The morning sun shines from the east”). “Divine service commenced by singing one of Watt’s psalms.... Previous to leaving the meeting house the following sentimental song was sung by the singers” (first line: “Ye vot’ries of freedom, who firmly oppos’d”). ( Spooners Vermont Journal, 6 July 1802, 3.)

1803 Publications “Fourth of July.148 Tune—Derry-Down.” First line: “America’s birth-day bids freemen arise” (Hornet, 5 July 1803, 3). The Glory of Columbia: Her Yeomanry, a Play in Five Acts: the Songs, Duets, and Chorusses, Intended for the Celebration of the Fourth of July at the New-York Theatre. By William Dunlap. New York: Printed and published by D. Longworth at the Shakespeare-Gallery, 1803. “A hymn for the Fourth of July, 1803, by Jacob Fisher”149 and “An ode for the Fourth of July, 1803, by S. Sewall” in Samuel Emerson, An Oration on the Independence of America: Pronounced at Kennebunk, July 4th, 1803 (Kennebunk, Maine: Printed by S. Sewall, 1803), 11–13. “An ode for the Fourth of July 1803.” First line: “Hail thou auspicious day” (Newburyport Herald, 5 July 1803, 3). “Ode. Sung at the Republican Festival in Boston, on the 4th of July 1803. First. Tune —‘President’s March.’” First line “Not two ages yet have fled.” Second. Tune —‘He Comes! He comes!’ First line: “Behold! Behold! with generous hand” (Gazetteer, 6 July 1803, 3; “Poetry,” Providence Phoenix, 30 July 1803, 4; William McCarty, The New National Song Book, Containing Songs, Odes, and Other Poems, on National Subjects. Compiled from Various Sources [NY: Leavitt and Allen, 184–?]). “Ode to Jefferson. Paraphrased from’The Dauphin.’ For the 4th of July, 1803.” First line: “Ye free-born Whigs attend” (From the Bee, as published in Merrimack Gazette, 2 July 1803, 3; Hornet, 5 July 1803, 3). “(The following Odes, composed for, and sung at Lee, (Mass.) on the late anniversary of our Independence, are inserted by request.). Ode I.” First line: “Welcome once more the era bright.” “Ode II.” First line: “Wake to song the cheerful air.” “Ode III. (Tune Newburgh.).” First line “Ye sons of freedom join” (“The Wreath,” Balance, and Columbian Repository, 19 July 1803, 232).

1803 “New Song sung at the celebration of the 4th of July, at Saratoga and Waterford, N.Y. By William Foster.”150 First line: “Brave sons of Columbia, your triumph behold” (The American Republican Harmonist: or, a Collection of Songs and Odes (Philadelphia: William Duane, 1803, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Americans! welcome, and hail the blest day” (Weekly Museum, 2 July 1803; Independent Chronicle, 11 July 1803, 4). “Ode to the Fourth of July, 1803 by Walter Townsend ; set to music by Dr. Jackson.”151 First line: “Once more has the morn op’d the portals of light.” Broadside. [New York]: John C. Totten, [1803]. “Ode to the Fourth of July (written by a young gentleman of Castleton).” First line: “All hail, glad day, July the Fourth” (Vermont Mercury, 4 July 1803, 3). “Odes prepared and sung at Newark on the Fourth of July, 1803.” First lines: “We hail once more the annual morn”; “In Britain’s Isle, when freedom’s name” (“Poetic Recess,” Centinel of Freedom, 6 July 1803, 4). “Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “All hail Columbia’s natal day!” (“For the Morning Chronicle,” Morning Chronicle, 4 July 1803, 3). “Song, for the Fourth of July, 1803: Blessings of Fredon, (U.S.).” First line: “Come, celebrate your happy state.” Broadside. [New York]: G & R. Waite, 1803. Copy in Brown University. “Song [for the Fourth of July, 1803].”152 First line: “In years which are past, when America fought” (The American Republican Harmonist: or, a Collection of Songs and Odes (Philadelphia: William Duane, 1803, 105).

Performances Connecticut Berlin: A procession to the meeting house included a band of music. Later at Mr. Loveland’s Assembly Room where a dinner was prepared, “toasts were drank to accompanied by music and a discharge of cannon” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 11 August 1803, 2). Granby: At noon “430 ladies and gentlemen” formed a procession, “preceded by a band and martial music” and local militia and marched to the meeting house where among the exercises, “odes were sung appropriate to the occasion.” Later at “an elegant bower situated on a beautiful green fronting the house of Capt. Joel Clark” the assemblage heard an address and “the most harmonious vocal music, attuned to the patriotic song of ‘Jefferson and Liberty’ shot forth a scene so gay and brilliant that caused every heart to beat high with a sense of national independence” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 28 July 1803, 2). New London: At a Republicans’ dinner held at Fox’s Tavern, the following music was interspersed with the toasts: Music, Boston March—Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Song, Well Met Fellow

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1803 Freemen153—Jefferson’s March—Dead March—West Point — Rural Felicity — Dauphin, a Song (American Mercury, 21 July 1803, 2; American Citizen, 26 July 1803, 3; “Newburgh, July 13,” Republican WatchTower, 27 July 1803, 1). Suffield: The “Republican citizens” celebrated with a procession, “preceded by a band and other martial music,” from Col. Kent’s to the East Meeting House where the exercises were held (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 4 August 1803, 3).

District of Columbia At Stelle’s Hotel, U.S. Marine Band accompanied the toasts presented with the following music: Jefferson’s March—Washington’s March—Roslin Castle— Yankee Doodle. Also, sung at Stelle’s was an “Impromtu” by “Mr. Minifir”: “This Day We Find Munroe’s Success,”154 to the tune “Yankee Doodle”: first line, “This day we find Munroe’s success”— Washington’s March (National Intelligencer, 6 July 1803; Republican Star or General Advertiser, 12 July 1803, 3); a “Neopolitan” band155 of music performed for Thomas Jefferson at the Executive Mansion (National Intelligencer, 6 and 15 July 1803, 3 and 3, respectively).

Maine Kennebunk: At a celebration held by 100 Republican citizens at Mr. Barnard’s Hall, the exercises included “an appropriate hymn.” Dinner, toasts, with the following music followed: Air Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Jove in His Chair — Jefferson’s March — God Save Great Jefferson — Roslin Castle — Hymn — Madison’s March — New Administration — Rural Felicity — Count Rochambeau’s March — Caira — Governor Strong’s March — New Pump-Room156— President Jefferson — Mason’s Favorite (The Gazetteer, 23 July 1803, 3). See Publications above. Readfield: Following a procession, “preceded by music, under the direction of Lieut. Simmons, martial for the day,” the exercises at the Methodist Meeting House “began with music prepared for the occasion ... and the ceremonies at the Meeting House closed with instrumental and vocal music” (“Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence at Readfield, on the 4th Inst.,” Kennebec Gazette, 21 July 1803, 1). Waterville: At Capt. Bacon’s Hotel, an “elegant entertainment” included: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Farmer’s Song — Yankee Doodle — How Beauteous Are Their Feet — The Mason’s Daughter (“Fourth of July, from Waterville,” Kennebec Gazette, 14 July 1803, 2 and 4).

Maryland Baltimore: At Fells Point, “a large company, composed principally of gentlemen of Fells’ Point, dined at Peck’s Hotel.” The toasts included the following

music: America, Commerce and Freedom — Stoney Point — President’s March — Rogue’s March157— Union of Parties — Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle158— Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — White co*ckade159— Heave the Lead (Baltimore Patriot, 12 July 1803, 3; Hornet, 19 July 1803, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Theatre on Federal Street, “the popular play of the Point of Honor, or, A School for Soldiers” (Independent Chronicle, 4 July 1803, 3). Newburyport: At a Republican celebration at “Mr. Moses Davenport’s ... toasts (interspersed with a number of excellent songs) were drank.” Another newspaper reported that “the day was puffed with great conviviality, & a glow of rapture expressed at the chorus of each song, that echoed the name of him, who is, his country’s boast and pride, the friend of science, and advocate of man” (“American Independence,” Merrimack Gazette, 9 July 1803, 3; “July Fourth,” Salem Register, 11 July 1803, 2); the Newburyport Regiment and Washington Light Infantry marched to the hill above High Street for “a sumptuous dinner,” with toasts and music: Tune, President’s March — Tune, Washington’s March — Tune, Yankee Doodle — Solemn Dirge (Newburyport Herald, 5 July 1803, 3). Pittsfield: “At 12 o’clock at noon, a numerous and respectable procession was formed, which, preceded by a band of music, and escorted by the Cavalry, Artillery, and Infantry Companies moved to the Meeting House” (“National Jubilee,” Sun, 11 July 1803, 3).

New Hampshire Greenfield: After the raising of a liberty pole and a procession to the meeting house, the exercises included “appropriate” music (“Celebration of the 4th July at Greenfield,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 21 July 1803, 3). Nashua: After the exercises, “the assembly moved in procession under a military escort, preceded by a band of music, to behold the novel sight of a launch from the banks of the Nashua, a little above its confluence with the Merrimac. This was a fine flat bottomed vessel of forty tons” and represented “the first attempt at navigation on this stream. She is appropriately called The Nashua.” About 100 individuals, including a band of music, were invited aboard and all were “gratified with a sail down the river” (“Independence,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 7 July 1803, 4).

New Jersey Chester: “About seven hundred citizens of this vicinity met at this place” and paraded to the church where the exercises took place. After the oration was presented, “several hymns were sung” (The Centinel of Freedom, 26 July 1803, 2). Elizabethtown: The Society of the Cincinnati and others marched to the Presbyterian Church for the following exercises:

43 1. A hymn of praise to God for our national deliverance. 2. Prayer. 3. Ode for the day. 4. Reading the Declaration of Independence by General Cummings. 5. Oration by Dr. Ebenezer Elmer. 6. Ode to the memory of Gen. Washington. 7. Oration by Mr. George Williamson. 8. Ode for the day. [“Fourth of July,” New Jersey Journal, 12 July 1803, 3].

Lansingburgh: Capt. Lansing’s military company “joined a general procession” to the brick church taking a circuitous rout [sic] through the principal streets in this village.” The exercises began with “a hymn, selected for the occasion,” and another “appropriate hymn” after a reading of the Declaration of Independence (Farmers’ Register, 12 July 1803, 2). Newton: “A number of Republicans convened at the house of Mr. Isaac Basset, for the purpose of taking a social dinner and paying a suitable respect to the day which gave birth to our beloved Country.” Following dinner, “toasts were drank interspersed with a variety of patriot songs” (“Republican Festivity,” Centinel of Freedom, 26 July 1803, 2). Scotch Plains: A procession from Col. Swan’s to the meeting house included choristers and martial music. At the flagstaff, “there the drum & fife gave place to the vocal harmony of an ode suited to the occasion.” At the church, three odes were sung, including these two: “Begin the grateful song” (first line) to the tune “Scotch Plains”; “To-day let every heart rejoice” under the title “Liberty” to the tune “Lavonia” (“Scotch Plains, July 5, 1803” and “Poetic Recess,” Centinel of Freedom, 12 and 19 July 1803, 3 and 4, respectively; New Jersey Journal, 12 July 1803, 2).

New York New York: A “Band of Instrumental Music” in the procession that was nearly a mile long and marched through the city streets to the New Dutch Church. The exercises there included an “Anthem, under the direction of Capt. Christopher Prince, by a select number of volunteer vocal performers; words by Washington McKnight160— set to music by S. Freeman,” a “voluntary by the band” as a collection was taken; an “Ode, composed by Mrs. Jackson — Set to music by Dr. G.K. Jackson,161 by Volunteer Vocal and Instrumental performers, under the direction of an Amateur”; another “Ode, composed by Walter Townsend — set to Music by Dr. Jackson, by Volunteer Vocal and instrumental performers, also under the direction of an Amateur (first line: “Once more has the morn op’d the portals of light”); “Stanzas — by Mrs. Jackson (set to music by Dr. Jackson)” (first line: “When generous Freedom leaves her downy bed”).162 Another newspaper reported that “the vocal and instrumental performances were of the most exquisite kind. The audience, which was a most crowded one,

1803 were highly gratified” (“Fourth of July,” Evening Post, 2 July 1803, 3. see Publications above; American Citizen, 6 July 1803, 2; New York Herald, 6 July 1803, 2; National Intelligencer, 15 July 1803, 3;); at the Theatre, in commemoration of the glorious day, which gave existence to our country as a nation, will be performed (for the first time) a play in five acts, written for the occasion, interspersed with songs, duets and choruses, called The Glory of Columbia, Her Yeomanry. Music by M. Pellisier163.... After the play, will be sung by Mr. Shapter, and others of the company, an Ode, composed for the day, by Mrs. Jackson, of this city. The music composed by Dr. G.K. Jackson.

See Publications above (Morning Chronicle, 29 June 1803, 2; Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1803, 2); at the Mount Vernon Theatre, in honor of the day: The entertainments to commence with “A Monody” in memory for those illustrious chiefs who have fallen in the service of America, including “An Eulogium on the Character of Washington,” by Mr. Hallam. A favorite song, “Jemmy of the Glen,”164 Mrs. Seymour. A new song —“True Courage,” Mr. Turnbull. “A Comic Mirror,” in which will be delineated the following characters: the Cit, John Trott, the Surly Squire, the Jolly Toper, the Honest Peasant, the Wandering Tar, and the WarWorn Soldier, to conclude with “An Eulogium on Women,” by Mrs. Hallam. In the course of the evening, Mr. Hallam will recite the humorous story of Hippesley’s Drunken Man. The song of “The Bonny Bold Soldier,”165 Mrs. Seymour. A new patriotic song, called “The Health of Our Sachem, and Long May He Live,”166 by Mr. Turnbul.”

The evening concluded with fireworks. (Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1803, 3.); Republican Greens had an entertainment at the Union Hotel that included toasts with the accompanying music: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Dead March — Farewell to Ireland — President’s March — Yankee Doodle — music, Peace and Plenty — Grand music — Steddiford’s March — Green’s Quick Step — Independent Quick Step — Rogues March — Erin go Bragh — Haste to the Wedding (Republican Watch-Tower, 9 July 1803, 2). Newburgh: The Youths of Newburgh met at Mr. Case’s Hotel and drank toasts “accompanied with patriotic songs” (Republican Watch-Tower, 27 July 1803, 1). Salem: This town, located in Washington County, had a procession and after exercises at the Presbyterian Meeting House, the “citizens of Salem and the towns in its vicinity” had dinner at the house of Mr. Pennel where “toasts were drank with an appropriate number of cheers and interspersed with animating and patriotic songs” (Farmers’ Register, 12 July 1803, 2).

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1804 Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At a dinner celebration held by the Light Infantry Company at Lombardy Gardens: America, Commerce and Freedom — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle (National Intelligencer, 13 July 1803, 3); a dinner celebration by the Philadelphia Rifle Rangers “in the gardens back of the Pennsylvania Hospital” included the singing of the following “Song” to the tune “How Blest a Life a Sailor Leads”167: first line, “Of all the changing scenes of life” (American Citizen, 14 July 1803, 3).

Rhode Island Dighton: “The inhabitants of the whole county of Bristol, agreed by a general committee, to solemnize this civic feast together.” A procession, “preceeded by a concert of instrumental music and Capt. Andrews’s Company of Horse, with other military gentlemen in uniform, moved from Mr. Deane’s tavern to the Meeting House.” During the exercises, “several well selected Psalms were sung, to give variety and solemnity to the services of the Day.” After the dinner which took place “in a neighboring field ... the musicians in concert with instruments sung with spirit and festivity ‘Jefferson’s Hymn’ a parody from the Dauphin — ‘Ye Freeborn Whigs Attend,’168 &c. They then drank to the following toasts which were accompanied with discharges of cannon and appropriate music”: Hail Columbia — Jefferson & Liberty (“American Independence: Republican Celebration at Dighton,” Providence Phoenix, 30 July 1803, 1–2).

1804 Publications “‘Independence.’ Tune ‘Liberty Tree.’169 By A.H.” First line: “Independence! a word of amazing import” (Vermont Gazette, 17 July 1804, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Oh, for a muse of fire — whose active soul” (from the Charleston Courier, as printed in Spectator, 25 July 1804, 1). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1804. By J. Woodco*ck. (Set to music by W. Pirsson.” First line: “Dark dismal night declines.” Includes, recitative, air, duet, semi-chorus, and full chorus (American Citizen, 6 July 1804, 2; Republican Watch-Tower, 7 July 1804, 2). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1804. By a brother of Tammany Society. Tune —‘President’s March.’ Accompaniments & choruses by W. Pirsson.” First line: “Welcome bright auspicious morn” (Republican Watch-Tower, 7 July 1804, 2). “An ode for the 28th anniversary of American independence, in imitating ‘Victor’s celebrated ode.’” First line: “For joy and mirth, ye sons prepare” (“Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 25 June 1804, 4; Political Calendar, 28 June 1804, 4). “Ode to Independence. Written by William

Bigelow, A.M. and Sung by Mrs. Jones’170 at St. Peter’s Church, in Salem, on Wednesday last.” First line: “When Britain gigantic, by justice unaw’d.” (Salem Gazette, 6 July 1804, 2–3; “Poesy,” Boston Gazette, 9 July 1804, 4; Massachusetts Spy, 18 July 1804, 4; Kennebec Gazette, 2 August 1804, 4). “An ode to the anniversary of American independence.” First line: “All hail! thou ever glorious morn!” (Maryland Herald and Hager’s-Town Weekly Advertiser, 4 July 1804, 3). “An ode, written by Doctor R. Clark, and sung on the 4th of July, at Whiting, Vermont. Tune —‘To Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “Hail! Sons of Columbia! the day which our sires” (Salem Register, 6 August, 1804, 3; “Poetry,” Kennebec Gazette, 16 August 1804, 4). “Patriotic Ode, composed and sung at Portsmouth, 4th July. By John Wentworth,171 Esq.” First line: “Sound, sound thy trump, eternal fame” (“Poetry,” Weekly Wanderer, 6 August 1804, 4); “Patriotic odes composed by John Wentworth, Esq. and sung at Jefferson Hall [Portsmouth].” First lines: “Sound, sound the trump, eternal fame”; “How joyful and grateful our praises.” Another untitled ode likely sung that day was printed the following week: first line, “Hail the bright day, and let nature rejoice” (Political Star, 12 and 19 July 1804, 3 and 3, respectively). A broadside was published that included both odes: “Sound, sound thy trump, eternal fame” to the tune “Let There Be Light.” Copy in American Antiquarian Society. “A patriotic ode, for July 4, 1804. Tune, Bunker’s Hill.” First line: “Sound the loud clarion to our country’s glory” (“Miscellany,” Suffolk Gazette, 2 July 1804, 4). “Song — Composed for the Anniversary of American Independence, July 4th, 1804. Tune, ‘Tom Bowling.’” First line: “This was the day — the Fourth of July” (Maryland Herald and Hager’s-Town Weekly Advertiser, 4 July 1804, 4). “Song Composed for the Anniversary of Our Independence, and Sung on the Fourth Instant, at Salem [Massachusetts].” First line: “While round the full board independent and free.” Sung in Concert Hall. (Salem Gazette, 6 July 1804, 3; Repertory 1/103 (10 July, 1804). Copy in Brown University. “Song, for the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “All hail to the day, when assembled, as one”172 (“Original Poetry,” Salem Register, 21 June 1804, 4; “Poetry,” Political Calendar, 25 June 1804, 4; “Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 2 July 1804, 4; Republican Spy, 3 July 1804, 4; Eastern Argus, 5 July 1804, 4). See Publications, 1812

Performances Connecticut New London: The exercises at the Court House included an “Ode suitable to the day.” Later a dinner was prepared for the assemblage at Frink’s Coffee House.

45 Toasts were drank “interspersed with sentimental, patriotic songs and music”: Tune, Jefferson and Liberty — Tune, President’s March — Tune, Roslin Castle — Tune, War Worn Soldier — Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, Rural Felicity — Tune, Liberty Hall — Tune, White co*ckade (Suffolk Gazette, 16 July 1804, 2). Norwich: “Martial music” in the procession and at the exercises at “Mr. Strong’s meeting house,” various music including an anthem, “Bless the Lord, O My Soul” (“Norwich, July 11th, 1804,” The Courier, 11 July 1804, 3); the “Federal Republicans” celebrated with an “uncommonly long” procession “which after moving in proper order around the Square, preceded by the Matross Company handsomely equipped, with music, &c. they proceeded to the Meeting House.” Included in the exercises was “vocal music, captivatingly performed” (“Fourth of July,” Connecticut Centinel, 10 July 1804, 3). Saybrook: At 10 A.M. a group of Republicans gathered at the meeting house for a procession, “preceded by a Company of Artillery and a Band of Music.” After the exercises dinner was followed by toasts and select pieces of music including: Tune, Liberty — Dirge — Jefferson & Liberty — St. John — Yankee Doodle — Rural Felicity (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 16 August 1804, 3). Simsbury: At 11 A.M. a procession was “accompanied by enlivening music.” At the meeting house, after the Declaration of Independence was read, a “Hymn to Peace” was sung and “the 21st psalm, entitled national blessings acknowledged, sung.” Also, “the 58th Psalm entitled a warning to magistrates, [was] sung. The first verse and the first pause of the 104th psalm, entitled the glory of god in creation and providence [was] sung.” Later at a grove near the meeting house, there were toasts “accompanied by discharges of cannon, and appropriate music from the band” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 2 August 1804, 3).

District of Columbia Many dignitaries and military units attended the reception at the Executive Mansion. “The pleasure of the company was considerably promoted by patriotic and popular airs, played at intervals by the Italian band.” Later at Stelle’s Hotel, the assemblage enjoyed dinner and heard “appropriate vocal and instrumental music” (Eastern Argus, 19 July 1804, 1).

Massachusetts Boston: The governor and other dignitaries, militia, citizens, and others paraded from the State House to Old South Church where after the oration by Thomas Danforth, there was performed “an original Ode, sung by the choir of singers, who politely attended on this occasion.” Another newspaper reported that “the military were called out by the warlike drum and shrill fife.” At Faneuil Hall, two dirges were

1804 played (The Democrat, 7 July 1804, 2; “Celebration of the Fourth of July at Boston,” Portsmouth Oracle, 7 July 1804, 3). Ludlow: “A procession of 400 persons was formed” at Mr. Sikes Tavern “and marched to the Meeting House, accompanied by a Band of Music from SouthHadley” (“Celebration at Ludlow,” Republican Spy, 17 July 1804, 2). Salem: A procession that marched from Court Street to the East Meeting House was “accompanied with an excellent band of musick.” The exercises included “several pieces of vocal and instrumental musick ... performed with much taste and judgement. Among others, was an excellent Ode written for the occasion. This is a meritorious production, and gave universal satisfaction.” Another report noted that the exercises occurred at St. Peter’s Church and that “an Ode, written by Mr. Biglow, was sung by Mrs. Jones, accompanied by the band, in that style of excellence which has rendered herself her only competitor in the art.” Later at the Concert Hall, following dinner, toasts were accompanied by the following pieces of music: Tune, Yankee Doodle—Dead March—Adams and Liberty — Galley Slave (“Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 6 July 1804, 2; “The Glorious Fourth of July,” Salem Register, 9 July 1804, 3). See Publications above. Warwick: “A procession was formed at Mr. Wilson’s Hall and escorted to the meeting house, attended with instrumental musick” (“Celebration of the 4th of July at Warwick, (Mass.),” Political Observatory, 28 July 1804, 3). West Springfield: Citizens of this town and others from Northampton and Springfield assembled for a procession that gathered at Mr. Solomon Stebbins’ at 11 A.M., “escorted by a band of music and detachment of artillery, proceeded to the New Meeting House. The exercises were introduced by singing” and “closed with the tune of Jefferson and Liberty.” Later at a dinner prepared at Stebbins’ place, toasts were accompanied “with music from the band, and patriotic songs”: Anacreon in Heaven — Jefferson and Liberty — Hail Columbia — Music — Washington’s March (Republican Spy, 10 July 1804, 3).

New Hampshire Langdon: Farmers of Langdon assembled “with their ladies about four o’clock P.M. at a place called Liberty corner.... The following lines (being composed on said day, for the occasion) were sung”: “Independence.” first line: “Hail! Victo’rous! Columbia’s sons!” (“Celebration of the 4th of July, at Langdon, Newhampshire,” Political Observatory, 14 July 1804, 3). Portsmouth: A parade by The Governor Gilman’s Blues, commanded by Capt. Larkin was later followed by dinner at Washington Hall. “The enjoyments of the day were greatly heightened by an excellent song from the pen of the celebrated author of ‘War and Washington,’— it combined the first classic elegance

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1804 with the pure spirit of Washingtonian principles, and was sung amidst the bursts of reiterated applause by Capt. Larkin173 with a judgment and taste that, at once, did justice to the poet174 and honor to himself and the company.” After dinner, toasts were accompanied with the following music: Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Knox’s March — Rise Columbia — Washington’s March [performed twice]— Speed the Plough — Hobbies — Yo Heave Ho — Boston March — Roslin Castle — Rogue’s March. Also sung as this celebration was a song “by J.M. Sewall, Esq. Tune, Hail Columbia.” First line: “Hail the day when from the yoke” (Portsmouth Oracle, 7 July 1804, 3; Political Star, 12 July 1804, 2). See Publications above. Walpole: A parade from Mr. Southard’s Hall to the meeting house included “a band of music.” The exercises opened with “an air by the band.” There were three odes “adapted to the occasion.” Back at Southard’s, food was served and toasts drunk “under the discharge of cannon, and interspersed with a variety of pleasing and animating songs” (“Walpole,” Political Observatory, 7 July 1804, 2).

New York Claverack: Federalists celebrated at the Columbian Hotel. Dinner and toasts and the following music: Song, Bunker Hill, tune, God Save &c.— New Song, tune, Mason’s Farewell, see Balance of last week175— Song, New Yankee Doodle, see this day’s Bal.176— Song, The Drum177— The Genuine Song, tune Black Slovin [sic], see Balance, no. 16178—Encore, New Yankee Doodle — Song, Tom Teugh (“Independence,” The Balance, and Columbian Repository, 10 July 1804, 222). Hudson: A procession included a band of music that marched to the Presbyterian Church where the exercises included “appropriate music.” Later at Nichols’s Hotel, toasts were offered accompanied by the following music: Fourth of July March — Washington’s and Dead March — Hail Columbia — Jefferson & Liberty — Vice-President’s March — Yankee Doodle — Rule Columbia — New York Fusileers — Boston March—Liberty Tree—Rural Felicity—Bennington March—Banks of Kentucke.179 That evening “a beautiful and excellent display of fireworks” was accompanied by music from the band (The Bee, 10 July 1804, 3). New York: The day began with a civil and military procession from the Park to the Brick Presbyterian Church where the exercises were in this order: 1. Voluntary by the band. 2. Then Declaration of Independence read by Hopkins Robinson, from the Society of Taylors. 3. Ode composed for the occasion, the music by a select company, under the direction of W. Pirsson.180 See Publications above. 4. The Oration by Major John W. Mulligan, from the military. 5. A voluntary by the band, during which a collec-

tion will be made to defray the necessary expences of the day. 6. Ode 2d, with original music by W. Pirsson181; the performance by a select company.

(American Citizen, 3 July 1804, 2; Republican WatchTower, 4 July 1804, 4; The Spectator, 4 July 1804, 3.). See Publications above; “The anniversary of American independence was celebrated on Wednesday the 4th inst. by the New-York Mercantile Society, at Mr. Tuttles in Nassau Street, by whom a handsome entertainment was provided. After dinner the following toasts were drank, interspersed with convivial and patriotic songs” (“Communication,” Morning Chronicle, 7 July 1804, 2); at Vauxhall Garden, “a band of music will perform patriotic airs during the evening” beginning at 6 P.M. (American Citizen, 3 July 1804, 2; Morning Chronicle, 3 July 1804, 3; Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1804, 3); at the Theatre, The Glory of Columbia, Her Yeomanry, “music by Mr. Pellisier” was performed (Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1804, 3). Newburgh: Music interspersed between toasts at the dinner celebration: Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Rogues March182— Belle-Isle March — Liberty — Roslin Castle — Hearts of Oak (American Citizen, 16 July 1804, 2; “Toasts Drank at Newburgh,” Republican Watch-Tower, 18 July 1804, 1).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: Rayner Taylor’s “celebrated patriotic songs” at Lombardy Gardens. (Aurora General Advertiser, 4 July 1804).183

Rhode Island Raynham: “A numerous and respectable audience heard an oration and then “partook of a plentiful repast” after which “toasts were drank accompanied by a discharge of Artillery” and the following pieces of music: Yankey Doodle — President’s March — Massachusetts March — Old Hundred184— Dirge — Rural Felicity — Col Ornes March — March in “The God of Love” (Independent Chronicle, 16 July 1804, 4).

Vermont Shaftsbury: Citizens of Bennington, Pownal, Shaftsbury “and a number of gentlemen from the neighboring towns” met at Major Burnham’s and paraded to the meeting house. The exercises of the day were introduced by solemn music, followed by a well adapted prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Blood. After prayer the choir entertained the audience by striking on a new song, to the tune of ‘Hail Columbia,’ thro’ three verses of which they had progressed, when a number of amiable little masters and misses, catched the strain at the door of the meeting house (the choir ceased their melody) and the infantile procession, with easy mien and lively voices keeping exact step to their own music, proceeded up to the head of the middle

47 aisle, where the foremost of the band displayed to the right and left, and the two couple from the rear, bearing the declaration of independence, advanced and presented it with peculiar grace, to the Hon. Judge Tyler, who had previously been appointed to read it.

After the reading of the Declaration, “the ode to independence was then sung by the choir, with engaging regularity, and captivating melody.” After the oration, “the poem, Genius of Columbia, a vision, was performed by the choir, and the procession then returned to Major Burnham’s and from thence to a table, elegantly spread in the orchard adjacent” where toasts were “accompanied by appropriate songs.” The “New Song” mentioned above was “by A.H.,” with first line: “When the sound of war was loud” (Vermont Gazette, 10 July 1804, 3). Westminster: After a procession of “patriotic citizens” from the Wales Hotel to the meeting house, the exercises included “an ode composed for the purpose by Mr. N.R. Smith” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July at Westminster, Vermont,” Political Observatory, 7 July 1804, 3).

Virginia Halifax: “Upwards of seventy gentlemen sat down to dinner at one time at the Bell Tavern occupied by Mr. Rawlins.” Toasts were drank, each followed by appropriate music and “discharge of muskets”: Music, Yanke [sic] Doodle — Music, Hail Columbia — Music, Washington’s March—Music, Roslin Castle— Music, White co*ckade — Music, Liberty for Ever — Music, Jefferson’s March — Music, The Mulberrytree—Music, The Spinning Wheel185—Music, Let Us Join Hearts and Hands — Music, Come Each Jolly Fellow &c.— Music, The Medley — Music, Come Ye Lads Who Wish to Shine — Music, The Tempest — Music, The Galley Slave186— Song, Says Plato Why Should Man be Vain187— Music, Lovely Woman, Pride of Nature. “The festival was concluded by a ball at Mr. Toot’s Tavern in the evening, at which a very large and brilliant assembly of ladies & gentlemen attended, vieing with each other mirth in and good humor” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” Enquirer, 21 July 1804, 4).

1805 Publications “The Birth-Day of Freedom, an Ode. Sung on the Fourth of July, at the Celebration of American Independence, by the Young Federal Republicans of Boston. (Written by one of the Company.) Tune — Hail Columbia.” First line: “Sons of Freedom! hail the day” (Commercial Advertiser, 12 July 1805, 2; United States Gazette, 12 July 1805; New-York Spectator, 13 July 1805, 3).

1805 “The following Ode, written for the occasion, was sung at the festival of the Young Federal Republicans, the 4th inst. ‘Ode for the Young Federal Republicans of Boston, July 4, 1805.’ Tune—‘Adams and Liberty.’” First line: “Arise! Sons of Boston! of Freedom and Truth!” (Repertory, 9 July 1805, 1; Newport Mercury, 13 July 1805, 4; Alexandria Daily Advertiser, 20 July 1805, 3.) “The following Odes were composed for the young Democratic Republicans, who celebrated our Nation’s Birth Day; and sung with great skill and effect at the Universal Church:” Ode 1st. Written by Mr. C.P. Sumner.188 [First Line: ‘Mid tears which Freedom loves to shed.’] Ode 2d. Written by Mr. Benjamin Gleason.189 [First line: ‘While the heralds of war front the annals of fame.’]. “Sung by W.W. Bass — Tune, ‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” Cited as “Ode 3d” in Democrat. Ode 3d. Written by Mr. Nathaniel H. Wright.190 [First line: Hail this happy, glorious day’].

(Democrat, 6 July 1805, 4; “Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1805, 4; “Repository of the Muses,” Republican Spy, 16 July 1805, 4; National Aegis, 17 July 1805, 4; “The Rivulet,” Sun, 20 July 1805, 4.) “A New Song for the Fourth of July. By a brother Democrat.” First line: “Come ye Democrats join, let us hail the bright day” (Evening Post, 10 July 1805, 2). “An Ode.” First line: “Hail, glorious morn! Hail, glorious morn!” (Albany Centinel, 23 July 1805, 4). “An Ode, for the anniversary of American independence — composed for the Fourth of July, 1805, and sung at the celebration of that day in Nottingham [New Hampshire]. Tune, Jefferson & Liberty.” First line: “Columbia, rise, inspire your lay” (NewHampshire Gazette, 16 July 1805, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1805. Tune —‘Rule Britannia.’” First line: “You who have known oppression’s galling chain” (Newburyport Herald, 5 July 1805, 3). “Ode inscribed to the Fourth of July, 1805.” By D.A. Leonard. First line: “Hence, laureat flattery’s lambent strain” (Independence Chronicle, 15 July 1805, 1–2; Kennebec Gazette, 24 July 1805, 4; Providence Phoenix, 3 August 1805, 4). “An Ode on the 4th of July. By J. Newhall.” First line: “Rejoice sons of freedom on this glorious day.” Words and music, voice and two instruments (From the Republican Spy, as printed in Norfolk Repository, 3 September 1805, 136). “Original. An Ode, composed for the celebration of the 4th of July, 1805.” First line: “Come heav’nly Muse, and strike the lyre” (“Poetry,” Sentinel of Freedom, 25 June 1805, 4). “Patriotic song, composed for, and sung at the Republican Festival in Portsmouth, July 4, 1805, after his excellency the governor retired.” First line: “With shouts of joy and loud acclaim” (New-Hampshire Gazette, 16 July 1805, 4).

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1805 “A Song, for the Anniversary of Independence, July 4, 1805—By S.M. Sewall, Portsmouth.” First line: “All hail the glorious day. Tune, ‘God Save the King.’” (“The union of genius and patriotism is rare and valuable, and deserves to be greeted with particular applause. For this reason the following very excellent Song merits a place in every paper in the Union, not only as a compliment to the author, but in justice to the nation.”) (“Poetry,” Haverhill Museum, 23 July 1805, 4; “Cabinet Pieces of Poesy: Patriotism and Poetry,” Post-Boy, and Vermont & New-Hampshire Federal Courier, 23 July 1805, 240; Weekly Wanderer, 29 July 1805, 4; Green Mountain Patriot, 27 August 1805, 4). “A Song, sung at the celebration of independence, in Turner, (Maine) 1804 [sic].” First line: “Americans, lift up your voice.” Eastern Argus, 28 June 1805, 3.

Performances Connecticut Granby: A parade of 500 persons and militia included a band of music. The exercises at the church included singing, following by dinner at a bower. The toasts presented included the following music: Yankee Doodle—Washington’s March—Jefferson’s March— Honest is the Best Policy — Money in Both Pockets — Devil upon Two Sticks — Britons Strike Home — Rogues March191— Revellee — White Joke — The Scales Are Even — How Are the Mighty Fallen — Oh I am Lost — Hail Columbia — Centaur — Jefferson & Liberty — Come Haste to the Wedding (American Mercury, 25 July 1805, 2.) Hartford: A large assemblage of Republicans sat down to a dinner served by Elijah Boardman. “After dinner the following toasts were drank to, under the discharge of cannon. A band of music, which attended at the entertainment, played, at the intervals between the toasts, those appropriate tunes annexed to them, with universal applause”: Tune, Hail Columbia — Yankey Doodle — Jefferson and Liberty — New-York Fusiliers — Washington’s March — Roslin Castle — Tune, Adams at [sic] Liberty — Tune, New-Haven Convention — New-England Aristocracy — Rural Felicity — No Song, No Supper — Money in Both Pockets — Truxton’s Victory — Matross March — Grenadier’s March — Soldier’s Joy — Republican March (American Mercury, 11 July 1805, 3). New London: The day began with a band of music performing music “from the top of Mason’s Hall.” A parade included “a detachment of militia, preceded by a band of music, under command of Capt. P. Beebe” that marched to the Court House for the exercises that included “singing under the conduct of Maj. J.P. Trott.” Later at the hall, a dinner was provided that included toasting with these pieces of music performed by the band: Hail Columbia — Jefferson & Liberty — Liberty Hall — President’s March — War Worn Soldier — Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle — Rural Felicity — Hearts of Oak — White co*ckade (American Mercury, 25 July 1805, 2).

District of Columbia Stelle’s Hotel, U.S. Marine Band played: Come Then All Ye Social Powers — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March—Jefferson’s March—Roslin Castle— 104th Psalm—Independence—No. Fifty Four—Col. Wharton’s March — The Battle — Rural Felicity — Come Let Us Prepare — How Sweet thro’ the Woodland — Wilkinson’s March192— Genl. Jackson’s March — General Dearborn’s March (bass drum and other drums)—Yankee Doodle (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1805, 2); at the Executive Mansion, “a powerful band of music [played] patriotic airs at short intervals” (Ibid).

Maine Bangor: Federalists of Bangor and Orington celebrate at Greenleaf ’s Hall, “the music given in a fine style, and the cheers came from the heart”: Hail Columbia—Adams and Liberty—Truxton’s Victory193— Washington’s March — In Clouds when Storms Obscure the Sky — Green Mountan Farmer — Ode to Science — Ca Ira — Vicar of Bray — Hail American — From the East Breaks the Morn (“Independence,” The Gazette, 23 July 1805, 2); Republicans paraded to Dr. Dean’s Meeting House “where several pieces of select music were performed by the members of a respectable musical society, who attended the procession.” Later, dinner for “near two hundred citizens, besides about seventy citizen soldiers” heard toasts offered “accompanied with music from the band” (“The Day that Made Us Free,” Eastern Argus, 5 July 1805, 3); “Federal Republicans” had exercises at the Rev. Mr. Kellogg’s Meeting House. “The music given by a number of patriotic gentlemen, was select and appropriate — it raised the feelings of patriotism, and charmed the ear of the amateur” (Portland Gazette, 9 July 1805, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: at Mr. Leaman’s Columbia Garden, “a grand concert of vocal and instrumental music,” with various performers, including Mr. Durang, orchestra conducted by Mr. Hupichle (?), principal violinists, and Mr. Wolf, principal clarionet, and vocal selections by Miss McMullin (American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1805, 2); at the Pantheon, “at least fifty commenced with a psalm of praise to Deity ... and the assembly by uniting in singing the 100th psalm” (American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1805, 3).

Massachusetts Charlestown: After a procession of Republicans from the town hall to the Baptist Meeting House, “the services of the day were introduced by select pieces of musick by the band.” After a reading of the Declaration, “a sacred ode then followed.” After a prayer, another “ode composed for the day” was performed (first line: “Hail, glorious morn! Hail, glorious morn!”). The services “concluded by an ode, also composed for the

49 occasion.” A local newspaper reported that “the musick was executed in a style of superior excellence” and another reported that the original Ode was “composed by a citizen of Charlestown.” Later a dinner was served at Massachusetts Hall for 200 persons and “toasts were drank, accompanied with appropriate music” (Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1805, 2; New-York Spectator, 13 July 1805, 2). Lenox: The exercises were held at the court house. “The solemnity of the occasion was closed with the favorite song of ‘Hail Columbia’” (The Sun, 13 July 1805, 3). Northampton: The “order of the procession” had 473 Republicans and included “music, consisting of the South-Hadley, Springfield, and part of the Hatfield Bands.” At the exercises held at the church, included was “music played at suitable intervals” (“American Independence — Twenty-Ninth Anniversary,” Republican Spy, 9 July 1805, 2). Pembroke: A procession to the meeting house included a band of music. “The ceremonies were introduced by music” (“Celebration at Pembroke,” Democrat, 10 July 1805, 2). Pittsfield: A parade to the meeting house included the Pittsfield Republican Band of Music “under the command of Major Stocking. The exercises of the day were commenced with vocal and instrumental music.” The ceremony was ended with music (Pittsfield Sun, 6 July 1805, 4). Plymouth: Due to inconvenience on 4 July, this town celebrated the Fourth on 22 July. A procession included a band of music and at the meeting house, “an ode was sung” after the reading of the Declaration of Independence. “The voices of a full choir of singers, chaunting [sic] the blessings of liberty and independence” delighted the audience (Witness, 28 August 1805, 3). Salem: At an “elegant entertainment” at the Lion, “appropriate toasts were announced, and accepted in the greatest harmony, enriched with such songs as were adapted to the principles of liberty, and the exalted reputation of Mr. Jefferson and of his administration....” (“Fourth of July,” Kennebunk Gazette, 17 July 1805, 1).

New Hampshire Portsmouth: A celebration of “federalists” included a “public dinner.” “The following Song (from the elegant and ingenious pen of J.M. Sewall, Esq.) was sung by Capt. Larkin, and repeated with enthusiasm”: “The Hobbies Parodied.” First line: “That each has his hobby, we’re not now to learn” (Boston Gazette, 11 July 1805, 2; Commercial Advertiser, 16 July 1805, 2; NewYork Spectator, 20 July 1805, 1); at St. John’s Church the exercises were begun with a “performance of several pieces of well adapted music by the Circean Musical Society.” Later at Jefferson Hall “toasts and sentiments were drank, accompanied with songs” (“Fourth of July,” New Hampshire Gazette, 9 July 1805, 3).

1805 Westmoreland: “The citizens met at Capt. Butterfield’s Hall, where they partook of a sumptuous entertainment. At two o’clock a procession was formed” and the assemblage moved to the Meeting House, where the exercises began with “appropriate music” (“Celebration at Westmoreland, [N.H.],” Political Observatory, 13 July 1805, 2).

New Jersey Chatham: “At ten o’clock the citizens, military corps, and ladies, assembled and formed a brilliant procession” that included “martial music.” They marched through the “east part of the town” and from there to the church where the exercises included “vocal music, led by Mr. Foster” (Centinel of Freedom, 16 July 1805, 2).

New York New York: At a dinner celebration “given by the officers of the first Brigade Artillery” included: “Song. Parodied for the occasion, by T.G. Fessenden” (first line: “When cannons roar, when bullets fly”); “Song. Varied for the occasion by an officer of the Brigade” (first line: “Every man take his glass in his hand”) (Morning Chronicle, 12 July 1805, 3); at the “new Vauxhall Garden in the Bowery”: After the duties of the field were closed, the officers of the first Brigade of Artillery sat down to an entertainment provided for them at the Mechanick Hall, honoured by the company of His Excellencey the Commander in Chief (Gov. Lewis) and his suit, the Lieutenant Governour, and Capt. Wylie, commandant of Fort Jay, &c. &c. During the entertainment the band of the Second Regiment performed a number of martial airs. After dinner a number of patriotick songs were sung by gentlemen of the company. The following written for the occasion the day before by T[homas] G. Fessenden, on request, was sung by Captain Smith, Assistant Major of Brigade. The reader will perceive it is a professed parody on the beautiful Sailors Song of “Lash’d to the Helm.” [“Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Repertory, 12 July 1805, 2]. The orchestra will be elegantly illuminated, and a select band of music engaged for the evening. At 6 o’clock precisely, Mr. Barrett, from the Theatre, Charleston, and formerly of N. York, for this night only, will sing “The Hobbies,” in which will be pourtrayed the Scold’s Hobby — the Beau’s Hobby — Sailor’s Hobby — Soldier’s Hobby — Lady’s Hobby — and the American Hobby.... At half past eight will commence a grand patriotic olio consisting of songs and recitations. Song —“Hail America, Huzza! Huzza!” by Mr. Shapter. The patriotic song, “Hail Columbia,” or the days of independence. Mr. Barrett. Song —“Battle of Monmouth,”— Mr. Shapter. ... Song —“Death of General Warren,”— Mr. Shapter. Patriotic song written by R.T. Payne, Esq., “For ne’er shall the sons of Columbia be slaves” by Mr. Barrett. The

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1806 orchestra will perform select patriotic airs between each of the songs and recitations. [Commercial Advertiser, 1 July 1805, 3].

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: “Democratic association of the Friends of the People” met at Sheridan’s, at the Upper Ferry for dinner. “The principal tables were kept in a constant course of hilarity, and enlivened by many excellent songs, some of which, written for the occasion, we hope to have the pleasure of publishing.” Meanwhile, military units assembled at a camp on “the heights near the Upper Ferry, where tents for the two battalions of the legion, for the cavalry, artillery and rifle corps were pitched.... The different intervals were occupied by martial airs, the old Yankee Doodle, by the band of instrumental music formed by the members of the Republican Greens” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” Republican Watch-Tower, 13 July 1805, 3).

Vermont Bennington: Republican residents of “Bennington and its vicinity assembled at the Court House” and marched to the Meeting House, where an appropriate psalm having been sung by the choir, the Rev. Mr. Marsh pathetically expressed the gratitude of the assembly in a solemn and impressive address to the Throne of Grace. An ode on Independence was then begun by the choir, and completed by a beautiful procession of young Masters and Misses, who entered the house in a regular, graceful, and dignified manner, introducing a young lady, decorated as the Genius of Liberty, attended by two young men bearing her spear and cap, with the Olive of Peace, and preceding a little boy, gracefully bearing the Declaration of Independence, and delivering it to Mr. Anthony Haswell, who after addressing the audience in a few words, read the invaluable Instrument, the product of wisdom, the purchase of the toil and blood of American Heroes. On the approach of Liberty to her place, it was found, that the crown of royalty, and the mitre of priestcraft had daringly usurped her seat; with peculiar dignity, the beauteous Nymph removed the incumbrances, and placing them at her feet, calmly seated herself, to preside over the exercises of the day. The elegant production, called “The Genius of Columbia, a Vision,” written by Andrew Selden,194 Esq. was then sung, and an Oration pronounced by Mr. Timothy Merrill....

The dinner held at the Court House included an array of toasts, “under the discharge of cannon, and accompanied with instrumental music and sentimental songs, producing a degree of hilarity, and a flow of dignified sentiment, suited to the occasion, and evincive of republican genius and equality”: Song, Liberty Tree Revisited — Song, Columbia Comforted — Song, Independence — Song, Tribute to Merit — Song, The Tribute — Song, A View of Past

Scenes — Song, Federalism (“National Festival,” Vermont Gazette, 8 July 1805, 3). Poultney: After a procession of citizens and military, there were exercises at the meeting house. After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “an ode was sung, composed for the occasion, followed by a suitable prayer; after which the choir sung the tune called Jefferson” (“Communication,” Vermont Gazette, 22 July 1805, 3). Westminster: “A large collection of respectable inhabitants assembled, and formed in procession in front of Mr. Edgell’s house — from thence proceeded to the Meeting house, where the exercise of the day began, with appropriate music” (“Celebration at Westminster,” Political Observatory, 3 August 1805, 1).

Virginia Alexandria: Fourth of July!! Minor theatre, (Spring Garden) will be presented a grand medley of entertainments in honor of the day. The evenings amusem*nts will open with an Ode to Freedom: after which a new song on the Death of Washington. Collin’s celebrated Ode on the Passions: Comic Song of Four and Twenty Fiddlers, in character, by Mr. Maginnis. After which by the ingenious Group of Artificial Commedians, will be presented, the full opera of the Poor Soldier.195 The whole to conclude with a Grand Representation of the Bombarding of Tripoli: being in honor of the brave Columbian tars who fell in that glorious action.... [Alexandria Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1805, 3].

1806 Publications “Among the songs sung on the 4th of July in Boston,196 was the following written by Robert T. Paine, Esq.— Sung by Dr. Park. ‘Song for July 4, 1806.’” “Tune —‘Whilst happy in my native land.’” First line: “Wide o’er the wilderness of waves” (NewYork Gazette & General Advertiser, 11 July 1806, 2; “Poetry,” Reporter, 19 July 1806, 4; Polyanthos [July 1806]:275). “Another Song for the 4th of July, by Mitchell Susall, Esq,” First line: “What terrible bustle the Democrats made!” (New-York Herald, 23 July 1806, 3). “The Feast of the States. Sung at Bristol, R.I. on the 4th of July, 1806. Song — Written by D.A. Leonard, Esq. describing the staple commodity of each particular State. At the conclusion of each verse, one cannon. ‘[The traits of genius displayed in the following Song, notwithstanding the severity of some of its political allusions, richly entitle it to preservation on our files. Although some of the sarcastic allusions we do not fully understand, and some we think unjust, yet the candid reader will accept the good, and cast the ex-

51 ceptionable away, and laugh with us at the ingenuous humor of the author.]— Ed.’” First line: “The States were invited, at Jubilee’s call.” (Independent Chronicle, 28 July 1806, 1; “Poetry,” Freeman’s Friend, 6 August 1806, 4; Salem Register, 14 August 1806, 1; Vermont Gazette, 25 August 1806, 4). “The following song, composed by William Ellison,197 Esq. was sung at Camden (S.C.) on the last anniversary of the Fourth of July. Song, tune — ‘Anacreon.’” First line: “To Jove in Olympus, while seated in state” (“Poetry,” National Aegis, 24 September 1806, 4; Providence Phoenix, 4 October 1806, 4). “Hail Liberty, “ a “song ... for the Fourth of July” to the tune “Hail Liberty.” First line: “Glorious, see the glorious sun” (Aurora General Advertiser, 4 July 1806, 2). “Independence. Tune — Mason’s Daughter.” First line: “Columbians, to remotest time.” Note: “The subsequent song was sung on the 4th of July last [1805], at an entertainment of our brave seamen, at Syracuse in Sicily. It was written by Wm. Ray, a Marine, and late prisoner in Triopli” (“The Museum,” Eastern Argus, 3 July 1806, 4). “Well Met, Fellow Freemen”198 (first line) to the tune “To Anacreon in Heaven,” sung at Stelle’s Hotel [in Washington City] by “Mr. Cutting” (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1806, 3; American Citizen, 11 July 1806, 3). “National Song. Tune, ‘Rise Columbia.’ Accompanying note in New-York Spectator: “The following Ode, written for the occasion, by Samuel Woodworth, was introduced and sung by Mr. King, in a style which did him honor.” First line: “When from our shores Bellona’s Car.” (New-York Spectator, 12 July 1806, 2; Hampshire Federalist, 15 July 1806, 4; “Poetry,” Reporter, 26 July 1806, 4.) “‘New Yankee Doodle.’ Composed for, and sung on the late anniversary of American Independence, at Redhook [N.Y.].” First line: “Here’s yankee doodle, strike the tune” (“Wreath,” Balance, and Columbian Repository, 22 July 1806, 232). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1806: the anniversary of American independence. Tune — Anacreon in Heaven.” Signed “Aldrigenus.” First line: “Descendants of heroes, whose toils have secur’d” (Massachusetts Spy, 2 July 1806, 3). “Ode on the Military Celebration at Salem of the Fourth of July, 1806. By S[tephen] C[leveland] Blyth.199 Broadside, Salem, MA, 1806. “Song composed for the anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1806. Intended to be sung by a select company of ‘Old Continentals’ & other Federal Republicans assembled at Lefavour’s Hotel, in Lynnfield [MA]. Tune ‘White co*ckade.’” First line: “In the warfare of life where temptations invade” (Salem Gazette, 4 July 1806, 2). “Song, for the Celebration of American Independence, 1806.” By. J.M. Sewall, Esq. of Portsmouth. First line: “Hail Independence! happy day” (The Balance, and Columbia Repository, 29 July 1806, 240).

1806 “A Song for the Fourth of July, 1806.” Also, titled ‘New Yankee Doodle,’ composed for, and sung on the late anniversary of American Independence, at Salem, Ms.” “Its easy wit and humor, sported in the merry old tune of ‘Yankee Doodle,’ cannot fail to swell the mirth of the festive board, at the same time that they entitle it to a more extensive circulation than what its author destined it for.” First line: “Yankee Doodle is the tune”200 (Salem Gazette, 4 July 1806, 2; New-England Palladium, 11 July 1806, 4; “Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 25 July 1806, 4; Republican Spy, 30 July 1806, 4; Otsego Herald, 31 July 1806, 4; Connecticut Herald, 5 August 1806, 4; “Poetical Repository,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 5 August 1806, 4; Salem Gazette; Port-Folio, 30 August 1806, 121). “Song” by Charles Prentiss.201 Note: “Perhaps it would be difficult to mention a similar composition that for biting sarcasm, and keen irony, excels the following song.” First line: “Round the festive board gather’d, let’s honour the day” (United States Gazette, 12 August 1806, 3; Hampshire Federalist, 19 August 1806, 4; Post-Boy, 9 September 1806, 288).

Performances Connecticut Litchfield: “Martial music” was performed until sunrise, with more music at 8 A.M. Two hours later additional music was the “signal for the procession to form.” At the Meeting House, “where, in the presence of a crowded audience,” the music included “Psalm 95th, Tune, New-Hartford,” an “Original Ode” (first line: “But hush ye sorrows of the soul”), “Song, composed for the occasion: Air —“Jefferson and Liberty; or Gaudio” (first line: “Hail-hail the ever glorious day”). At the dinner held at “a large quadrangular bower,” the toasts were “accompanied by a discharge of artillery” and “an air from the band, selected by an amateur” (“National Festival,” National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser, 27 August 1806, 1, from the Litchfield Witness; “Selected Poetry,” Salem Register, 28 August 1806, 4; Bee, 2 September 1806, 2; Eastern Argus, 4 September 1806, 1). New London: “At 10 o’clock A.M. the citizens assembled at Mason’s Hall, when a procession was formed and proceeded to the Court House, escorted by a band of music and a large detachment of the independent and the other two Military Companies of the town, under the command of Capt. Peter Beebe. The exercises were commenced by singing.” Later back at the Hall, dinner was served followed by toasts “under the discharge of cannon from Fort Trumbull, interspersed with sentimental and patriotic songs, and appropriate music from the band”: Music, Hail Columbia — Jefferson & Liberty — Liberty Hall—President’s March—War-Worn Soldier— Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle — Rural Felicity — Hearts of Oak — White co*ckade (“Celebration at New London,” American Mercury, 24 July 1806, 2). Simsbury: At the Meeting House, “exercises were

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1806 opened by singing” and concluded “by singing and prayer” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 17 July 1806, 2). Thompson: Some 200 citizens, “escorted by a band of music and the Infantry Company, marched from Jonathan Converse’s Inn to the Baptist Meeting House. “After the ceremonies the Band proclaimed the native invincible spirit of our forefathers in the strain of ‘Yankee Doodle.’” A dinner hosted by Converse included toasts with the following music performed: Music, March by Burbank — Jefferson’s March — March — Jefferson and Liberty — German Hymn — Washington’s March — Mr. Lyon’s Favorite—Music—Ode on Science202—Roslin Castle— March in Blue Beard — Gen. Orn’s March — Scotch Alamand — Money Musk — Italian Serenade — Burbank’s Lamentation203— White co*ckade (“Anniversary of American Independence,” American Mercury, 24 July 1806, 2). Windham: “The procession, accompanied by a band of music, marched to the Meeting House,” where “the performance of a piece of music” occurred (“Celebration at Windham,” American Mercury, 24 July 1806, 2).

Maine Monmouth: “Yesterday, the citizens of Monmouth, and many from Green, Lewiston, Leeds, Wayne, Winthrop, Readfield, Hallowell, Wales and Litchfield, celebrated our independence.” After a procession from Prescott’s Hall to the Centre Meeting House, “the per-

formances were interspersed by appropriate music” (Eastern Argus, 10 July 1806, 2). Nobleborough: A celebration at Capt. Sleepers’ included a procession of 100 Republicans “accompanied with suitable music” to “a shady green” for dinner, toasts, and the following music: Tune, White co*ckade — Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Boston March — Union — Washington’s Ode and March — Jefferson and Liberty — Roslyn Castle — On the Road to Boston — Yankee Doodle — God Save America — Old Hundred — Ode on Science — Gen. Green’s March — Belisle March — Come, Haste to the Wedding (Eastern Argus, 17 July 1806, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: The celebration of the Democratic Republicans that met at Major Stoddert’s land, east side of Harris’ Creek, included “an excellent band of musical amateurs, whose services” were provided throughout the day. Music interspersed between toasts included: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — A Triumphant March — Solemn Dirge — St. Patrick’s Day — Galley Slave — America, Commerce and Freedom — Plough Boy — Life Let Us Cherish204— Hail Wedded Love. “While the company was collecting [to leave], the gentlemen of the band placed themselves on the declivity of a hill and accompanied several excellent patriotic songs given by different citizens, in the choruses of which the people joined with enthusiasm.” Concerning one song, sung to the tune “Anacreon in

“German Hymn,” by Austrian composer Ignace Pleyel (1757–1831), a student of Joseph Haydn, had performances at toasting ceremonies on the Fourth (1806–21) in Thompson, Connecticut (1806); Newburyport (1807) and Scituate (1820), Massachusetts; Fishkill and Matteawan, New York (1820); Alexandria, Virginia (1820); and Baltimore (1821). Shown here is a printing of the music in Wyeth’s Repository of Sacred Music, Part Second (Harrisburgh: John Wyeth, 1820) (author’s collection).

53 Heaven,” the newspaper reported that “the foregoing song was sung at an entertainment in London, to celebrate the anniversary of the instalment of Thomas Jefferson, as president of the U.S.”205 (“4th July,” American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1806, 2–3); at Fells Point Academy, “three Odes, appropriate to the day, will be sung by the young ladies and gentlemen of the Academy” (American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, 3 July 1806, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Second Baptist Church, the exercises included: Hymn (first line: “Let tyrants shake their iron rod”)206 Ode on Science (first line: “The morning sun shines from the east”) Ode (first line: “When Boston rear’d its triple hills”), written by Benjamin Gleason Ode-Independence (Billings)

(“Order of Performance of the Young Democratic Republicans: at the Second Baptist Church in Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1806.” Broadside. Boston: [s.n.], 1806, copy in Brown University; Independent Chronicle, 3 July 1806, 2). Charlestown: At the Baptist Meeting House, “the odes for the day were appropriate and the music delightful” (Independent Chronicle, 10 July 1806, 2). Lanesborough: “The day was ushered in with the firing of cannon, ringing of bells, and melodious strains from instruments of music. More than three hundred citizens of this and adjoining towns” paraded to the meeting house “preceded by a company of artillery and a band of music” (Sun, 12 July 1806, 3). Newburyport: 2000 persons witnessed the fireworks. “Music from the Newburyport Band, who were stationed in a neighboring steeple during the display of fire-works, had a very pleasing effect” (Newburyport Herald, 8 July 1806, 3). Salem: The Salem Independent Cadets had exercises at the Branch Meeting House, where there was a “performance of church music.” Later at Crombie’s Tavern, dinner and toasts were “accompanied with music by their excellent Band”207 (Salem Register, 7 July 1806, 3). See also, Publications, 1812. Springfield: “The dawn of our National Festival was ushered in by martial music, the ringing of bells, and the firing of cannon.” A procession to the Meeting House included a band of music. After the exercises, “an excellent dinner was furnished under a pleasant bower erected for the purpose.” Toasts were accompanied by “appropriate musick from the band” (Hampshire Federalist, 8 July 1806, 3; “Republican Celebration at Springfield,” National Aegis, 23 July 1806, 2).

New Hampshire Portsmouth: “The following song by J.M. Sewell, Esq. was one of those sung at the festive board.” First

1806 line: “What a terrible bustle the democrats made!” “Two excellent songs composed by J.M. Sewall, Esq., added greatly to the enjoyment of the day” (Newburyport Herald, 8 July 1806, 2). See also Publications above; another song reportedly sung at Portsmouth was “When Albion dared attempt” (first line) (“Poetry,” Providence Gazette, 26 July 1806, 4). Westmoreland: Residents of this town and others from Keene and Putney processed to the Meeting House “where the exercises were performed in the following order: Appropriate music A devout and impressive prayer. A Federal Republican, Republican Federal Oration was delivered by the Rev. C. Brown. An ode selected for the occasion [“Celebration at Westmoreland, N.H.,” Political Observatory, 11 July 1806, 3].

New York Hudson: At a celebration following a derisive toast to Gov. Morgan Lewis by city democrats, the band was ordered to play the “Rogue’s March,” but “to their honor, absolutely refused.” The incident created a scandal and was reported in numerous newspapers. The editor of Hudson’s newspaper, The Balance, and Columbia Repository, printed: “Whatever opinion may be held with respect to the administration of Gov. Lewis, we think that the chief magistrate of a great and respectable state, should be treated with some sort of respect, even by his enemies. At any rate, if he does no criminal act, we can see no propriety in treating him as a rogue” (The Balance, and Columbian Repository, 8 July 1806, 211, and “Editor’s Closet: The Rogue’s March,” 9 September 1806, 286; Hampshire Federalist, 22 July 1806, 3; Litchfield Monitor, 30 July 1806, 3). New York: “The societies assembled in the Park precisely at 9 o’clock.... Tammany, as the national society led the van” in the process through city streets. A newspaper noted that “a full band of animating music gave additional éclat to the grand tout ensemble, the approach of which was occasionally announced to the public by a preceding trumpet.” After the exercises at the New Dutch Church were completed, the assemblage returned to the Park, “where they were drawn up in a circle, several pieces of music performed, three cheers given, and dismissed each society retiring in their private order to the place of their respective meetings” (“Communication,” American Citizen, 17 July 1806, 2); the “young Federalists” met at Association Hall. Following at a dinner, “the following sentiments were pledged in flowing bumpers, accompanied with appropriate odes and songs” (NewYork Commercial Advertiser, 10 July 1806, 2). Newburgh: At “Mr. June’s where an excellent Dinner was provided,” interspersed with toasts were “music and appropriate songs under the discharge of cannon”: Marseilles Hymn — The Health of Our Sachem — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Lib-

54

1807 erty Tree — Erin Go Bragh (“Newburgh,” Republican Watch-Tower, 18 July 1806, 3).

panied by discharges of cannon, and the cheers of martial music” (Political Observatory, 18 July 1806, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At the New Theatre “on Friday evening, July 4, ... the celebrated comedy of He Would Be a Soldier ... End of the Play, ‘Jefferson’s March,’ composed by Mr. Reinagle, after which, an ‘Eulogium on The American Worthies,’ will be recited by Mrs. Melmoth. Song — Mrs. Poe. Comic song, ‘The Yorkshire Irishman; or, the Adventures of a Potatoe Merchant’— Mr. Bray. Song—‘The Soldier Tir’d of Wars Alarms’— Mrs. Seymour. Recitation —‘The Blackbirds’— Mrs. Melmoth. Comic song —‘Giles Scroggin’s Ghost’— Mr. Jefferson. Song —‘He Stole My Heart Away’— Mrs. Poe. The Grand Panorama, of The Battle of Tripoli, will be exhibited — painted by Mr. Holland. Song —‘A Soldier is the Noblest Name’— Mr. Robbins. A characteristic dance ... (Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 1 July 1806, 3); The Southwark Light Infantry Band and Republican Greens Band perform on Broad Street (Universal Gazette, 17 July 1806, 3).

Vermont Bennington: After a march from the Court House to the Meeting House, an assemblage of hundreds of citizens heard the exercises which “were opened by vocal music performed by the choir with their usual harmony and precision.” ... After the oration, the procession returned to the State-Arms Tavern where the toasts were accompanied with the following tunes: Song, tune, Anacreon — Song, tune President’s March — Song, tune Yankee Doodle — Song, tune Liberty Tree — Song, tune Boyne Water — Song, tune Malbrough — Song, tune Shepherd’s Complaint (“National Festival,” Vermont Gazette, 7 July 1806, 3; American Citizen, 14 July 1806, 2). Burlington: a choir performed at the opening exercises (Aurora General Advertiser, 16 July 1806, 2). Montpelier: The citizens of this and adjacent towns assembled to celebrate the day. “At twelve o’clock the procession, escorted by a company of militia in perfect uniform, commanded by Maj. Lamb (Marshal of the day) with appropriate music, moved from Hutchins’ Inn, to the State House ground, where, after hearing the Declaration of Independence, an able prayer and a psalm of praise,” listened to an oration by Samuel Prentice, Jun. Dinner was provided at the Inn and the toasts included the following music: Yankedoodle [sic]— President’s March — Jefferson’s March — Scotch Luck — Yankedoodle — Col. Orn’s March — Rogues March — Mrs. Cotilleon — Farmer’s March—Green’s March—Turk’s March—Yankedoodle — Hamilton’s March — Miss Morella — Duke of Holstein’s March (“Fourth of July, 1806,” Green Mountain Patriot, 22 July 1806, 3). Woodstock: The services were held at the town’s meeting house where vocal and instrumental music formed a part of the exercises of the day. A dinner was prepared at a bower and “toasts were drank, accom-

1807 The unjust attack of the British warship Leopard on the USS Chesapeake off the coast of Norfolk on June 22, 1807, resulting in loss of American lives, caused great indignation among Americans and the nation’s protesting of this event was reflected in newspaper articles, speeches, and ceremonies on the Fourth of July. Music was used in solidarity to support the sentiments of Americans. In New Haven, Connecticut, several pieces of “protest” music were performed, including the “Rogue’s March” that followed a toast to “the British Leopard — a disgrace to the lion and unicorn.”208 In Charleston, South Carolina, at a meeting of the Military Club of the 28th regiment, a song written specifically to raise the emotions of the audience there included these lyrics: The despot of Britain shall sure rue the day/When the Leopard sprung basely on innocent prey/Till blood be aton’d, all concession we’ll spurn/And the haughty proud Lion, shall bleed in his turn.209

Publications “‘American Independence.’ By E. Ruston — of Liverpool. Tune —‘Liberty Tree.’” First line: “Ye men of Columbia! hail! hail the great day.”210 Accompanying note in Suffolk Gazette: “The following animated production is from the pen of Edward Rushton, the author of the stanzas on blindness (in our last) Mary le More, and a number of other elegant and pathetic pieces. It was written last year, and is in the strain of poetic excellence and patriotic fervor with his ‘O’er the vine-cover’d hills and gay regions of France’” (“Poetry,” Democrat, 2 September 1807, 1; Suffolk Gazette, 7 September 1807, 4; Eastern Argus, 1 October 1807, 4). “American Independence.”211 First line: “Hail ever memorable Day!” (New Jersey Journal, 14 July 1807, 4). “Anniversary Ode.” First line: “While the slaves of a tyrant his birth-day revere” (Eastern Argus, 30 July 1807, 4). “Billings Anthem for independence designed to be performed in this town [Dedham, MA], on Saturday the 4th July next, is this day published, by H. Mann, for the occasion, and for sale at his Printing Office. Price single 25 cents, $2 per dozen” (Norfolk Repository, 30 June 1807, 366). “Columbia, Hail! We Celebrate that Day” (first line) sung by “Mr. Cutting” at Stelle’s Hotel in Washington. “Originally sung on 4th of July, 1794, in London by a party of Americans” to celebrate the anniversary (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1807, 1). “The Feast of the States.” First line: “The States were invited, at Jubilee’s call.” Note: “From repeated

55 solicitation, we have provided in the Eagle, a place for the following cantata, sung in this town [Bristol, RI], at the celebration of the 4th of July 1806” (Mount Hope Eagle, 3 July 1807, 3). See Publications, 1806. “The following song, written for the occasion, by a gentleman of this city [Charleston], was sung on the 4th inst. by an Officer, at a meeting of the Military Club, of the 28th Regiment.” First line: “When Britain, puff ’d up conceiv’d the weak plan” (“From the Charleston Times,” American Mercury, 6 August 1807, 1). “Messrs. Printers, The following was written on the 4th ult. As appropriate to our ‘Freedom’s Natal Day;’ if you think it not yet ‘out of season,’ you will confer a favor by inserting it in the valuable paper. Selim. ‘Independence.’ Tune-Adams and Liberty.” First line: “The genius of Freedom, escap’d from the flood.” (“Poetry,” Connecticut Herald, 4 August 1807, 4.) “Ode for Independence.” First line: “Raise high your glad voices ye children of fame” (“Court of Apollo,” New-York Weekly Museum, 18 July 1807, 4). “An Ode for Independence. By Micam Bradley.” First line: “Come brothers and make known your joy” (from the Dartmouth Gazette as printed in Suffolk Gazette, 24 August 1807, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hark, hark! the Angel Trumpeters proclaim” (“Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 2 July 1807, 4). “An ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Columbia, Columbia! with songs and with mirth” (from the Political Observatory as printed in “The Museum,” Eastern Argus, 16 July 1807, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July, tune —‘Rise Columbia.’” First line: “When from our shores Bellona’s car” [by Samuel Woodworth] (“Court of Apollo,” NewYork Spy, 30 June 1807, 4). Another newspaper reported that this ode was also sung on July 4 at the meeting of the Philanthropic Literary Society held at its lodge or at the City Tavern,212 Elizabethtown, N.J. (New Jersey Journal, 7 and 14 July 1807, 4 and 4, respectively). “Ode, for the Fourth of July. By Leonard Jarvis, M.D. As sung at the Republican Festival, in Claremont, N.H.” First line: “Columbia rise, ’tis heaven’s decree” (“The Museum,” Eastern Argus, 27 August 1807, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July 1807. Sung by the choir at the Republican celebration in this city, at the Baptist Meeting House.” First line: “Freedom’s glorious era hail!” (“Poetry,” True Republican, 8 July 1807, 4.) “Ode, sung at the celebration of American Independence, in this town [Elizabethtown, NJ], July 4, 1807.” First line: “Say, should we search the globe around”; “another” [ode]: first line, “Welcome morn, whose genial ray”; “another” [ode]: “When exil’d Freedom, forc’d to roam” (“Poetry,” New Jersey Journal, 7 July 1807, 4.) “‘Ode to Liberty.’ Inscribed to the 4th of July, 1807.” First line: “Oh Liberty, thou Goddess bright”

1807 (“Waters of Helicon,” Mount Hope Eagle, 3 July 1807, 4). “Odes for the 4th of July —1807.” Contains three untitled songs. Broadside. Copy in American Antiquarian Society. “Original Ode, written for the 4th July, 1807.” First line: “Strike, strike the notes of lostleft joy” (Enquirer, 21 July 1807, 4). “Patriotic Song.” First line: “Hail patriots all this day combine” (from the Virginia Argus as published in American Mercury, 23 July 1807, 1). See also Publications, 1798. “Song for July 4th, 1807. Tune—‘Jefferson and Liberty.’” First line: “The day arrives so dear to man” (Newburyport Gazette, 20 July 1807, 4). “Song, sung at Salem on the 4th July, 1807, by the Washington Fire Club.” First line: “In Anno Domini seventy five” (New-York Commercial Advertiser, 13 July 1807, 3; New York Spectator, 15 July 1807, 2). “Songs for the 4th of July and 16th of August.” First lines: “The fourteenth day’s declining” (by A. Haswell); “Let’s charge the smiling glass now” (by A. Selden); “Ye sons of Columbia who brave[ly have] fought” (by [R.] T. Paine; “Well met fellow freemen at Liberty’s shrine” (by A. Haswell); “When Britain try’d with haughty pride” (by A. Haswell); “Och! if a song you would have me to sing” (by Dr. Burne); “Remember the glories of Patriots brave”; “When Britons, Tories, Indians” (by A. Haswell); “The sun had risen o’er the sea” (by A. Haswell); “The genius of Columbia” (by A. Selden); “When the horrors of war, sounding loud from each quarter” (by A. Haswell); “Around the urns where sleep our troubled sires” (by A. Selden). Broadside. Ca. 1807. Copy in Brown University. Songs sung at the celebration in Bennington, VT: “‘A Slight View of the World [by Anthony Haswell].’ Taken July 4th, 1807. Tune ‘Black Sloven.’” First line: “Attention my friends, and I’ll sing you a song”; “‘Liberty Universal.’213 Tune —‘Liberty Tree.’” First line: “The clarion of Liberty sounds thro’ the world”; “A Review of Past Scenes.” First line: “When Britain dar’d in former times”; “Independence.” First line: “Come freemen all in chorus join” (Epitome of the World, 13 July 1807, 4).

Performances Connecticut Chelsea: “At 12 o’clock, the procession in East Chelsea, formed at Kinney’s Hotel, and marched preceded by a band of music to meet their brethren in procession under martial music from a spacious bower erected for the occasion on the heights of West Chelsea” (True Republican, 15 July 1807, 1). Hartford: At a dinner celebration, “Yankee Doodle, the well known national song was then performed by the band” as was Hail Columbia — Duane’s March — Freedom in His Native Land — Jefferson’s March — America, Commerce and Freedom — The Farmer — Yankee Doodle — Roslin Castle — Tag-rag,

56

1807 and no more — Oh! Dear What Can the Matter Be — Washington’s Resignation — Washington’s March — The Rights of Man — Jefferson’s March — Song, TagRag, Exile of Erin — Independent Volunteers — Americans Strike Home (“Independence,” American Mercury, 9 July 1807, 3). New Haven: At the “Brick Meeting House ... the audience were favored with a patriotic song, by a number of gentlemen, whose performance was received with repeated acclamations” (first line: “Hail independence, hail!”). At “a very handsome entertainment, provided by Mr. Morgan,” a band performed these works interspersed after a selection of toasts: Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Dead March in Saul — Roslin Castle — Ye Sons of Columbia Unite in the Cause — Columbia’s Bald Eagle Displays in His Claws214— March in the Battle of Prague — Rogue’s March—Capt. Kidd—Our Country is Our Ship d’ye See215— To the Standard Repair — Washington’s March — Rural Felicity — Felton’s Gavot — Whilst Happy in My Native Land — Yankey Doodle — Hail Patriots All, This Day Combine (“New Haven, July 7,” Connecticut Herald, 7 July 1807, 3). New London: “At 11 o’clock a procession was formed at the Hall, and accompanied by the military, and martial and band music, proceeded to the Baptist meeting-house. The exercises commenced with singing by the choir under the direction of Mr. L. Peck,216 and an appropriate prayer by Mr. P. Griffing. An ode, prepared for the occasion, was then sung.” Afterwards the assemblage returned to Masons’ Hall for a “plentiful dinner” with toasts “accompanied by discharges of cannon from Fort Trumbull, and music from the band”: Tune, Liberty Hall — Yankey Doodle — Hail Columbia — President’s March — War Worn Soldier — Triumph of Liberty — Jefferson and Liberty — Funeral Thought — Roslin Castle — White co*ckade — Peace and Plenty — Bunker Hill — Every Man to His Calling217— Friendship (“American Independence,” True Republican, 8 July 1807, 3). Windsor: At the Meeting House, “sacred music” was performed. Later at an adjacent grove, “nearly 200 ladies and gentlemen sat down to an entertainment” and heard the following pieces of instrumental music accompanying the toasts: President’s March — Washington’s March — Free and Easy — American Hero — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — O What Can the Matter Be — How Imperfect is Expression — Trio Quick Step — Rogues March — Gen. Green’s March — American March — Hail Columbia — Rights of Man — Stranger in His Native Land—The Rights of Man—Rural Felicity (“Celebration at Windsor,” Political Observatory, 10 July 1807, 3; American Mercury, 30 July 1807, 3).

District of Columbia U.S. Marine Band at the Executive Mansion and played “patriotic airs” at “regular intervals” (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1807, 1; Pittsfield Sun, 27 July 1807, 1); at a celebration of the Washington Light Infantry—

America, Commerce and Freedom — America’s Birth Day—Around the Hugh Oak218—The Galley Slave— Hail Columbia—Jefferson’s March—Logan Water— Oh Listen to the Voice of Love — The Ploughboy — Rogues March — Roslin Castle — The Spinning Wheel — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (National Intelligencer, 20 July 1807, 2).

Maine Brunswick: A procession, “preceded by a band of music” marched to the meeting house where “several pieces of Music [were] performed, [and] judiciously selected by the band for the occasion” (“Republican Celebration at Brunswick (Me),” Eastern Argus, 23 July 1807, 3). Freeport: At Kendall’s Equality Hall, “in the course of the entertainment a Patriotic Song composed by Mr. Kendall,219 was sung with merited applause” (“National Birth-Day,” Eastern Argus, 23 July 1807, 3). North Yarmouth: After a procession of “a respectable number of Federal Republicans” from Capt. A. Richardson’s to the Baptist Meeting House, the exercises there “were interspersed with pieces of music, executed with skill and animation” (“National Jubilee,” Portland Gazette and Maine Advertiser, 20 July 1807, 3). Portland: At the Rev. Kellogg’s Meeting House military officers, “young federal republicans,” and others gathered for the exercises which included “the performance of appropriate music,” the group enjoyed a dinner at Washington Hall where the toasts included “a song, composed for the occasion” (“American Independence,” Portland Gazette and Maine Advertiser, 6 July 1807, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: At Fells Point, at the “mechanics” celebration held at Colegate’s Creek, music interspersed between toasts included: President’s March—Silence, Dead March — Hail Columbia — America, Commerce and Freedom — The Sons of Alkp*rnack (American and Commercial Daily Advertiser, 10 July 1807, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the “meeting-house in Brattle Street,” included in the exercises were “a psalm, by the choir” and “a hymn, composed for the occasion” (“National Birth-Day,” Independent Chronicle, 6 July 1807, 2); at the Old South Meeting House, “several odes performed by a select choir” were reported as scheduled to be sung (The Repertory, 3 July 1807, 2); at a celebration by “Republican young men” at Richardson’s Hall on Elm Street, “an original ode written for the occasion” was scheduled to be sung; another report notes that the Republican Young Men of Boston met at Liberty Hall on Elm Street and that “an ode composed for the occasion, by Mr. Samuel Parker, of Roxbury, was sung by Mr. Washburn” (Democrat, 4 July 1807, 3;

57 Independent Chronicle, 9 July 1807, 2); another celebration of Republicans took place at the Boston Coffee House and after a reading of the Declaration of Independence, the following pieces of music were performed as accompaniments to toasts: Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — Massachusetts March — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Massa. [sic] March — Wash. Inf. March — Yankee Doodle — Dirge [played twice]— Yankee Doodle (“Republican Dinner,” Democrat, 8 July 1807, 1); at a celebration of “young Federal Republicans” at Washington Hall on Bromfield’s Lane, the following music was presented with the toasts: Musick, Washington’s March — Dead March in Saul — America, Commerce and Freedom — Hail Columbia — Boston March — Strong’s March — Yankee Doodle — Adams and Liberty — Massachusetts March — Ode on Science — Orne’s March — Hail Liberty — Jefferson’s Hobby — Rise Columbia (“Fourth of July,” Repertory, 10 July 1807, 1). Groton: The town’s Republicans met at the meeting house. “The services were graced by appropriate and well selected music.” At the common a dinner was served and toasts were offered, accompanied by artillery salutes and the following music: Yankee Doodle — Jefferson and Liberty — Mass. March — Gen Green’s March (Democrat, 22 July 1807, 3). Hingham: Military companies, citizens, and town officials marched to “the Rev. Mr. Richardson’s Meeting House” where “the auditory were saluted by a most animating performance of a numerous musical choir, which being graced with the presence of the fair, who charmingly mingled their voices, awakened the exquisitely fine feelings of the soul.” After a prayer, “an Ode to Independence was sung with the spirit and with the understanding also.” After a reading of the Declaration, “another appropriate piece of music was performed” after which the group marched to the house of Hawkes Fearing for dinner. The toasts drank were accompanied with the following pieces of music: Jefferson’s March — Hail Columbia — Washington’s March—Rural Felicity—Grand March in Blue-Beard (“Celebration of Independence at Hingham,” Independent Chronicle, 9 July 1807, 3). Lenox: In a procession to meeting-house in Lenox, the assemblage was “attended by a band of musick” (“National Birth-Day,” Pittsfield Sun, 18 July 1807, 1). Newburyport: “Federal Republican citizens assembled at the Court House and accompanied by a military escort and a band of music,” marched to Mr. Coburn’s Sun Hotel where the dinner included toasts and the following music: Tune, Washington’s March — President’s March — Downfal of Paris — Blue Beard March — Reed’s March — Massachusetts March—Yankey Doodle—Green’s March—Music— Pleyel’s German Hymn220— Slow March in the Battle of Prague — Yankee Doodle — No Luck About the House — On the Road to Boston — Fisher’s Hornpipe — Fare Well ye Green Fields. “Among the songs,

1807 was the following written for the occasion”: first line, “When dire oppression’s iron hand” (“31st Anniversary of American Independence,” Newburyport Herald, 7 July 1807, 3; The Repertory, 10 July 1807, 3); “Democratic toasts” were presented at Union Hall and were accompanied by the following pieces: Yankee Doodle — Jefferson’s March — Boston March — Dirge — Tune, Woodcutters (“Celebration,” Newburyport Herald, 10 July 1807, 2). Watertown: A band from Waltham participated in a procession from Harrington’s Tavern to the meeting house where the exercises were held. “An ode adapted to the occasion was sung by Mr. Babco*ck,221 and a variety of music performed by the band with great accuracy and taste, between the several exercises.” Later at Harrington’s 200 citizens enjoyed dinner and toasts accompanied by “appropriate music” (Democrat, 8 July 1807, 2). Worthington: A parade to the meeting house was “attended by a band of music.” The exercises “were interspersed with pieces of music, vocal and instrumental, which were well performed” (Republican Spy, 14 July 1807, 3).

New Hampshire Boscawen: Citizens of Boscawen, Concord, and Canterbury assembled at Carlton’s Tavern and marched to the Meeting House where the exercises included “appropriate music performed by an excellent choir of singers” (“4th of July at Boscawen,” Concord Gazette, 7 July 1807, 3). Epsom: A procession of the 18th regiment and citizens, including “persons of distinction from the neighboring towns paraded “accompanied by martial music” to the meeting house for the exercises. “Occasional vocal and instrumental music was interspersed” (New Hampshire Gazette, 14 July 1807, 3). New Castle: After exercises at the church, a dinner was served at Mr. Bell’s Tavern. “Toasts were drank with appropriate music, under a discharge of Artillery”: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — Life Let Us Cherish — Bunker’s Hill — Roslyn Castle — A Dirge — Yankee Doodle — Jefferson & Liberty — Battle of Prague — On the Way to Boston — Banks of Ohio — Rogue’s March — Air (“Celebration at New-Castle,” New Hampshire Gazette, 14 July 1807, 3). Londonderry: At the Meeting House, the exercises began with an “Anthem.” Later at “a spacious tent,” appropriate toasts were drank, accompanied by music and the discharge of cannon (“Celebration at Londonderry,” Portsmouth Oracle, 18 July 1807, 3).

New York Hudson: “In the morning, the usual firing, ringing, music, &c, took place.” A morning procession included a band of music. A dinner celebration of Republicans took place at Mason’s Lodge; “toasts were drank, and proper music, with appropriate songs, exhilarated the enjoyment”: Song, Hail Independence—

1808 Yankee Doodle — Dead March — Jefferson and Liberty — New-York Fusileers — True Courage — The Drum222— Quick Step — Lexington March (“The Fourth of July,” Albany Register, 10 July 1807, 3). New York: Various trade societies and military officers proceeded from the Park to the “Brick Church opposite the Park.” After the exercises, “a few select pieces” were “sung by a select company of singers under the direction of Joseph Kimbal. The business in church being over, the societies will return in the same order to the Park, when the Grand Marshal will form them into a circle; in the centre of which will be placed the grand Standard of the United States, and the music, encircled by all the different stands and banners. The music will perform a few appropriate pieces” (“Celebration of American Independence,” People’s Friend & Daily Advertiser, 3 July 1807, 3); at Vauxhall Garden, “at 6 P.M. a select and numerous Band of Music will commence and continue for the evening, a variety of patriotic airs, military pieces, &c. &c.” (“Fourth of July: Vauxhall Garden,” People’s Friend & Daily Advertiser, 2 July 1807, 3). Richmond, Staten Island: Citizens and soldiers alike marched to the Court House where among the exercises “a patriotic ode [was] sung after which the music played Yankee Doodle, and the procession returned in the same order to the Hotel [Peter Perine’s]” for dinner and toasts, “accompanied with discharges of cannon and appropriate music” (American Citizen, 9 July 1807, 3; “Celebration of the Thirty-First Anniversary...,” Republican Watch-Tower, 10 July 1807, 4). White Plains: The celebration took place with “at least 400 respectable citizens from different parts of the county, accompanied with a very handsome collection of ladies.” At Noon the procession assembled and marched in the following order: 1st. Capt. Odle’s troop dismounted, with swords drawn. 2d. Band of Music. 3d. Citizens. 4th. Ladies. 5th Orators of the day. 6th Committee of Arrangement.

At the Court House, the Declaration of Independence was read by Ezra Lockwood, “and an Ode, applicable to the occasion, sung, accompanied by a Band of Music.” After the principal address was given, “the procession retaining the same order of march, returned to Citizen Baldwin’s Republican Hotel, where they sat down to an elegant repast prepared by him. Under a Booth, after dinner, the following toasts, interspersed with songs, &c. accompanied with a discharge from a brass three pounder”: The Soldier’s Return — Washington’s March — Rogue’s March — Roslin Castle—Jefferson and Liberty—New Convention—Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Jolly Tar — Come Haste to the Wedding (Public Advertiser, 9 July 1807, 2).

58 South Carolina Pineville: Music sung after toasts at the celebration: Tune, Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — The President’s March — Road to Boston — Congress March — Light Infantry’s March — The Rakes of Medlo—Solemn Dirge—Logan Water—Roslin Castle — Stoney Point — God Save the United States — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — The Girl I Left Behind Me—Plough Boy—Light Infantry’s March— The Fair American (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1807, 2).

Vermont Bennington: “The day was ushered in by the discharge of cannon.” At 11 A.M. “nearly four hundred gentlemen” assembled at the Court House” and were “enlivened by the harmony of the Bennington Band, and respectfully escorted by Captain Hicks’ troop of cavalry, marched under the discharge of cannon to the Meeting-house. The exercises were opened with vocal music by the choir.” After the exercises, the assemblage returned to the Court House and “about 500 people partook of a rich repast at the Inns of Messrs. Cushman and Fassett.” In the Court Chamber, toasts were read” and drank to the accompaniment of these works: Song, [A Slight] View of the World (first line: “Attention my friends, and I’ll sing you a song”)— Song, Liberty Universal — Song, Declaration of Independence — Song, Triumph of Principle — Song, Review of Past Scenes — Song, Independence. [See Publications above]. A local newspaper reported that “the several appropriate and excellent songs, written and prepared for the occasion by citizen Haswell, added greatly to the hilarity of the scene, and did honor to the head and heart of their patriotic author. They will be published as room shall offer hereafter” (“National Festival,” Epitome of the World, 6 July 1807, 3; broadside, [Bennington, VT: A. Haswell?, 1807]. Copy in Brown University).

1808 Fisher Ames, a congressional representative from Massachusetts and president of Harvard College died on July 4. In 1811 he was toasted with musical accompaniment at the Hamilton Society Independence Day celebration in New York. A “funeral dirge” was played following this toast, “Fisher Ames — Thy country wept, when on her natal day, Heaven claimed its own and beckoned thee away.”223

Publications “‘The Embargo.’224 A Song composed by Henry Mellen, Esq, of Dover (N.H.) and sung there at the celebration of the 4th July. Tune —‘Come let us prepare.’” First line: “Dear Sirs, it is wrong.”225 (Portsmouth Oracle, 9 July 1808, 3; “Poetry,” Connecti-

59 cut Herald, 26 July 1808, 4). Broadside, Dover Landing [N.H.]: Remich, 1808? “Freedom and Peace, or The Voice of America.”226 First line: “While Europe’s mad powers o’er creation are raging.” Words by Alexander Wilson, music by Rayner Taylor. (The Democrat, 9 July 1808, 1; Essex Register, 13 July 1808, 4; Washington Expositor, 23 July 1808, 190; The World, 25 July 1808, 4; National Aegis, 3 August 1808, 4; Otsego Herald, 24 September 1808, 4; Eastern Argus, 20 October 1808, 4; Columbian Phenix, 12 November 1808, 4; National Martial Music and Songs227 [Philadelphia: McCulloch, 1809]; William McCarty, The New National Song Book, Containing Songs, Odes, and Other Poems, on National Subjects. Compiled from Various Sources [NY: Leavitt and Allen, 184–?]). “The heralds proclaim’d on Olympia’s fam’d plains”(first line), in The World, 25 July 1808, 4. “The Matter Recited, and the Cause Advocated in a series of airs, Composed for the Performance of the Band of Music, and a Choir of Singers in Bennington, in Celebrating the Thirty Second Anniversary of American Independence.” By A. Haswell. [Bennington, VT]: Printed by Halwell & Smead, 1808. Without music. Broadside. Copy in New York State Library. “Ode, Written for the Celebrarion [i.e., celebration] of the Republican Young Men, July 4, 1808” by Nathaniel H. Wright. Broadside. Boston?, 1808. “An ode, written on the morning of the 4th of July, 1808, by a youth of Portland [Maine].” First line: “Rejoice, Columbia’s sons and pay” (“The Museum,” Eastern Argus, 14 July 1808, 4). “Song ... first published in the Boston Democrat and copied into the Register from that paper.” The song’s author, John D. Wolfe, Jr. complained that his work was “handed to a friend who after mutilating it in such a manner as to render it perfectly ridiculous, sent it to your paper.” First line: “The youthful sailor mounts the bark.” (“Selected Poetry,” Essex Register, 6 August 1808, 1; Pittsfield Sun, 13 August 1808, 4; Political Observatory, 15 August 1808, 4). The song, which according to one newspaper “bears the stamp of true genius,” was later reprinted and titled “The Impressed Sailor,” in American Advocate and Kennebec Advertiser, 7 October 1815, 4. “Song. For the 4th of July.” First line: “When proud Rome of old her dread eagle unfurl’d” (The World, 25 July 1808, 4). “Song for the 4th July, 1808. Composed for the occasion, and sung by Mr. Thomas.” First line: “Sons of freedom awake! rend the veil from your eyes” (“Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 8 July 1808, 4). “Song — Tune, ‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “When our sky was illumin’d by Freedom’s bright dawn” (“Poetry,” National Aegis, 29 June 1808, 4).

1808

Performances Connecticut Hartford: Republicans from this town and “many respectable gentlemen from the neighboring towns” marched from City Hall to the South Meeting House where the exercises included “an Ode” and “Hail Columbia” (American Mercury, 7 July 1808, 3); “The following beautiful piece of composition, was sung in this city, at the celebration of the 4th of July. Its origin is unknown; its excellence it carries with it. It was written for the 4th of March, the 2d era of American liberty — some slight alterations were made to accommodate it to the 1st era, the occasion on which we speak its having been improved.” First line: “Brave sons of Columbia! salute, this blest day” (“Poetry,” American Mercury, 15 September 1808, 4). New London: “At 11 o’clock A. M. the citizens assembled at the Merchant’s Coffee-house, formed a numerous and respectable procession, and proceeded to the Baptist Meeting House, escorted by a detachment from the Independent and Infantry Companies.” The exercises included “appropriate singing, consisting of an ‘Ode to Science,’ &c. conducted by Maj. I.P. Trott.” Later, a dinner was served at the Coffee House and toasts were offered “interspersed with sentimental and patriotic songs” (“American Independence Celebration at N. London,” American Mercury, 14 July 1808, 2).

District of Columbia Members of the U.S. Marine Band perform in Georgetown at Mr. Semmes’s Tavern (Universal Gazette, 14 July 1808, 1).

Maine Bath: Republican citizens of Bath and adjacent towns paraded from Richardson’s Hall to the Fourth Meeting House where, after a prayer, “an original, pure and patriotic Ode, prepared on the occasion by Mr. Joseph Wingate, was then sung.” Back at the Hall, toasts and the following music were heard: Yankee Doodle — Jefferson’s March — Hail Liberty — Roslyn Castle — Washington’s March — Ye Patriot Sons — Death or Victory — Rise Columbia — Rogue’s March — Dirge — Come Haste to the Wedding (“At Bath,” Eastern Argus, 14 July 1808, 2). Gardiner: At the church, “several pieces of appropriate vocal and instrumental music were performed in a handsome manner” (“At Gardiner,” Eastern Argus, 14 July 1808, 2). Falmouth: At the meeting house, after a prayer, “an anthem by a select choir” was sung. The exercises “closed by an appropriate ode (in the performance of which, the powers of music, vocal and instrumental, were happily exerted & sensibly felt by a numerous audience of both sexes).” At a dinner, toasts were “enlivened with music & appropriate songs” (“At Falmouth (Me),” Eastern Argus, 14 July 1808, 2). Gorham: “At 11 o’clock, a procession was formed

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1808 from Mr. Josiah Shaw’s hall, and escorted to the meeting-house by the infantry company, commanded by Capt. James Irish, jun. where appropriate vocal and instrumental music was performed” (“Independence,” Portland Gazette and Maine Advertizer, 18 July 1808, 2). Wiscasset: Music at the meeting house was “performed with skill and spirit by the amateurs of the art.” “An ode, written for and sung at the Republican Celebration” at Wiscasset: first line, “Sons of freedom arise! The day is return’d” (“At Wiscasset,” Eastern Argus, 14 July 1808, 2).

Maryland Annapolis: At a meeting of the Annapolis Ugly Club held at Mr. Coolidge’s, “So G — for the Ugly Club” (first line: “Tho’ the Mason’s Declare”), written by a member of the club and set to the tune “Mason’s March,” was performed (L’Oracle and Daily Advertiser, 13 July 1808, 3; Maryland Gazette, 7 July 1808, 3; Mercantile Advertiser, 13 July 1808, 2; Lady’s Weekly Miscellany 8/11 (7 January 1809): 167–68). Baltimore: At Fells-Point, a celebration of the Columbia Blues included the following music that accompanied toasts: Stoney Point — Roslin Castle — President’s March (Enquirer, 12 July 1808, 2–3).

Massachusetts Belleville: At 11 A.M., citizens of the town and vicinity marched from Mr. G. Connor’s Hotel to the new Meeting House, where after a prayer and oration, “an Ode on Science was sung, accompanied with instrumental music in a very superior style” (Newburyport Herald, 8 July 1808, 2). Boston: At Bunker Hill Association dinner, Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Washington’s March — In Freedom We’re Born — Guardian Angels228— Yankee Doodle — Let Fame Sound Her Trumpet229— Long Life and Success to the Farmer — The Hero Comes—Pleyel’s Hymn—Roslin Castle— Ere Round the Huge Oak — Tune, Dead March in Saul — Then Guard Your Rights — Are You Sure the News is True — Massachusetts March (“Boston, July 7,” City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 27 July 1808, 2); at Boston’s New Baptist Meeting House, citizens and the Independent Fusileers attended the following program: 75th Psalm,230 read by the Rev. Dr. Baldwin, who introduced it with a short appropriate address Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Blood Declaration of Independence, by Mr. Benjamin Homans Hymn. Tune —“Chester” (first line: “Let tyrants shake their iron rod”)

(“Celebration at Boston,” Essex Register, 9 July 1808, 3; Albany Register, 15 July 1808, 2; Columbian Phenix, 16 July 1808, 1; Pittsfield Sun; or, Republican Monitor, 16 July 1808, 3.) Douglas: Procession, “accompanied by an excellent band of music.” At the meeting house, “the exercises

began with instrumental music” and later closed by a choir of excellent singers, accompanied by the band in performing several select pieces of music, to the great acceptance of the assembly” (“Celebration at Douglas,” Massachusetts Spy, 13 July 1808, 3). Groton: A town parade ended at the meeting house where “several excellent pieces of music were performed.” Later there were toasts presented with the following musical works: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Dirge — Soldiers Joy — Crazy Jane — Hear a Sheer Hath — Speed the Plough — Federal March — Kick the Beam — I’ll Set Me Down and Cry — Gen. Green’s March — Adams and Liberty (“Fourth of July Celebrations,” Columbian Centinel, 13 July 1808, 1). Ipswich: The town’s Republicans marched from Mr. Treadwell’s Inn to the Independent Society’s Meeting House where the exercises were begun “by singing part of the 118th Psalm.” The exercises were also closed with vocal music (“Republican Celebration of Independence at Ipswich,” Essex Register, 13 July 1808, 3). Newburyport: After a procession of 400 Republicans to the Rev. Mr. Giles’ Meeting House, the exercises begun with “a hymn adapted to the occasion.” Later at Union Hall, where 120 individuals enjoyed “an elegant dinner,” toasts were drank accompanied with cheers and the following pieces of music: God Save America — Jefferson’s March — Dirge — Rise Columbia — President’s March — Rogue’s March — Washington’s March — Go [to] the Devil and Shake Yourself— Massachusetts March — All the Way to Boston — Jefferson and Liberty — Embargo — Humours of the Priest House — Yankee Doodle — O Dear, What Can the Matter Be231— Humours of Boston (“Celebration at Newburyport,” Essex Register, 9 July 1808, 2); at another celebration clergy, militia and citizens assembled at the Mall and marched, “preceded by an excellent band of music,” to the Meeting House on Pleasant Street “where after appropriate music by a select choir, and an address to the Throne of Grace by the Revd. Jon Andrews, Ebenezer Mosely, Esq. delivered the anniversary oration” (Newburyport Herald, 8 July 1808, 2). Pittsfield: “The exercises of the day consisted of appropriate vocal and instrumental music” (“American Independence,” Pittsfield Sun, 9 July 1808, 3). Roxbury: A procession of citizens marched to “the Rev. Dr. Porter’s Meeting House. The performances there were an appropriate prayer, by the Rev. Dr. Porter — Hymn to Freedom, composed by Mr. Samuel Parker232— Tune old hundred [first line: “Freedom, around thy glorious shrine”]— The Declaration of Independence was read by Mr. Abraham Fox—Oration by Mr. Nathaniel Smith—Ode for the Fourth of July, composed by Mr. Samuel Parker — tune ‘Rise Columbia’” [first line: “When Britain proud and vengeful grown”] (Independent Chronicle, 7 July 1808, 2; Democrat, 9 July 1808, 3; Essex Register, 9 July 1808, 1; “Celebration at Roxbury,” Repub-

61 lican Spy, 20 July 1808, 2; An Oration Pronounced July 4, 1808, before the Citizens of the Town of Roxbury, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence. By N. Ruggles Smith. Boston: Adams and Rhoades, 1808). Wrentham: At the Meeting House a reading of the Declaration of Independence was followed by vocal and instrumental music (“Celebration at Wrentham,” Independent Chronicle, 14 July 1808, 2).

New Hampshire Dover: After a procession from Mr. Ela’s Tavern to the Meeting House, “the exercises of the day were introduced by an appropriate Ode composed for the occasion by Moses L. Neil [ne Neal],233 Esq. and performed by a band of singers, accompanied by instrumental music, in a manner at once lively and affecting.” Neal then presented the oration which focused on the “causes which led to American Independence” (“Republican Celebration at Dover, N.H. on the 4th July, 1808,” New Hampshire Gazette, 12 July 1808, 2); Federalists numbering “sixty gentlemen” paraded, “Preceded by a number of gentlemen musicians of this town,” to the meeting house. “The publick exercises commenced with an appropriate Ode composed for the occasion by Henry Mellen, Esq. which was sung and played by a select band of musicians in a stile [sic] of superiour excellence.” At the dinner, Mellen’s song “Embargo” was sung, along with the following additional pieces: Washington’s March — Grand March — Roslin Castle — Black Joke — Echo — Massachusetts March — French March — President’s March — There Is No Luck About the House — Funeral Thought — Galley Slave — The Down Hill of Life — Bunker Hill — The Shipwreck — Yankee Doodle (Portsmouth Oracle, 9 July 1808, 3). See Publications above. Portsmouth: The “Federal Republicans” celebrated at the Assembly Room. “The musick-loft was ornamented by a large handsome Ensign hung in festoons, military trophies and emblems of the Arts and Sciences” and after the dinner, “toasts were given accompanied with music and a variety of patriotic and entertaining songs, firing of cannon and cheerful acclamations, suited to the occasion”: Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Gen. Reed’s March — Langdon’s March [John Langdon]— O Dear What Can the Matter Be — Adams and Liberty — Are You Sure the News is True — God Save America — Randolph’s Reel — Strong’s March — Crane’s March — Herrick’s Air234— The Shade of Washington — Kean’s March — Pickney’s March. “The company are under obligation to the Gentlemen of the Portsmouth band of music for their polite attendance on the occasion; their performance did honour to the Company and themselves.” (“The Anniversary,” Portsmouth Oracle, 9 July 1808, 3; NewEngland Palladium, 15 July 1808, 1).

1808 New Jersey Allentown: A procession to the Presbyterian Church included music (“Celebration at Allentown,” Trenton Federalist, 11 July 1808, 3). Bridge Town: At a dinner prepared by Benajah Parvin, toasts were “accompanied with a discharge of cannon and appropriate music” (“Celebration at Bridge Town,” Trenton Federalist, 11 July 1808, 3).

New York Fairfield: The Alexandrian Society and an assemblage of additional men and women celebrated at the Fairfield Academy. The ceremony convened with singing. The day included “martial music,” a “cold collation,” and toasts with the following music: Hail Columbia — Speed the Plough — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Ode on Science — Jefferson and Liberty — Adams and Liberty — Death of Washington (“Communication. Fourth of July, 1808,” Herkimer Herald, 26 July 1808, 3). Hudson: During the town’s procession, as a miniature merchant ship representing the embargo was towed along the streets and the American flag was raised, a band played “Washington’s March,” and as an embargo flag was raised on the ship, in derision the band played “Yankee Doodle.” Later at an “entertainment provided by Mr. Stocking,” the following pieces were played as toasts were presented: Tune, Yankee Doodle—Tune, Washington’s March—Tune, Washington’s Favorite — Song, Wife, Children and Friends235— Hail Columbia — Tune, Truxton’s Victory — Tune, Hush Rude Boreas, Blustering Railer — Tune, Adams and Liberty—Tune, Charleroy—Tune, Roslin Castle — Tune, A Trip to Pluckenny — Tune, O, Dear! What Can the Matter Be!— Tune, I was a’ye See, a Water-Man — Tune, 10th Regiment — Tune, Columbia, Columbia, to Glory Arise — Tune, The Hobbies — Tune, Come Haste to the Wedding (“Independence Day,” The Balance, 12 July 1808, 109). New Lebanon: “The Republican citizens of this and the neighboring towns” formed a procession at 11:30 A.M. to the sound of “one gun and music.” Two bands marched among other groups to the Meeting House where the exercises included vocal and instrumental music. At a dinner under a bower, “toasts were drank, each accompanied by a discharge of artillery and music from the band”: Yankee Doodle — Federal March — American March — Jefferson’s March — Roslin Castle — Entered Apprentice — The Drum (Pittsfield Sun; or, Republican Monitor, 23 July 1808, 1). New York: “Stanton Island, held at Richmond”: at the Court House, “a number of patriotic songs sung” (American Citizen, 8 July 1808, 2). Utica: A procession “from the hotel to the Presbyterian Church was accompanied by martial music.” The exercises began with a prayer, “then followed vocal music, in the words ‘Before Jehovah’s awful throne,’ &c. The Declaration of Independence was then read by F.A. Bloodgood, Esq. succeeded by vocal music in words appropriate to the day.” After an ora-

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1809 tion by Thomas Skinner, the following ode was sung: first line, “The Morning sun shines from the east” (From the Utica Gazette as published in Republican Watch-Tower, 15 July 1808, 3).

Rhode Island Providence: A procession marched to the First Congregational Meeting House where “the exercises commenced with the singing an ode peculiarly adapted to the occasion”: first line: “Come, let us join the cheerful song.” After a prayer, an “ode published in our last was sung”: “Martyrd Patriots,” first line: “August the sacred day that gave.” “The ode inserted in this day’s paper concluded the proceedings at the meeting house”: “An ode for the Fourth of July, 1808, written by Paul Allen,236 Esq.”; first line: “Fair Freedom once an eagle found” (“Glorious Anniversary,” Columbian Phenix, 2 and 9 July 1808, 1 and 3–4, respectively).

Vermont Fairfield: After a procession to the Town House, the exercises consisted of: 1. Sacred music. 2. A prayer, by the Rev. Benjamin Wooster 3. Sacred music 4. An oration.... 5. An Ode, selected for the occasion. 6. A prayer, by the Rev. P.V. Boge. [St. Albans Adviser, 14 July 1808, 1].

Virginia Alexandria: The public are respectfully informed that the Alexandria Theatre will open on Monday, July 4, 1808, being the anniversary of American Independence, with the celebrated tragedy of Gustavus Vasa,237 the deliverer of his country. Written by Henry Brooke, esq. author ... after which an Interlude (in honor of the day) called The Spirit of Independence; or Effusions of Patriotism. Consisting of singing, dancing, and recitation. Song, “The Standard of Freedom” the words by Mr. Mills, of the Philadelphia Theatre — the music by Mr. J. Cole of Baltimore, [sung by] Mr. Jacobs. Recitation, “Ode to Freedom,” [sung by] Mr. Wood. Dance, A Hornpipe. [danced by] Miss Hunt. Song, “Fragrant Chaplets for the Soldiers bio Prepare,”238 [sung by] Mrs. Seymour.... After which will be presented the admired musical entertainment of the Review; or, The Man of All Trades.... [Alexandria Daily Advertiser, 1 July 1808, 3.]

was composed for the occasion, by Mr. James L. Hodges.”239 First line: “Columbia’s sons appear” (Old Colony Gazette, 7 July 1809, 3). “The following Ode, written by Mr. Ellison, was sung at the Festival given by the Federalists of Charlestown, on Independent day, by Mr. Stebbins,240 in his usual style of excellence.” First line: “Strike! strike the sounding lyre” (“Poetry,” Boston Mirror, 8 July 1809, 4). “The following Ode, written for the occasion, was sung in this town [Dedham, Massachusetts], at the celebration of independence, on Tuesday last, by the Union and Harmony Company.” First line: “While sounding arms on Europe’s shore” (“Poetry,” Norfolk Repository, 6 July 1809, 4). “Live Triumphant or Contending Die.”241 By J.W. Brackett. Set to music by James Hewitt. First line: “Auspicious day, the annual rite we bring.” New York: J. Hewitt’s Musical Respository & Library, [1809]. Copies in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State Universiry, and Levy Collection of Sheet Music. See New York below. “Music for 4th of July. For sale by Cushing and Appleton (price half a dollar). The Occasional Companion no. 4, containing Avington; Independence, an anthem; Freedom, a national ode for the 4th of July; and a National anthem” (Salem Gazette, 4 July 1809, 3). “Song, written for the 4th of July, and sung by the Republicans of Troy [Pennsylvania].” First line: “In the volume of fate, as the book was unfolded.” (Pennsylvania Herald, and Easton Intelligencer, 9 August 1809, 4.) “Song, written for the Fourth of July 1809. By James H. Price, Esq.”242 First line: “In the volume of fate, as the book was unfolded.” (“The following elegant and patriotic effusion sours so much beyond the ordinary style of metrical composition, and the lame and vapid odes of the day, that we assign it a conspicuous place in our columns with no reluctant hand. It breathes the energy of feeling, and while it pleases the fancy it warms the heart. Intended by its author to be sung at the celebration of our national anniversary, in this village only, we have succeeded in obtaining a copy of it from Mr. Price, and are happy to be able, through the medium of the Farmer’s Register, to give it a range proportionate to its merits.”) (“National Birth-Day,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 25 July 1809, 4; Weekly Wanderer, 28 July 1809, IX/35: 4.)

Performances Connecticut

1809 Publications “The following Ode, sung at the celebration of American Independence in Taunton, [Massachusetts]

New London: After a procession from Mr. D. Frink’s to the Baptist Meeting House, the exercises included “an Ode by the choir of singers, conducted by Mr. L. Peck — prayer by Mr. P. Griffing — Ode — Declaration of American Independence, read by Mr. L. Fosdick — oration by Mr. B. Hempstead — Ode — concluding with prayer.” Later at the dinner hosted by

63 Mr. Frink, toasts were drank “interspersed with various sentimental and patriotic songs” (“Republican Celebration,” American Mercury, 20 July 1809, 2).

District of Columbia At the Centre Market the U.S. Marine Band performed and a band of music from Captain Davidson’s Company of Light Infantry performed “appropriate airs”at the church on F Street (“Fourth of July,” National Intelligencer, 7 July 1809, 2); at the National Theatre, a musical entertainment titled Independence of Columbia was performed (National Intelligencer, 3 July 1809, 2).

Maine North Yarmouth: The exercises at the Baptist Meeting House were begun with “music adapted to the occasion” (“Celebrations of Independence: At NorthYarmouth,” Freeman’s Friend, 15 July 1809, 3). Portland: At Union Hall, the Republicans enjoyed toasts after dinner “accompanied with appropriate marches” (“National Festival!” Independent Chronicle, 20 July 1809, 1).

Maryland Baltimore: In the “Grand Procession, the band led by Mr. Wolff, whose appropriate music during the procession, and after drinking the toasts, greatly added to the pleasures of the company, and the public.” The dinner hosted two bands (“Grand Celebration, at Baltimore,” Enquirer, 14 July 1809, 4; Old Colony Gazette, 28 July 1809, 4; “Grand National Jubilee,” Pittsfield Sun, or Republican Monitor, 29 July 1809, 1–2; National Aegis, 9 August 1809, 4).

Massachusetts Boston: Along with all the “Military Corps in Uniform” in the procession was “a new and full band of Black Musicians in a superb Moorish dress. Their appearance was novel and rich” (“National Birth Day,” New-England Palladium, 7 July 1809, 2); the Bunker Hill Association celebrated with exercises at the Methodist Chapel that included: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII.

Ode on Science. Prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Sabim (?) 75th Psalm. Introductory address. By David Everett, esq. Hymn. Oration, by Wm. Chs. White, esq. Independence, an anthem. By the choir.

“The choir of singers of the Third Baptist Society, who gave their assistance on this joyful occasion, were harmonious beyond description” (“National Jubilee!” Independent Chronicle, 6 July 1809, 2). Ipswich: Federalists of this town celebrated with a dinner at Major Swasey’s Hall. “Toasts were given, accompanied with songs, discharge of cannon, &c” (“Celebration at Ipswich,” Salem Gazette, 21 July 1809, 3).

1809 Leominster: Republican citizens representing “the N. district in the county of Worcester” marched from Hale’s Inn to the Meeting House where the exercises were held before “a crowded and brilliant audience. Most excellent and appropriate music, from a select band, enlivened the varying scenes.” A dinner was held under an arbor back at the Inn and toasts were drank accompanied by the following pieces of music: Rise Columbia — Republican March — Ma Chere Amie243— Madison’s March244— Gen. Green’s March — Washington’s March — Paris March — Swiss Guard March — The Farmer — Rural Felicity — Adams and Liberty — The Galley Slave — Massachusetts March — Movement in the Castle Spectre245— Duke of York’s March — Yankee Doodle — Lord Barnett’s March — Hail Columbia (“Fourth of July Celebration at Leominster,” Boston Patriot, 12 July 1809, 2). Newburyport: The event included a procession, exercises at the Meeting House on Federal Street, and “a collation, on the green near the State House.” Toasts were announced, accompanied by music and the discharge of cannon: Yankee Doodle — Music, Pleyel’s Hymn — Music, Washington’s March — Music, Roslin Castle (“Fourth of July,” Newburyport Herald, 7 July 1809, 3; “At Newburyport,” Freeman’s Friend, 15 July 1809, 3). Pittsfield: “At 12 o’clock a numerous procession was formed, consisting of the Republican citizens of this and many other towns in this County, and a number of our friends from Hampshire County, which, preceded by a Band of Music, moved to the Meeting House, where the exercises were as follows: Music on the Organ, and a Psalm by the choir” followed by a reading of the Declaration of Independence and oration. “The exercises were closed by vocal and instrumental music” and later “Mr. Clarke’s where an elegant dinner was provided, of which a large number partook, the usual number of toasts were drank, accompanied with music by the band, and the discharge of cannon.” At “the celebration in this town, on the 4th inst. with the music accompanying them [the toasts], by the band”: Yankee Doodle — American March — American Favorite — York Fuzileers — Felton’s Gavot — Jefferson’s March — A March — Greene’s March — Handel’s Clarionet — Cold Stream — Washington’s March — 40th Regiment — Duke of Holstein — Trio — Fresh and Strong — Short Troop — Handel’s Duett (“Grand National Jubilee,” Pittsfield Sun, or, Republican Monitor, 8 and 15 July 1809, 3 and 2, respectively). Rochester: At a meeting of Republicans of this and neighboring towns, the audience heard an “Ode to Liberty” that began the ceremony and an “Ode to Peace” that ended the event (“National Anniversary,” Old Colony Gazette, 21 July 1809, 3). Salem: At the North Meeting House, “music on the organ was performed at proper intervals” (“Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 7 July 1809, 3).

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1809 New Hampshire Danbury: A parade with “an excellent band of music from Salisbury” marched to a green for the ceremony which included a performance by the band of “Ode to Science” (“At Danbury,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 18 July 1809, 4). Deerfield: “A respectable number of citizens and strangers (of both sects)” gathered for a procession, escorted by Capt. Batchelder’s Company of Cavalry and Capt. Haynes’ of Artillery, together with a select band of excellent music [and] thence proceeded to the Congregational Meeting House” where the exercises were held (“Celebration at Deerfield,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 18 July 1809, 4). Pembroke: At the meeting house, during the exercises “an Ode was performed by a band of Instrumental Music.” Following at “the green in front of Mr. Fisks, where an elegant entertainment was provided for the occasion,” the toasts following dinner were “accompanied by Martial and Instrumental Music” (“Celebration of American Independence, at Pembroke,” Concord Gazette, 11 July 1809, 3; “At Pembroke,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 18 July 1809, 4). Portsmouth: A large procession that included citizens from surrounding towns met at Jefferson Hall and, “attended by the Portsmouth Band of music,” marched to the Meeting House where the exercises “were commenced with an Ode by the band and an excellent choir of singers.” After a prayer, “an original Ode composed for the occasion” was presented. Following the exercises, the procession marched to Mechanic Hall for an “elegant and plenteous dinner” that included toasts “accompanied with music, and interspersed with songs”: Music, Rise Columbia — Adams and Liberty — Madison’s March — Let Fame Sound Her Trump — Soldier’s Joy — Guardian Angels — Dead March in Saul — Bunker Hill — God Save America — Plough Boy — Yankee Doodle — Lamentation of Jeremiah — O Dear What Can the Matter Be — Old Hundred — A Parcel of Rogues in a Nation—Then Guard Your Rights—Virtus Triumphant (“Fourth of July,” New-Hampshire Gazette, 11 July 1809. 3); a parade of Federal Republicans escorted by Gilman’s Blues and “accompanied by the Exeter Band” proceeded to the South Meeting House, where “several Odes were sung appropriate to the occasion, by a select Choir accompanied by the Band, who did themselves infinite honour, and greatly gratified one of the most numerous, respectable and brilliant audiences, we ever remember to have witnessed in this place on a like occasion.” Later at Capt. Whidden’s Hall, 140 persons had dinner and heard “several original patriotick songs, interspersed with musick from the Band”: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Shade of Washington — President’s March — Gilman’s March — Adams and Liberty — Oh Dear What Can the Matter Be—Molly Put the Kettle On—Plymouth Ode246— Mellen’s Embargo — Speed the Plough — Herrick’s Air—How Sweet’s the Love That Meets Re-

turn. “The Exeter Band acquitted themselves in a most masterly manner very much to their honor and the gratification of the company” (“4th July, 1809,” Portsmouth Oracle, 8 July 1809, 3). Temple: Citizens from New Ipwich, Peterborough, Wilton, and adjacent towns paraded to the meeting house where the exercises included “select pieces of music.” A dinner, with toasts, included: tune, Yankee Doodle — tune, Jefferson’s March — tune, Adams & Liberty — tune, Major Minor — tune, Ipwich Master —Washington’s March —Dead March —No Luck About the House — Devil’s Dream — Battle of Prague — Downfall of Paris — Vicar of Bray — Green’s March — Swiss Guards — Free Mason’s March — Grand March — Oh! How I Long to be Married (“Fourth of July Celebrations,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 25 July 1809, 1). Wilton: The exercises at the meeting house “were opened by instrumental music” and “closed with vocal and instrumental music, judiciously selected and well performed” (Farmers’ Cabinet, 25 July 1809, 1).

New Jersey Freehold: “A large and respectable number of Federal Republicans of the county assembled about two o’clock at the Inn of Thomas Thompson ... partook of an elegant entertainment prepared for the occasion.” Toasts were “attended with martial musick and the discharge of cannon.” After a toast to “the memory of Washington, ever dear to all true Americans,” a “Song, ‘Shade of Washington,’ composed for the occasion [was sung] by W. Lloyd, Esq.” Other works sung were a “Song, Federal Yankee-Doodle” and “Song, ‘New Hail Columbia.’”247 (Trenton Federalist, 10 July 1809, 3).

New York Babylon: This town held the exercises at the meeting house where, after an opening prayer, “a psalm [was] sung by the choristers under the direction of Mr. Smith Muncy.” The ceremony ended with vocal music (“Patriotic Celebration of the 4th July, 1809, at Babylon, Suffolk County, Long Island,” Republican Watch-Tower, 18 July 1809, 4). Cambridge: Located in Washington County, this town had a flag presentation and a parade with a band of music that marched to the meeting house. “Three patriotic odes, adapted to the occasion, were sung.” Later the infantry and a band led the ladies to a separate dinner celebration. The men processed to a dinner held at a bower where the following music was performed: Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, Handel’s Water Piece — Tune, Greene’s March — Tune, Washington’s March — Tune, Short Troop — Tune, Holstein’s March — Tune, President’s March — Tune, Scotch Luck — Tune, Felton’s Covert — Tune, Bag Pipes — Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, Governor Strong’s March — Tune, 40th Regiment — Tune, Favorite Air — Tune, Federal March — Tune, Handel’s Clarinett (“For the Balance,” The Balance and NewYork State Journal, 14 July 1809, 2–3).

65 New Lebanon: “The Republican citizens of the town of Canaan” were “joined by a large number of their political friends from different towns in the Counties of Columbia Rensselaer and Berkshire” with the residents of New Lebanon in a flag-raising ceremony “for an elegant flag staff erected for the purpose, more than one hundred feet in heighth.” At the Meeting House, there were exercises followed by “a plentiful and elegant entertainment” at Maj. Doubleday’s. “Toasts were drank, accompanied by a discharge of cannon and music from the band”: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Bradent’s March — American March—Jefferson’s March—Death of Washington— Roslin Castle — Jefferson and Liberty — New-York Fusileers — Washington’s March — Federal March — Entered Apprentice — Handel’s Clarionet — Green’s March — The Drum — Adams and Liberty (“Grand National Jubilee,” Pittsfield Sun, or Republican Monitor, 22 July 1809, 3). New York: The Washington Benevolent Society and its 2000 members dined together after laying a cornerstone for its new building, Washington Hall. A procession from the College Green to the site included two bands, the second followed by “gentlemen selected to sing the Ode.” The cornerstone was laid “under a salute of thirteen guns and music from the bands.” A local newspaper reported that “on forming the line the Washington Standard [was] received, the music playing ‘Washington’s March.’” The “Original Ode” was written by Joseph W. Brackett, Esq., “set to music by Mr. [James] Hewitt” and “sung before the Society with rapturous applause, is selected from among numberless other effusions of genius and patriotism, as meriting pre-eminent notice for its pure and spotless splendor.” As noted on the score, as well as reported by one newspaper, the work was sung by “Mr. Caulfield”248 at the North Church (“Patriotic Song.” First line: “Auspicious day, the annual rite we bring” (“Glorious Anniversary,” Mercantile Advertiser, 4 July 1809, 2; Evening Post, 5 July 1809, 2; New-York Commercial Advertiser, 5 July 1809, 3; NewYork Spectator, 8 July 1809, 1; New-Jersey Telescope, 11 July 1809, 3; Alexandria Gazette, 12 July 1809, 3; “Poetry: Washington & Liberty,” Connecticut Herald, 18 July 1809, 4; Farmer’s Cabinet, 18 July 1809, 4; Northern Whig, 18 July 1809, 2). See Publications above. Oxford: “About 300 Republican citizens” gathered at the Eagle Tavern for a procession, “preceded by music.” Later at a dinner toasts were drank “accompanied by music, and vollies of musketry” (“Celebration of Independence at Oxford,” Olive-Branch, 7 August 1809, 3). Sag-Harbor: “Agreeably to previous public notice, a very large and respectable concourse of people assembled at Corey’s Coffee House. At half past eleven, a procession marched to the meeting house, escorted by a volunteer detachment of artillerists, accompanied by a band of music.... The exercises were opened by vocal music.” Later the “procession returned in the

1809 same order to the Coffee House” where after dinner, “toasts were drank, accompanied with discharges of cannon and interspersed with patriotic songs and lively airs by the Band” (“A National Festival,” Suffolk Gazette, 8 July 1809, 3). Southold: Citizens and military of this town and Riverhead assembled at Mr. Moore’s Inn and marched to the Meeting House, “the music playing the truly national tune of yankey doodle. The exercises commenced by singing.” Following an oration and prayer “and singing Doctor Dwights version of 18th Psalm, the company returned to Mr. Moore’s in the same order they had marched to the meeting-house (the music playing ‘Union of All Parties’).” (“Communication: The Fourth of July,” Suffolk Gazette, 15 July 1809, 3.) Westchester: “A band of music” at the Court House, followed by music at the dinner held at William Baldwin’s Republican Hotel: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — O Lord, What Can the Matter Be — Governor’s March — Yankee Doodle — Jefferson and Liberty — Hail Columbia — Roslin Castle — Why Soldiers Why — The Rogue’s March — Liberty Tree249—Yankee Doodle—Jefferson’s March— Lexington’s March — Soldier’s Return — Hail America — Come, Haste to the Wedding (“Fourth of July, Westchester Celebration,” Public Advertiser, 13 July 1809, 2).

Pennsylvania Easton: After a parade of the Light Infantry Company at the Court House and through the city streets, the company met at the house of Mr. Thomas Sebring for dinner. After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, toasts were “drank interspersed with appropriate songs and music”: Song, Hail Columbia — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, President’s March — Song — Music, Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle — Song, The Gods of the Greeks — Dead March—Song—Grenadiers March—America, Commerce & Freedom — Jefferson’s March — Song, Here’s a Health to All Good Lasses250 (“Fourth of July,” Pennsylvania Herald, and Easton Intelligencer, 12 July 1809, 2). Philadelphia: At a dinner celebration by the American Republican Society, 500 persons heard the dinner call sounded at 3 pm by a “charge of cannon followed by ‘Hail Columbia’ from the band.” After dinner the toasts were accompanied by the following pieces: Tune, Hail Liberty, Supreme Delight251— Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, Madison’s March — Tune, Roslin Castle — Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, Dead March in Saul — Tune, Life Let Us Cherish — Tune, Washington’s March — Tune, America, Commerce and Freedom — Tune, Solemn Dirge — Tune, Stony Point — Tune, Ma Chere Amie (Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1809, 2; Federal Republican, 10 July 1809, 2; Independent American and Columbian Advertiser, 11 July 1809, 3; “American Re-

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1810 publican Society,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, 17 July 1809, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: At the Second Baptist Meeting House, “the public exercises were intermingled with excellent and appropriate music.” At the “elegant dinner” event held at Mr. Townsend’s Coffee House, “toasts were drank, accompanied by a number of popular and patriotic songs”: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March—President’s March—Rhode-Island March— Adams and Liberty — Hob Nob — Plough Boy — A March — Roslin Castle — Rise Columbia — A Spanish March — Boston March — March in the God of Love — The New Rigged Ship — Lenox — Rural Felicity (“Newport,” Newport Mercury, 8 July 1809, 2–3). Warren: After a procession to the Baptist Meeting House, “the services were introduced by singing and solemn prayer.” After an oration, “the ‘Ode on Science,’ from the choir, concluded the exercises” (“Fourth of July!” Bristol County Register, 8 July 1809, 3).

Vermont Bennington: In the parade “to the academy of the village, ... the Bennington Band of Music played for the march of the procession, and occasionally during the exercises” (“Bennington-Independence Celebration,” Green-Mountain Farmer, 10 July 1809, 2). Castleton: “Between 11 and 12 o’clock, a democratic procession was formed, and went to the meeting house — and though attended by two bands of music, and every exertion was used, yet much the greatest number of citizens remained behind, exclusive of the military” (Vermont Courier, 15 July 1809, 3). Danby: At “a scaffold erected for the purpose where the exercises of the day commenced, ... an Ode purposely prepared was sung & the exercise closed by prayer” (“Celebration at Danby,” Rutland Herald, 5 August 1809, 4). Middlebury: “The day was ushered in by discharge of cannon and appropriate martial music.” A parade consisting of “the inhabitants of Middlebury and of the adjacent towns,” some of whom were Revolutionary War patriots moved through the town streets to the Meeting House where the exercises were held. “An appropriate and very devotional prayer” was “followed by sacred music, performed by ninety-five singers, and accompanied by instrumental music. The Declaration of Independence, read by Col. Seth Storrs, followed by an ‘Ode on Independence,’ and sung by the same choir.” After the oration and reading of Washington’s Farewell Address, the affair “closed by singing another Ode adapted to the occasion.” A reported noted, “The choir of singers, under the direction of Mr. Bebee, merited and received uncommon applause.” At the dinner “prepared by Mr. Nixon, on the common in front of his house, toasts were drank, accompanied by the discharge of artillery, cheers, “and appropriate

songs”: Song, Hail Columbia — Song, Go Patter to Lubbers — Song, James Madison, My Joe Jem252— Song, Liberty — Song, Rise Columbia — Song, The Drum (“Celebration of the 4th of July, 1809,” Middlebury Mercury, 12 July 1809, 3; “Celebration at Middlebury,” Rutland Herald, 15 July 1809, 2). Randolph: A parade was led by a “handsome band of elegant music, under the direction of Mr. Wm. W. Copp, composed of gentlemen who also volunteered on the occasion.” At a dinner prepared by Maj. Williams, toasts were offered and the following selections performed: Madison’s March — Washington’s March — March to Boston — Duke of Holstein’s March. “The festival was closed by the Ode to Science, sung by Mr. Copp” (“By Request, Fourth of July,” Weekly Wanderer, 14 July 1809, 3).

1810 Publications “The following elegant Ode, written by The Maid of the Grove, was sung at the late celebration by the Tammany Society [at Providence, RI]. ‘Ode’ for the Anniversary of American Independence, 1810.’ Tune —‘Indian Chief.’” First line: “In a chariot ethereal from regions of light” (“Poetical Department,” Columbian Phenix, 14 July 1810, 4); “Tammany Society, or Columbian Order, no. 1. Order of Exercises at the Town/House in Providence, on the Fourth of July, 1810.” Includes, first line: “Great Lord of all, thy matchless power.”/tune “Washington”; first line: “In a chariot ethereal from regions of light”/tune “Indian Chief.” Broadside. [Providence: Printed by Jones & Wheeler, 1810]. Copy in Brown University. “The following was sung at the Theatre, in New York, on the 4th July: ‘The Freedom of the Seas.’253 A new patriotic song written by W. Dunlap, Esq.” First line: “Ye sons of free Columbia, whose fathers dar’d the waves” (“Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 17 July 1810, 4; Concord Gazette, 14 August 1810, 4). “The Fourth of July.” To the tune “Rule Britannia.” By Thomas Paine. First line: “Hail great Republic of the world!” (Lady’s Weekly Miscellany, 24 February 1819, 288). “Liberty. A patriotic song, for the anniversary of American independence, July 4th, 1810. By John A. Schaeffer.” First line: “Let Britain of her champions boast” (American Citizen, 7 July 1810, 2). “An Ode, Composed for and Sung at the Celebration in Leominster, July 4, 1810.” First line: “With patriotic zeal inspired.” Broadside. Leominster, [MA], 1810. Copy in Brown university. “Ode, for Independence, 1810.254 By R.T. Paine, Jun. Esq. and sung in Faneuil Hall, Boston.” First line: “Hail! hail ye patriot spirits!” (New-York Spectator, 11 July 1810, 1; Berkshire Reporter, 18 July 1810, 2; “Poetry,” Vermont Centinel, 20 July 1810, 4; Reporter

67 (Brattleboro, VT), 21 July 1810, 4; Washingtonian, 24 July 1810, 2; Hampshire Federalist, 26 July 1810, 1). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1810. Tune—‘Rule Britannia.’” Broadside. Copy in Library of Congress. “An Ode, sung at the celebration of American independence, July 4th, 1810, at the Third Baptist Meeting-House, Boston.” First line: “Kind Heaven returns the glorious morn” (“Poetry,” Old Colony Gazette, 13 July 1810, 4). “Odes, Songs, &c. composed for the celebration for the 4th of July. The following Song was written for the Bunker Hill Association, and sung, after the 2d toast, by Capt. Bowman”: first line: “When Freedom came down to the shores of the west”; “Ode, by Dr. Nathn’l Noyes — Tune, ‘Chester’”: first line: “Kind Heaven returns the glorious morn.”; “Ode composed for the Young Republicans of Boston, by Mr. W. Parmenter, and sung at their celebration, after the 1st Toast. Tune, ‘Adams and Liberty’”: first line: Columbians arise! let the cannon resound!”255; “The author of the following Song, is Mr. Edward D. Bangs,256 of Worcester. The measure is harmonious, the figures are beautiful and impressive, and the sentiments are pure and patriotic. It reflects high credit on the author, and will give rich pleasure to his brethren in principle. Tune —‘Adams and Liberty’”: first line: “Of the victory won over tyranny’s power.”257 In the National Aegis, accompanying this song was the following editorial note: “The following Song, for the purposes of this great national day, really seems to us to possess uncommon merit. The measure is harmonious, the figures are beautiful and impressive, and the sentiments are pure and patriotic. It reflects high credit on the author, and will give rich pleasure to his brethren in principle. We are indebted to Mr. Edward D. Bangs, of this town, for this beautiful production” (National Aegis, 4 July 1810, 2; Boston Patriot, 11 July 1810, 1; “Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 16 July 1810, 4; American Advocate, 19 July 1810, 2). “A Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “How sweet the remembrance of that happy day.” “Very hastily composed on that day” by Edgar Patterson, editor of the Independent American, for a celebration held at Mr. Crawford’s Hotel in Georgetown (Independent American, 7 July 1810, 2). “The Spirit of Seventy-Five. An Ode. Composed for and sung at the celebration in Leominster, July 4, 1810. Tune, Adams and Liberty.” First line: “American patriots, whose deeds are enroll’d” (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 15 August 1810, 4).

Performances Connecticut Cheshire: The students of the Episcopal Academy marched to the house of the Principal, “attended by a band of music,” and then proceeded to the Academy for the exercises. Later at a “splendid dinner” at Mr. William L. Foot’s, the band provided music after the toasts: Tune, Hail Columbia — Green’s March — The

1810 March of the People—Federal March—Washington’s March — Washington’s Farewell — Rural Festivity — Molly Put the Kettle On — Ode to Science — Ancient Philosopher — Virtue Rewarded — The Illumination — The Students Delight — Too Many Cooks — Yankey Doodle — The Graces (“Celebration of Independence,” American Mercury, 19 July 1810, 3). Hartford: In a procession to the South Meeting House was “a very excellent Band of Musick” and at an “entertainment” at “Mr. Griswold’s ... appropriate musick was played by the Band”: Tune, Independence — Yankee Doodle — President’s March — York Fusiliers — Washington’s March — Jefferson and Liberty — Roslin Castle — Retaliation258— Friendship to Every Freeborn Man—Hail Columbia—Armstrong’s Delight—Rogue’s March—America, Commerce and Freedom—Governor’s March—Rural Felicity—Jove in His Chair — Come Haste to the Wedding (American Mercury, 12 July 1810, 3). Norwich: Republican members of Dartmouth and others celebrate with a dinner, “accompanied with music and the discharge of cannon” (“Celebration at Norwich, VT,” New Hampshire Patriot, 17 July 1810, 2).

District of Columbia In Georgetown, a public dinner and ball were held at Crawford’s Hotel. “After each toast an appropriate air by a band of music” was performed (Independent American, 7 July 1810, 2). See Publications above; at the Washington Theatre, “an entertainment, called Columbia’s Independence259; or, The Temple of Liberty” was presented. Included was a “new song, ‘Little Jane of the Mill,’” sung by Mrs. Wilmot (National Intelligencer, 4 July 1810, 3).

Maine Augusta: “The Republican citizens of Augusta, Hallowell, Gardiner, and the neighbouring towns” celebrated at “the spacious and elegant house of Joshua Gage, Esq.” A parade began at Noon “in front of the Court House, escorted by a detachmnent of Capt. Eastman’s troop of cavalry.... At half past twelve, the procession consisting of about three hundred republican gentlemen, preceded by music arrived at Mr. Gage’s.” The exercises began with a prayer followed by “the performance of appropriate music,” the reading of the Declaration of Independence and an oration. At the dinner “toasts were then given, accompanied with appropriate music, and reiterated shouts of applause” (“Thirty-Fourth National Anniversary,” American Advocate, 12 July 1810, 2); at the courthouse, “Ode to Independence, sung by a choir of singers,” “a national song, set to some music,” and “a national song, set to some lofty strains of vocal and instrumental music” (Herald of Liberty, 10 July 1810, 3).260 Bath: After the ringing of the bells and firing of artillery, a procession “consisting of Revolutionary officers & soldiers, and officers in commission” formed at 10 A.M. and “preceeded by the ‘Lincoln Band of

1810 music’ marched” through city streets and met up with “three hundred Republican citizens” and proceeded to “the Rev. Mr. Jenk’s Meeting House, where, in the presence of a brilliant, respectable and crowded audience, the performances commenced with an excellent piece of music from the Band.” The exercises were ended with music. Later the assemblage processed to a green arbor “near the house of Peleg Tallman, Esq. where between two and three hundred persons partook of an excellent dinner” after which “toasts were drank accompanied with the discharge of cannon and appropriate music”: Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — President’s March — March in the God of Love — Jefferson’s March — Roslin Castle — A March—Bennetts March—St. John’s March—Massachusetts March — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourselves261— O Dear What Can the Matter Be — Green’s March — Handel Clarionett — Quick Step — Come Haste to the Wedding (“Celebration at Bath,” Eastern Argus, 12 July 1810, 2). Buck Old: “The inhabitants of Backfield, Hartford and Sumner, with a number of their fellow citizens from the adjoining towns, met at Mr. Benjamin Spaulding’s, and at 11 o’clock formed a procession and proceeded to the Hill on the Common, where they had previously planted the Tree of Liberty for the occasion.” They marched “preceded by very excellent martial music” (“Celebration at Buck Old (Me.),” Eastern Argus, 12 July 1810, 2). Fairfield: The celebrations included members of the Somerset Halcyonic and Logical Societies and citizens and soldiers. A procession from Mr. Lawrence’s Inn to the South Meeting House, included a musical ensemble (“Celebration at Fairfield,” American Advocate, 12 July 1810, 2). Jay: On the occasion of the installation of a liberty pole, “136 feet in the air,” at a bower, the exercises included “an appropriate Hymn, sung by a select choir.... The exercises were closed by music in its highest style of excellence.” Later “toasts were drank, succeeded by discharges of platoon firing from a beautiful Volunteer Company, commanded by Captain Lamkin, together with repeated plaudits and music from the Martial Band” (“Independence,” Eastern Argus, 16 August 1810, 2). Limington: A procession of the town’s Republican citizens and military offices, led by “martial music,” marched to a grove where the principal oration was given (“Celebration at Limington,” Eastern Argus, 12 July 1810, 2). Minot: Both Federalists and Republican citizens assembled at the house of Cyrus Clark where they marched, “accompanied by a military escort and martial music,” to Jonathan Scott’s Meeting House “where the exercises commenced by excellent vocal and instrumental music.” Later at a dinner held at Clark’s house, toasts were presented “accompanied with platoon firings and martial music” (“Celebration of the 4th of July,” Portland Gazette and Maine Advertizer, 16 July 1810, 2).

68 New Gloucester: The “Federalists of this and a number of the adjoining towns met ... at Capt. Johnson’s Hall, whence it proceeded to the meeting house, preceded by martial music. The exercises of the day were opened by singing an appropriate Psalm.” After an oration, “the whole closed by performing that charming piece of music, the ‘Ode on Science’” (Portland Gazette, and Maine Advertizer, 16 July 1810, 1). Portland: Republican citizens “and their friends from the neighboring towns assembled at Union Hall” and paraded to “the Rev. Dr. Dean’s meeting house,” where “the exercises commenced with excellent music by the Portland Band.” Later back at the Hall a dinner included toasts that were “accompanied with discharges of cannon and airs from an elegant band of music, whose performances were such as to confer upon them the greatest honor” (Public Advertiser, 13 July 1810, 3). Thomaston: Members of the Social Library Society and others “together with a large singing company” at the North Meeting House, “musick of the best vocal kind, exhilarated the auditors, both before and after the Oration, and added to their joyous sensations on the recollection of the day. The several Military Companies, then took under their escort, the Society aforesaid, and other respectable citizens, and attended by a choir of musicians unusual in number, many of whom were under the age of twelve years, and completely versed in melodious martial (trains) proceeded to Mr. John Gleason’s hotel” (“Celebration of Independence at Thomaston, 1810,” Portland Gazette, and Maine Advertizer, 30 July 1810, 1). Turner: A parade of citizens began at the house of Mr. Seth Staples and ended at the meeting house. After an oration, “an excellent Ode on Science” was sung “and other well adapted pieces of music, conducted by Maj. Cary” (“Celebration at Turner,” Eastern Argus, 19 July 1810, 2). Waldoborough: “At 10 o’clock, a newly raised company of light infantry, in an elegant uniform dress, under the command of Capt. Isaac G. Reed, paraded and escorted a group of citizens to the Meeting House, where the exercises there included ‘an appropriate anthem and prayer.’” Capt. Reed’s infantry provided the music. “Four of the musicians, whose skill was surprising, were under the age of twelve years” (“Federal Celebration of the 4th of July in Waldoborough,” Portland Gazette and Maine Advertizer, 16 July 1810, 2). Wiscasset: After “divine service” at the Meeting House, “the Federal Republicans moved in procession, attended by martial music, from Mr. Tinkham’s Hotel to Washington Hall, where they partook of a sumptuous collation, provided with much taste and elegance” (“Celebration of Independence at Wiscasset,” Portland Gazette, and Maine Advertizer, 16 July 1810, 2). Yorke: “At twelve o’clock a grand procession, consisting of ecclesiastical, civil and military characters, and citizens, was formed, and being preceded by the celebrated Exeter Band, marched to the Meeting

69 House, where after instrumental music, and an appropriate hymn, read by that venerable Republican, the Rev. Mr. Litchfield, and sung by a select choir, the throne of grace was addressed by the Rev. Mr. Messinger, in a very excellent and uncommonly pertinent prayer.” After an oration, “the exercises were closed by music in its highest style of excellence, and the procession being again formed, proceeded to the Hall of the Court House, which was handsomely decorated, and where an elegant entertainment was prepared.” Toasts were drank, “succeeded by discharges from Capt. Howard’s Artillery, repeated plaudits, and music by the band”: The Day that Made Us Free — Grand Sonata, or Democratic March — Huzza for the Constitution — Madison’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — Adams & Liberty — Jefferson’s March — The Empire of the Laws — Massachusetts March — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — The Loom and the Distaff—New-England Patriotism—Quick March— Village Curate — Love in a Village — National Character (“Celebration of the Fourth of July, at Yorke, Me,” Boston Patriot, 14 July 1810, 1; “County Celebration at York,” Eastern Argus, 19 July 1810, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: The public exercises occurred at the circus, Chevalier Granpre, with the doors opening after 11 A.M. As more than 1000 persons, including members of the Washington Society, entered “the noise and confusion were drowned by the lively music of the band, composed principally of members. “‘Washington’s March’ was struck up by the band, and was received with great applause from the area, and by manifestations of pleasure in some of the visitors.” Meanwhile a group of “Democrats and Liberty men” forced their way into the circus and fights ensued. A Requiem, composed for the occasion by Mr. John Cole,262 a member of the Society, was then sung. The effect produced upon the audience is the best eulogium upon the musical taste and talents of Mr. Cole. The music issuing from behind the cannon which supported the platform, containing the military trophies, the bust of Washington, wreaths and crown of laurel, and other emblems, was tenfold more sweet and melodious, appearing to be at a distance, and being concealed from view.

(“The Fourth of July,” Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 11 July 1810, 3; Public Advertiser, 17 July 1810, 2; The Repertory, 17 July 1810, 2.) Williamsport: This town enjoyed “martial music” on the Fourth and at a dinner in the long room of the Columbian Inn, songs were sung (Hagers-Town Gazette, 10 July 1810, 3).

Massachusetts Abington: At the Meeting House “a very numerous and respectable audience, composed of the Republican inhabitants of that and several of the adjoining towns” gathered. The local newspaper reported: “The

1810 music composed for the occasion by Mr. David Pool, of this town, was performed by the band and others, in a style of very great excellence.” Later the dinner toasts “were drank, accompanied with music by the band, and firing by Capt. Smith’s Artillery” (“National Festival,” Independent Chronicle, 12 July 1810, 1); the exercises at the “Meeting House of the Second Congregational Society ... concluded with the performance of a patriotic Ode.” At the dinner held at Dyer & Perry’s Hall, “toasts were drank, accompanied with the enlivening song” (“Celebration at Abington,” Boston Patriot, 11 July 1810, 2). Becket: Militia and residents marched to the meeting house, “attended by a band of music.” The exercises included the singing of “an ode composed for the occasion” (“Fourth of July,” Berkshire Reporter, 18 July 1810, 3). Boston: At the Old South Meeting House, “where religious exercises were performed by the Rev. Mr. Channing, and an Oration delivered (agreeably to the ancient institution of the town) by Alexander Townsend, Esq. The following original Ode was also sung.” First line: “Again we hail the festal morn.” According to the Trenton Federalist, the “stanzas [were] written by Hon. Thomas Dawes.” Two hymns were also sung: “The mighty God is our defence” (first line) and “Shine, Lord, on this thy people shine” (first line) (New-York Spectator, 11 July 1810, 1; “Independence,” Trenton Federalist, 16 July 1810, 2; “Order of Exercises at the Municipal Celebration of the Thirty Fourth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1810,” broadside [Boston: J. Eliot, 1810]); at the exercises held by the Bunker Hill Association and “joined by the Young Republicans,” the assemblage heard the “149th Hymn, 2d book, from Dr. Watts—Tune ‘Mear’” (first line: “Eternal Sovereign of the sky”) and an “Ode composed for the occasion, by Dr. Nathl. Noyes — Tune ‘Chester’” (first line: “Kind Heaven returns the glorious morn”). Later members and guests marched to the Exchange Coffee House where “after the removal of the cloth, toasts were drank, accompanied by the plaudits of the company, the firing of cannon, and appropriate and animating music” (“Celebration of American Independence at Boston,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 July 1810, 2; Columbian Phenix, 14 July 1810, 1; An Oration Pronounced at Boston on the Fourth Day of July, 1810, before the “Bunker-Hill Association.” ... By Daniel Waldo Lincoln [Boston: Printed for Isaac Munroe, 1810], 19–20); at the Third Baptist Meeting House with the Governor present, the services included “hymns, an anthem, and an ode, composed for the occasion” and “sung by a select choir” (“Executive Celebration,” Public Advertiser, 13 July 1810, 2; Columbian Phenix, 14 July 1810, 1; “Executive Celebration,” Bunker Hill, 26 July 1810, 2). See Publications above. Dedham: The Democratic Republicans gathered at 1 P.M. at Mr. Marsh’s Tavern and “escorted by Capt. Eaton’s Company of Light Infantry, and a band of musick, it proceeded to the Rev. Mr. Bates’s Meeting

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1810 House. The exercise was begun by musick by the band.” Back at the Court House Hall dinner was served by Marsh and “appropriate toasts were drank, accompanied with discharges of cannon, and musick by the band” (“Celebration at Dedham,” Boston Patriot, 11 July 1810, 1). New Bedford: A procession included “citizens from various parts of Bristol & Plymouth Counties, which moved to the sound of martial music, to the meeting house” where the exercises included two psalms and “an original Ode, performed with great taste, to the air of ‘Ode on Science’” (“Celebration of Independence,” Old Colony Gazette, 6 July 1810, 3). Pittsfield: A parade included “martial music, and the Pittsfield Band, under the direction of Messrs. Root, Perry and Butler who acted as marshals of the day.” Exercises at the meeting house included “music by the choir and on the organ.” Later at the dining hall of the hotel, a band of music performed tunes (“Great National Jubilee,” Pittsfield Sun, 11 July 1810, 2). Salem: A procession included “a numerous band of inimitable performers on various instruments, composed of gentlemen from Greenwich, who politely volunteered their services in honor of the memorable occasion; and it is but scanty justice to them to declare that their performance was indescribably delightful. They wore a handsome uniform, which greatly added to the splendor of the arrangement and were followed by two gentlemen, each bearing a stand of superb colours.” Also performing that day was the Granville Band. After the exercises at the court house, the men assembled at the hotel for dinner and toasts accompanied by the following music: Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, Yankey Doodle — Tune, Bellisarius—Tune, Strong’s March—Tune, Federal March— Tune, Washington’s March — Tune, Gen. Green’s March — Holstein’s March — Tune, The Apprentice Boy — Tune, Baron Steuben’s March — Tune, Henry IV’s March — Tune, Bonaparte’s Favorite — Tune, Belles of New-York — Tune, Duke of York’s March — Tune, Massachusetts March—Tune, Columbia’s Sons Awake — Tune, Short Troop (Northern Post, 12 July 1810, 2); the Independent Cadet Company had dinner at Mr. Grant’s Hall. “toasts were drank, accompanied by excellent music by the band, belonging to the corps.” “Let tyrants shake their iron rod,”263 to the tune “Chester” was “composed by a member of the company for the occasion” and “sung after the toasts were drank” (Essex Register, 7 July 1810, 2).

New Hampshire Amherst: Several hundred Republican citizens marched “escorted by Capt. Patterson’s Company of Artillery” and celebrated at the meeting house and later at a bower where “Herrick’s Dirge” was performed (New-Hampshire Patriot, 10 July 1810, 2). Portsmouth: A procession to the “minister’s meeting house” included a band of music. The exercises included “odes written for the occasion” and “sung by

a full choir of ladies and gentlemen who are entitled to our warmest praises for their excellent performance.” The odes are “Ode for the Fourth July, 1810, by S. Sewall” (first line: “Ye patriot sons, begin the lay”; “Ode, for Independence, 1810, by Joseph Bartlett, Esq.” (first line: “When darknes [sic] roll’d on boundless space”). The exercises closed “with appropriate music” (“Celebration of American Independence,” Portsmouth Oracle, 7 July 1810, 3, and 14 July 1810, 1; “American Independence,” New-Hampshire Gazette, 10 July 1810, 3).

New Jersey Allentown: After the ringing of bells and an artillery salute, a procession from Mrs. Forman’s house to the Presbyterian Church included a music ensemble. The exercises at the church included “sacred music,” “an Ode,” and a performance of “Hail Columbia with alterations.” Later Mrs. Forman provided “an elegant entertainment” replete with toasts “amidst discharges of musketry and the resound of martial music” (“Allentown Celebration,” Trenton Federalist, 16 July 1810, 3). Newark: The Musical Society was scheduled to march in the town parade and the exercises were to include three vocal works (Sentinel of Freedom, 26 June 1810, 3).

New York Mamaroneck: The Republican citizens celebrated at the house of Mr. Benjamin Kirby. Toasts were drank “and some appropriate songs were sung to suit the occasion” (“Celebration at Mamaroneck,” Public Advertiser, 12 July 1810, 2). New York: Two bands of music participated in the parade of the Washington Benevolent Society and the Hamilton Society down Broadway and other streets to the Circus. When the van had arrived at the Circus, the lines opened right and left, and marched from the rear through the line. As the officers of the Washington Society passed the different bands, they were saluted and as they entered the Circus, the Hamilton band stationed in the boxes over the pit door played Washington’s March and continued the same tune until the whole were seated. After the members of the two societies were seated, a piece of Martial Music was performed by the military band. The Declaration of Independence was read by Major Vanhook. A piece of Solemn Music was performed by Mr. King’s band.... The oration was followed by a piece of soft music, by the band of the Hamilton Society; during which a collection was taken up for the relief of indigent members. After the whole was concluded, the procession was formed in reversed order and proceeded down Broadway, and through Robinson street to the College Green, where after a grand final by the three bands, they were dismissed.

(“National Festival,” Federal Republican & Commercial Gazette, 12 July 1810, 2); The New York Typo-

71 graphical Society holds its inaugural meeting at Harmony Hall to hear an oration and later “at the house of Mr. Randolph in Fair-street, where a dinner” was served. Thereafter, “toasts, odes, and songs” were presented (Mercantile Advertiser, 30 June 1810, 2); the Hibernian Provident Society met in a park and later returned to the Union Hotel where dinner and toasts “were drank, interspersed with original and patriotic songs”: Song, Let tyrants sing their birthday odes — Song, Hail Americans — Song, Hail Columbia — Song, Death of Warren — Song, Give us the men whose dauntless souls264— Song, The Honest Man — Song, No Syncophantic Babler — Song, Long life and success to the farmer — Song, Conscience never stings and knaves — Song, Come, then my jolly boys — It long has been said, but I’m sure it’s a lie, that England ought our mistress to be — Song, Inconsistency’s plan for there guide, they soon will confound one another — Song, Peter, Martin, and John, they together all met—Song, The sweet little girl of my heart (“Celebration of the Fourth of July, by the Hibernian Provident Society,” Public Advertiser, 7 July 1810, 2). Yonkers: “At 12 o’clock the procession was formed, and marched through the village as far as Mr. Howland’s house, passing through his lawn in the following order — 1st A squadron of Captain Merrit’s troop dismounted, under the command of Lieut Peter Underhill, with swords drawn, preceded by the president of the day, and commanding officers. 2d Band of music under the direction of Capt. Demerest. 3d Civil authority, headed by lieut. Rich, bearing a superb standard, executed in the village by Mr. Aaron Varick. 4th Grown male citizens, one hundred and thirty file. 5th Boys walking hand in hand, twenty pair. 6th Ladies, arm and arm, from sixty to seventy pair. 7th The orator of the day.

In the church yard, there were “three cheers from the citizens, and the appropriate tune of Hail Columbia by the band.... At the dinner “prepared by citizen Gilbert Fuion, under a booth, one hundred and thirty ladies graced the table with their presence.” Following dinner, toasts were presented “accompanied with the discharge of the artillery, and appropriate music by Capt. Demarest’s band,” including: Yankee Doodle— Jefferson’s March—Hail Columbia—Hail America— Solemn Dirge — Yankee Doodle — Rogue’s March — The Loom and the Shuttle — Come Haste to the Wedding — Death of Warren — Jefferson and Liberty (“Celebration at Yonkers,” Columbian, 12 July 1810, 2).

1810 cession advanced to Shilow Church, (Preceded by music performed by Messrs. A. Bartlett, T. Polk, and R. Bracey) where an appropriate Psalm and Prayer were addressed to Almighty God by the Rev. Davis Collins; then the following Oration was delivered by Richard S. Moore, and closed with ‘Columbia, Columbia, to glory arise!’ sung by A. Bartlett and a select choir of singers” (“Communication,” Carolina Gazette, 10 August 1810, 4).

Pennsylvania Easton: Following a parade of militia through city streets, the Light Infantry Company sat down to a dinner, with toasts accompanied by the following music: Hail Liberty — Washington’s March — President’s March — Dead March — Yankee Doodle — To Arms, to Arms ye Brave — Hail Columbia — Here’s a Health to All Good Lasses (“The Fourth of July,” Pennsylvania Herald, and Easton Intelligencer, 18 July 1810, 2). Nazareth: At a dinner celebration held at “Capt. Henry Jarrets,” music following the toasts included: Hail Liberty — Hail Columbia — Roslin Castle — Anacreon — The Farmer — Washington’s March — How Sleeps the Brave—Jefferson’s March—Madison’s March—Snyders March265—The Constitution—The Soldiers Return — Alknomook — Yankee Doodle — And Ne’er Shall the Sons of Columbia — The Lovely Bride (“Communication,” Pennsylvania Herald and Easton Intelligencer, 18 July 1810, 2). Philadelphia: At a celebration of the American Republican Society, “a large saloon, 265 feet long by 56 wide, was erected on a field near the banks of the Schuylkill, between Mr. Evan’s tavern and Beck’s shot tower ... an orchestra was raised in the centre of the salon, where a full band of music attended.” Some 700 persons heard the following pieces that accompanied the toasts: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Dead March — Roslin Castle — Wayne’s March — President’s March — Stoney Point — America, Commerce and Freedom — Battle of Prague — Hail Liberty (“Philadelphia, July 6,” Federal Republican & Commercial Gazette, 9 July 1810, 2; “Philadelphia Celebration,” Trenton Federalist, 16 July 1810, 3); at “Old Oak Place,” a private residence, songs were sung and tunes played on the piano: Catch, ‘Old Thomas Day, Dead and Turned to Clay’— Song by myself, ‘Unfold Father Time’—‘Air’ on the piano by my aunt Dina, Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Song by myself, ‘In the Garb of Old Gaul’— Song by myself (assisted), Moderation. Tune ‘Old Hundred’— Duet, my grandmother and aunt, Two Maidens sat Complaining — Here my grandmother favored us with the song of the ‘Poor Old Woman of Eighty,’266 ’till we shook (“Old Oak Place,” Tickler, 18 July 1810, 3).

North Carolina

Rhode Island

Swift Creek: “A numerous assembly of the respectable inhabitants of Swift and Fisten Creeks” gathered “at Mrs. Digg’s Hotel” and “in solemn pro-

Newport: Following a procession, the exercises at the Second Baptist Meeting-House, “several excellent odes were sung by a select choir in a manner that could

1811 not fail to warm the heart and elevate the mind” (“Fourth of July,” Rhode-Island American and General Advertiser, 10 July 1810, 2); members of the Tammany Society and Republican residents marched through city street to the Methodist Chapel where the exercises were held. “A choir of excellent singers performed several pieces of musick in a skillful and appropriate manner. The gentlemen who composed the band, volunteered their services, and contributed greatly to the enjoyments of the day. Much credit is also due the vocal performers, particularly the ladies, whose judgment and skill added much to the pleasure and satisfactions, which a crowded audience universally felt” (“American Independence,” Rhode-Island Republican, 11 July 1810, 2; Columbian Phenix, 14 July 1810, 2). Providence: A Republican celebration by the Tammany Society began with a procession from the State House to the Town House. In the middle of the line “was placed the Band of Music, in full uniform.” The services at the Town House began “with sacred music by an excellent choir of singers.” After a prayer, there followed “the singing of an Original Ode, [to be published in our next] the execution of which by the female singers (assisted by the male in repeating the two last lines of each verse) was novel and elegant.” The Declaration was then read by Levi Wheaton “and after a Voluntary by the Band” was performed. The oration followed that and “another voluntary by the band” after which the group then processed to Mr. Carey’s Hotel for dinner. The toasts presented included the following pieces: Tune, Rise Columbia — Adams and Liberty — Jefferson’s March — Grand March — Bunker-Hill — Washington’s Counsel — O Dear What Can the Matter Be — Brave Montgomery — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Spinning-Wheel — Light in the East — Majesty — Rural Felicity — Indian Chief267— Rhode-Island March (“Republican Celebration,” Columbian Phenix, 7 July 1810, 3); another celebration with exercises and militia participating took place at the First Congregational Meeting House followed by a dinner at Washington Hall. Performed there were the following “well adapted tunes by the band of music”: Hail Columbia — Roslin Castle — President’s March — Rhode Island March — Pleyel’s Hymn268— General Green’s March — Washington’s March — Old Hundred — Hamilton’s March — Oscar’s Ghost269— How Sweet through the Woodland—Bunker’s Hill—Cease Rude Boreas — Yankee Doodle — When storms and clouds obscure the sky—Pickering’s March270—How imperfect is expression (“Independence,” Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 13 July 1810, 3); at the Providence Theatre, “the favorite dramatick piece, in four acts, called The Child of Nature was performed. At the end of the comedy, a celebrated Song, called ‘Hail Liberty,’ [was sung] by Mr. Darley.”271 Also performed was “the very popular comick opera, of The Rival Soldiers, the whole to conclude with an afterpiece, called Preparations for a Cruise; or, Naval Gratitude, ... with

72 appropriate characteristick [sic]songs and scenery adapted to the occasion” (Rhode-Island American, and General Advertiser, 3 July 1810, 3). See Publications above.

South Carolina Charleston: After an early morning military parade, “at half past eleven o’clock, the ’76 Association, preceded by a band of music, walked in procession to St. Philip’s church,” where the exercises of the day took place (“Fourth of July,” City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1810, 3).

Vermont Royalton: “A large concourse of citizens” celebrated the Fourth and “the public exercises were introduced, and regularly intersperced [sic] with animated and devotional musick” (“Celebration,” Spooners Vermont Journal, 16 July 1810, 3). Rutland: “A numerous procession” was led by “martial music” to the Meeting House where the exercises began and ended with “vocal music.” The assemblage returned to Mr. Gordon’s “where a green bowry was erected and an excellent dinner served up; about three hundred citizens, ladies and gentlemen, joined the festive board.” After dinner toasts “accompanied by discharges of artillery and the cheers of martial music” were presented (“National Festival,” Rutland Herald, 11 July 1810, 2).

1811 Publications “A Federal Hymn, composed for a Tory mock celebration of July 4th, 1811.” First line: “To thee, dear George, our sovereign king” (“Poetry,” Old Colony Gazette, 28 June 1811, 4). “The following beautiful ode, composed for the 4th July, 1811, by the Hon. Joseph Story,272was sung at the republican celebration in Salem.” First line: “Welcome! Welcome the day, when assembled in one”273 (“Native Poetry,” Columbian, 19 July 1811, 3; Green-Mountain Farmer, 5 August 1811, 4; New Jersey Journal, 13 August 1811, 4). “For the Fourth of July. Tune —‘General Wolfe.’” First line: “A council was held in the chambers of Jove” (The Shamrock, or Hibernian Chronicle, 29 June 1811, 3; “Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 4 July 1811, 4). “The following pieces were sung on the Fourth of July, at the Second Baptist Meeting-House, for the Tammany Society [Newport, RI]. Ode for Independence: (first line: “We hail Columbia’s natal day”; Psalm XXXIII (first line: “Blest is the nation, where the Lord”); Original Ode (first line: “To Heav’n let grateful paens rise”) (“Poetry,” Rhode-Island Republican, 10 July 1811, 4). “Ode, for the 4th July, 1811.” By John Phelps. First

73 line: “Hail, hail the day of Freedom’s birth!/Ode, addressed to the revolutionary patriots of 1776. First line: “Sires of freedom, famed in history.” Broadside, [Brattleboro, VT?], 1811. Copy in Brown University. “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1811. By Doct. Peter Bryant.274 Tune —‘Rise Columbia.’” First line: “Pour in deep tones the solemn strain.” Note: “The following Ode was sung at the patriotic celebration of the 4th of July, in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. It is worthy of the county and the celebrators” (Columbian Centinel, 13 July 1811, 4; Connecticut Herald, 5 August 1811, 4; Historical Magazine and Notes and Queries Concerning the Antiquities [June 1873]:334). “Ode — for the Fourth of July. By Samuel Brazer, Jr.275 Tune —‘Heaving the Lead.’” First line: “Say, shall in Freedom’s lov’d abode” (National Aegis, 3 July 1811, 2–3; Old Colony Gazette, 26 July 1811, 1; William McCarty, The New National Song Book, Containing Songs, Odes, and Other Poems, on National Subjects. Compiled from Various Sources [NY: Leavitt and Allen, 184–?]). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1811. By R.T. Paine, Jun. Esq. Tune —‘Battle of the Nile.’”276 First line: “Let patriot pride our patriot triumph wake!”277 The ode was sung at Faneuil Hall in Boston and published under the title “National Ode, Arouse! Arouse! Columbia’s Sons Arouse! As sung by Mr. McFarland278 at the concerts in Boston with Universal Applause” [Boston: G. Graupner, 1811].279 The Boston Gazette noted that the song “was received with repeated applause. From the powerful simplicity of its poetical style, the admirable adaptation of the words to an impressive national tune, and the strong plain sense of its political principles, we have no doubt it will become the favourite popular song of the day” (“National Ode,” Boston Gazette, 8 July 1811, 1; New-England Palladium 9 July 1811, 1; New-York Commercial Advertiser, 12 July 1811, 3; Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 16 July 1811, 3; Old Colony Gazette, 19 July 1811, 1; Merrimack’s Intelligencer, 20 July 1811, 4; “Wreath,” Balance, and State Journal, 23 July 1811, 240; Connecticut Herald, 23 July 1811, 4; Rhode-Island Republican, 24 July 1811, 4; “Poetry,” Columbian Phenix; or, Providence Patriot, 27 July 1811, 4; Columbian, 31 July 1811, 2; Columbian Centinel, 3 August 1811, 3; Independent American, 6 August 1811, 4). “An Ode composed for the Fourth of July, 1811.” First line: “Let mimic thunder shake the skies” (Sentinel of Freedom, 23 July 1811, 4). “An ode for the Washington Benevolent Society. By Uri K. Hill. Sung at the National Jubilee — New York, Fourth of July, 1811.” First line: “Ye patriots, rejoice, while ye hail this glad morning” (“Poetry,” Rhode-Island American, 12 July 1811, 1; Berkshire Reporter, 13 July 1811, 4). “Ode, written for the 35th anniversary of American independence in Faneuil Hall, by Lucius M. Sargent, Esq280; musick by Mr. Hewitt.” Broadside, [Boston, 1811]. “Song for the 4th July 1811.” By James Newhall.

1811 First line: “Of Liberty once could Columbia boast.” Broadside. [n.p., 1811]. Copy in Brown University. “Song [“Printers’ Ode”], written by Mr. Samuel Woodworth281 of New York, and sung by Mr. D.H. Reins282 on the celebration of the 4th of July, before the Typographical Society of that city. Tune — ‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “From the crystalline courts of the temple of light.”; “Ode on the Art of Printing” (first line: “When wrapp’d in folds of papal gloom,”283 tune: “Rise Columbia.” (George Ashbridge, An Oration, delivered before the New York Typographical Society, at their second anniversary, on the Fourth of July [New York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1811]; Columbian, 9 July 1811, 2; New-England Palladium, 16 July 1811, 4; American Watchman, 20 July 1811, 1; Chenago Weekly Advertiser, 26 July 1811, 4; Columbian Phenix, 27 July 1811, 1; Otsego Herald, 27 July 1811, 1; New-Hampshire Patriot, 30 July 1811, 4; National Aegis, 31 July 1811, 4; The Bee, 2 August 1811, 2; New Jersey Journal, 6 August 1811, 4.) “The Star of the West.” “The following song was composed by William Harper, and sung at the celebration of the anniversary of independence, the 4th July.” First line: “All hail to the day! when a nation arose” (from the Columbian Gazette as printed in The Columbian, 8 August 1811, 3; “Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 9 December 1811, 4). See Publications, 1812.

Performances District of Columbia President Madison was escorted by military troops to the “Church in F Street” where the day’s exercises were performed including “a number of appropriate airs from an elegant band of music.” At “a plentiful dinner” on the banks of the Tiber River, with 200–300 citizens in attendance, the U.S. Marine Band performed: America, Commerce and Freedom—District March — Hail Columbia — How Sweet through the Woodlands — Jefferson’s March — Madison’s March — Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle. One reporter noted that “an original song to the tune of ‘Hail Columbia’ from the pen of J.J. Moore” was played as well as “A Grand March” (National Intelligencer, 6 July 1811, 2; Enquirer, 12 July 1811, 2).

Maine Fairfield: At the Meeting House, music by a choir with “an appropriate hymn” (American Advocate, 17 July 1811, 2). New Sharon: After a parade “to the booths prepared to keep them [Republicans] from the scorching sun,” the exercises were held which included the reading of a psalm “which was sung with delightful harmony and devotion” (“Fourth of July Celebration at New-Sharon,” American Advocate, 28 August 1811, 3).

74

1811 Maryland Baltimore: The Washington Society of Maryland “convened at the School Room, and proceeded in a body to the Theatre, headed by the President. The exercises commenced with Washington’s March, by a full band of music, consisting chiefly of members seated behind the decorated platform. The sweetness and melody of the music were heightened by issuing from a retired and concealed part of the stage. Its effect is the best eulogium upon the musical talents and taste of Mr. John Cole.” After the Declaration of Independence was read, “Hail Columbia” was struck up by the band. Next, the Farewell Address of Washington was read by Mr. Solomon Ward. His introductory remarks were eloquent and pathetic, and were delivered with great sensibility. When the reading closed, a requiem, composed by Mr. Cole, was sung by several gentlemen. It was solemn and affecting, disposing all hearts to feelings of grief, gratitude and charity. The feelings of all being wound up to the highest pitch of sensibility, were let down by an enlivening Ode. [Salem Gazette, 12 July 1811, 2.]

Massachusetts Boston: The Bunker Hill Association and distinguished guests met at a bower “on the heights of Bunker Hill.” Their dinner included toasts, “mid the discharge of artillery, music from an excellent band, and the plaudits of the company”: Tune, Hail Columbia — Pres. March — Col. Orne’s March — Massachusetts March — In Freedom We’re Born, &c — Hail Patriot Band!— Ode, Hark the Goddess of Fame — Jefferson’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — Yankee Doodle — The Mariner — Long Life and Success to the Farmer — America, Commerce and Freedom — Boston March—Old Hundred—Rural Felicity (“National Jubilee!” Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1811, 2); the Washington Society met at the Exchange Coffee House at 2 P.M. for “a splendid and sumptuous entertainment.” After a reading of the Declaration, “an elegant and patriotic Ode, composed for the occasion, was sung in full chorus by the company.” The toasts were “accompanied with repeated and unanimous cheers, and appropriate music by the African Band, in full uniform” (“The Washington Society,” Independent Chronicle, 4 and 8 July 1811, 3 and 2, respectively); at 3 P.M. a “Federal procession” marched from Boylston Hall to Faneuil Hall for an entertainment that included toasts with the following music: Washington’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — March — Knox’s March — Bonaparte’s March — Yankee Doodle (“Municipal Celebration,” Columbian Centinel, 6 July 1811, 2). Pittsfield: Following a procession to the Meeting House, “the choir of singers was numerous, and their performances admirable. As were also those of the instrumental music.” At the dinner at the Hall in the hotel, toasts were drank “accompanied by the discharge of cannon and music from the band” (“Na-

tional Birth-Day,” Pittsfield Sun, or, Republican Monitor, 6 July 1811, 3). Salem: “A fine band of music” in the procession to the Republican celebration at “the Rev. Mr. Spaulding’s Meeting House”: “Hymn on Independence, tune ‘Old Hundred,’ sung by an excellent Choir of singers, assisted by the band”—“Hymn, ‘A Contrast between Europe and America’”— an “excellent Ode composed by the Hon. Joseph Story284 was sung by a Choir of Females, with a melody and manner truly captivating, and the exercises were concluded with a march by the Band.” (see Publications above.) At the dinner that followed, in the “lower hall of the Court House” were performed: Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Anacreon in Heaven — America, Commerce & Freedom — Yankee Doodle — President’s March — Jefferson’s March — Tekeli285— Salem Cadet March (“Celebration of American Independence,” Essex Register, 6 July 1811, 2); the Federalists of Salem, including soldiers and citizens marched to Dr. Barnard’s Meeting House where “the exercises were interspersed by excellent and appropriate music.” A dinner was then provided in Washington Hall where “toasts were given, interspersed with music from the band, and appropriate songs”: Music, Yankee Doodle — Crazy Jane286— Dirge — Pickering’s March287— O Dear, What Can the Matter Be — Jove in His Chair — Song, Let Rebels and Traitors All Hang in a String — Money in Both Pockets — Dirge — Wilkinson’s March288— Old Hundred — Song, In a Shop of My Own, &c.—Brave Lads and Bonnie Lasses—Columbia’s Sons! Awake to Glory &c.— Boston March —Col. Orne’s March —New Song, Jim Madison, My Joe, Jim &c.— Rogue’s March — Molly, Hang the Kettle On289— Tally Ho!— Gen. Derby’s March290 (“Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 6 July 1811, 3).

New Hampshire Amherst: A celebration at Converse’s Hall resulted in “correct sentiment in flowing glasses passed around, with mirth and song” (Farmer’s Cabinet, 9 July 1811, 3). Concord: The day began with a procession that included music by two bands. At the Meeting House, “several Anthems selected for the occasion were very ably performed with vocal and instrumental music, which greatly enhanced the pleasures and solemnity of the day. The following verses, among others composed for the occasion, were sung to the tune of ‘Machias.’” First line: “How pleasant ’tis to see” (“Celebration of American Independence,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 9 July 1811, 3). Henniker: The celebration at Henniker included “the citizens of the neighboring towns.... A procession was formed at 11 o’clock, escorted by Capt. Barns’ Company of Cavalry, Capt. M’Neils Company of Grenadiers, Capt. Chases, and Capt. Ames’ Companies of Artillery, preceeded by an excellent band of music, which moved from the north meeting-house to the Common by the fourth meeting-house, where all

75 persons were served with suitable refreshment.” Following, the exercises took place at the North Meeting House and the dinner on the Common. Toasts were presented accompanied by the following pieces: Lord Bayonet’s March — Massa March — Washington’s March — Read’s March — President’s March — Paris’ March — Bonaparte’s March — Capt. Miller’s MarchOxford Camp — Litchfield March — Maj. Minot’s March — Handel’s Clarionet — St. John’s March — Irish Wash-Woman—Jefferson and Liberty—Crane’s March—Lady Bruce’s Reel (“National Jubilee,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 9 July 1811, 3). Portsmouth: Federalists paraded, “accompanied by a band of music,” to the meeting house. “An appropriate Ode by Mr. S. Sewall” was presented. The exercises ended “by an original Ode from the pen of Joseph Bartlett, Esq.”: “Song for the 4th July, 1811. Tune — Vicar of Bray,” First line: “Time was, when this blest morn arose” (“Celebration of Independence,” Portsmouth Oracle, 6 July 1811, 3).

New Jersey Scotch Plains: A parade that began at Col. Swan’s included “martial music” and “forty young ladies all dressed in uniform, with sprigs of laurel in their hands, chanting an appropriate ode on the occasion.” At the Baptist Meeting House, the exercises included three odes “by the choristers.” Later a dinner included “suitable music” (New Jersey Journal, 16 July 1811, 2). Fancy Hill: At Col. Joshua Ladd Howell’s residence, “an excellent band of music”: Hail Liberty — Hail Columbia—Madison’s March—Roslin Castle— Washington’s March—the Songs of Harmony—Dead March in Saul — New Washington’s March — New March—Spanish Patriotic Waltz—Yankee Doodle— Hamilton’s Funeral Dirge—America, Commerce and Freedom — Learning and Leather — Brother Soldiers, All Hail — Yankee Doodle — Mon Cher Amie (“National Anniversary,” American Daily Advertiser, 12 July 1811, 3).

New York Chatham: The “Chatham Band of martial musick” accompanied a procession “to a stage which had been erected in field about the distance of a quarter of a mile” where the exercises began with an address and a reading of the Declaration of Independence “succeeded by ‘Hail Columbia,’ by the band.” After an oration, “the band struck up ‘Yankee Doodle.’” Later “Martial musick” was provided at the dinner (“At Chatham,” The Bee, 12 July 1811, 2). East Chester: “This day a select number of republicans of this town, and vicinity met at the house of Mr. James Armstrong, to enjoy the anniversary of our national jubilee....” Following dinner the toasts that were drank were “interspersed at proper intervals with appropriate songs” (“Communication,” Public Advertiser, 10 July 1811, 2). Hillsdale: “At 11 o’clock, the procession was formed at the house of Mr. Daniel Pierson, in the village of

1811 Greenriver [Green River], and, accompanied by the Hillsdale band of music, proceeded to the meetinghouse.” After the exercises which included a reading of Washington’s Farewell Address, “the performances closed with vocal and instrumental music.” An entertainment at Mr. Pierson’s included toasts, artillery salutes, and music: President’s March—Duke of Holstein’s March—Death of Washington—Yankee Doodle—Handel’s duet—[Rural] Felicity (“At Hillsdale,” Bee, 12 July 1811, 3). Hudson: Citizens from this and surrounding towns assembled on Parade Hill at noon and marched, “preceded by the excellent Republican Band of Musick and the Hudson Juvenile Society” to the court house for the exercises there. Later at Bement’s Hotel, dinner was provided and the following two tunes were reported to have been performed: Tune, Bunker Hill — The Western District March (The Bee, 12 July 1811, 2). New York: Hamilton Society at the Eagle Hotel, a “full band”: Hail Columbia — Grand March in the Battle of Prague — America, Commerce and Freedom — The Union Patriots — Rural Felicity — Truxton’s Victory — Solemn Music — Hamilton’s Dirge291— Lexington March — Funeral Dirge292— Washington’s March — Oh! Dear what can the matter be — Washington Hall — Patriotic Air — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Come Haste to the Wedding (New-York Commercial Advertiser, 5 July 1811, 3); at the celebration of the Typographical Society at Coleman’s, no. 10 Fair Street, toasts were drank and “original Odes, as well as patriotic and enlivening songs” performed (Public Advertiser, 4 July 1811, 3); several patriotic societies, including the Tammany Society, “accompanied by a grand band of music” marched through city streets to the Presbyterian Church where the exercises were begun with a prayer “succeeded by an appropriate piece of music.” After a reading of the Declaration and oration, there followed “an anthem, music, and an ode composed for the occasion” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Public Advertiser, 3 and 6 July 1811, 2 and 2, respectively); the “Republican Greens, under the command of Major M’Clure” participated in a dinner and drank toasts, “accompanied by music, and some excellent songs”: Music, Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Soldier’s Joy—Strew the Hero’s Grave with Flowers— New York Grand March — Vive La — Republican Green’s Quick Step — Song, What Ship is that?—’Tis Liberty, Sweet Liberty — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Huzza My Brave Americans — The Spinning Wheel — The Tars of Tripoli — Ma Chere Amie (Public Advertiser, 6 July 1811, 2).

Pennsylvania Allentown: Near the banks of the “Manaquecy” (Monocacy), on the farm of Captain Joseph Seigfreidt, ladies and gentlemen, including Revolutionary War soldiers, heard the following pieces of music as toasts were presented: Hail Columbia — Alknomack — Life

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1812 Let Us Cherish — How Sleep the Brave — Jefferson’s March — Washington’s March — Madison’s March — Yankee Doodle — Anacreon — And Ne’er Shall the Sons of Columbia be Slaves — Long Life and Success to the Farmer — Hail Liberty — Rogues March — Soldier’s Return — The Night Before Larry was Stretched293— The Constitution — Here’s a Health to All Good Lasses (“Northampton County, Pa., Fourth of July 1811,” Kline’s Weekly Carlisle Gazette, 26 July 1811, 3).

Rhode Island Newport: The events in this town included a procession and exercises at Trinity Church. “The ceremonies of the day were introduced and interspersed by vocal and instrumental music, selected with great taste and judgment, and performed in a style of excellence which has seldom been equaled. Great praise is due to Mr. Thomas Handy294 for conducting, also to Messrs. Stebbins and Auchmuty, and to the ladies and gentlemen who assisted in the performances.” That afternoon, at the dinner held at Mr. Townsend’s Coffee House, “toasts were drank, accompanied by a number of popular and patriotic songs” (“National Birth-Day,” Newport Mercury, 6 July 1811, 3); the Tammany Society of Newport paraded in their regalia to the Second Baptist Meeting House. “The performances were interspersed with patriotic musick, by a large choir of excellent singers, under the direction of Brother Moses Norman, which was executed in a style that reflected the highest credit on the ladies and gentlemen composing the choir.” The choir sat in the front gallery of the church. Later at a dinner held at Eldred’s Hotel, toasts were presented accompanied by the following music: Tune, Liberty — Tune, President’s March — Tune, Clinton’s March — Tune, America, Commerce and Freedom — Tune, Jefferson and Liberty — Tune, Rhode-Island Quick Step — Tune, Hearts of Oak — Tune, Dead March in Saul — Tune, Indian Chief— Tune, ’Twas Post Meridian—Tune, Go to the Devil— Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, Rural Felicity (“Tammanial Celebration” and “The Tammany Society,” Rhode-Island Republican, 3 and 10 July 1811, 3 and 3, respectively). See Publications above. Providence: “A procession consisting of nearly 1000 Republican citizens of Rehoboth, Providence, and the vicinity, was formed under the auspices of the Columbian Order, in Tammanial style, and marched round the Green to the Baptist meeting-house, accompanied by the Tammanial Band of Music attached to Beaver Tribe, No. 1.” After the oration, “the Tammanial Ode and sacred music skillfully performed by a choir of singers and the band” were performed. The “Order of Exercises” was as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Sacred Music. Prayer, by Elder Daniel Hix. Original Ode-Tune, “Indian Chief.” Declaration of Independence, read by Br. J.L. Hodges. 5. Music-“Washington’s March.”

6. Oration by Ephraim Raymond, Esq. 7. Music.

(“Independence” and “Republican Celebration,” Columbian Phenix; or, Providence Patriot, 29 June and 6 July 1811, 2 and 3, respectively); another celebration took place at the Benevolent Congregational Meeting House. Music at some of the celebration dinners included: Hail to the Morning—President’s March— Roslin Castle — Rhode-Island March — Arise, Arise! Columbia’s Sons Arise — Washington’s March — Moulines — Royal Quick Step — Swiss Guard’s March—Abercrombie’s March295—Yankee Doodle— General Bates’s March296— March in the God of Love (Providence Gazette, 6 July 1811, 2); at the Providence Theatre, on July 4, in honour of American Independence ... the popular play in five acts, called the Honey-Moon ... to which will be added, a patriotick effusion, in one act, written by an American citizen, called the Fourth of July, Or, Huzza for Independence!!

Also performed was a patriotick song, “Hail Liberty,” by Mr. Darley, after which, “The Standard of Liberty” will be recited by Mr. Powell, addressed to the Armies of the United States. To which will be added a new song, called “Fight, Conquer and be Free,” by Mrs. Mills. And a Pas Suel and Fancy Dance, by Miss Drake. The whole to conclude with the patriotick song and chorus, called “God Save the United States,” by Messrs. Darley, Dickinson, Drake, Entwisle, Robertson, Vaughan, &c. &c. [Rhode-Island American, and General Advertiser, 2 July 1811, 3].

Warren: Citizens of Warren at the Baptist Meeting House, “the exercises were interspersed with excellent music, performed by a full choir of singers” (“Celebration of American Independence at Warren,” Columbian Phenix: or, Providence Patriot, 13 July 1811, 1).

1812 Publications “The following elegant and patriotic Ode, is from the pen of Mr. Wm. C. Bryant, son of Doctor [Peter] Bryant of Cummington. An Ode. For the Fourth of July 1812. Tune ‘Ye Gentlemen of England, &c.’” First line: “The Birth day of our nation” (Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 22 July 1812, 2; “Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 28 July 1812, 4; Bennington NewsLetter, 5 August 1812, 4). “The following Ode was sung at Sanford [Maine], on the 4th of July 1812.” First line: “All hail this glorious day” (“The Museum,” Eastern Argus, 6 August 1812, 1).

77 “The following Song, was composed for the celebration of the 4th July at Edgefield [SC}, and sung by William Ellison, Esq.” First line: “On a rock which frowns high o’er the neighboring heights” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 15 July 1812, 3). “The following Song, written for the occasion, was sung at the late celebration of Independence in this town. Tune ‘Adams & Liberty.’” First line: “Tho’ round our horizon the gloomy clouds rise” (“Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 10 July 1812, 4). “The following song, written for the purpose, was sung at the celebration of American independence, in Philadelphia, on the 4th July last”: first line: “Hail, sole republic of the world” (“Political Department,” The War (Philadelphia), 22 August 1812, 40). “March.297 As performed by the Philadelphia military [sic] bands and also at the Olympic Theatre on the 4th of July, 1812. With variations for the piano forte.” In Pelissier’s Columbian Melodies.... Composed by Victor Pelissier of Philadelphia. (Philadelphia: G. Willig, 1812), number 10, 93–94. “March to Canada.298 As performed by the Philadelphia military organizations & also at the Olympic Theatre on the Fourth of July, 1812. Inscribed to the army of the United States by Victor Pelissier” (Philadelphia, C. Taws’s music store, 1813?). “Ode, composed for the celebration of the 4th of July by the ‘Associated Disciples of Washington.’ Written by a member.” First line: “What hero led to fight our sires?” (“Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 7 July 1812, 4). “An Ode, composed for the thirty-sixth anniversary of American Independence, and sung at the Republican celebration in Fairhaven [Massachusetts] on the 4th inst.” First line: “Blest be the land which kindly gave” (“The Rivulet,” New-Bedford Gazette, 10 July 1812, 4). “An Ode for the Brave.” First line: “Hark! the drum — the bugle sounds!” (“Patriotic Poetry,” The War, 4 July 1812, 8; “Poetry,” New Jersey Journal, 11 August 1812, 4). “Ode. For the 4th July, 1812. Written by Thomas G. Fessenden,299 Esq. and performed by the choir, accompanied by the organ, at Walpole, N. H. Tune — ‘Archdale.’” First line: “Columbia’s sons, with loud acclaim” (“Poetry,” Constitutionalist and Weekly Magazine, 11 August, 1812, 4). “An Ode for the Fourth of July, tune —‘To Anacreon in Heaven.’ By William C. Foster.”300 First line: “Hail, auspicious day! to Americans dear” (Shamrock, or Hibernian Chronicle, 11 July 1812, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Battle of the Nile.’” First line: “Let patriot pride our patriot triumph wake!” (Columbian, 26 June 1812, 3). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1812. Tune — Greenwich Pensioner.” First line: “Natal morn of liberty” (“Poetry,” Constitutionalist and Weekly Magazine, 23 June 1812, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1812. Written by Thomas Sturtevant, jun. of the U.S. Army.” First line:

1812 “When first by heaven’s supreme behest” (“Poetry,” American Advocate, 30 July 1812, 4). “An Ode for the Washington Benevolent Society.301 Written, adapted to music and sung at New York July 4th 1812 by Mr. [Uri K.] Hill.” First line: “Ye patriots rejoice while ye hail the glad morning.” For voice, pianoforte and violin. N.p., 1812?. Text of ode printed in An Oration Delivered before the Washington Benevolent Society and the Hamilton Society in the City of New York, on the Fourth of July, 1812. By John Anthon. New York: Washington Benevolent Society, 1812; New-York Spectator, 8 July 1812, 2; Bennington NewsLetter, 22 July 1812, 4; Alexandria Gazette, 23 July 1812, 3. “Ode — Tune, ‘Hail Columbia.’” First line: “Hail! sacred independence, hail!”302 (National Aegis, 8 July 1812, 2; from the National Aegis, as published in Green-Mountain Farmer, 22 July 1812, 4). “Original Song for toast table” sung at Blooming Grove, NY, “on the 4th instant.” First line: “Old Johnny303 now has got the gout” (Orange County Patriot, 21 July 1812, 3). The Patriotic Vocalist, or Fourth of July Pocket Companion. A Selection of approved songs, on national subjects, for the use of public assemblies, celebrating the anniversaries of American independence, and Washington’s birth day.304 Salem: Cushing & Appleton, 1812. Includes: “Rise Columbia! Written by R.T. Paine.” First line: “When first the Sun o’er Ocean glow’d”; “Adams and Liberty. By R.T. Paine—1799.” First line: “Ye sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought”; “Song, for a select company of ‘Old Continentals.’ Tune—White co*ckade.” First line: “In the warfare of life where temptations invade”; “Ode for the military celebration at Salem of the Fourth of July, 1806 — by S.C. Blyth. Tune — Anacreon in Heaven.” First line: “Ere the fiat of Heaven’s almighty decree”; “Yankey Song, sung in Salem at a military celebration of the Fourth of July, 1806.” First line: “Yankey Doodle is the tune”; “Ode, by Mr. Biglow—1804.” First line: “When Britain gigantic, by justice unaw’d”; “Song, by Mr. Biglow—1804.” First line: “While round the full board, independent and free”; “Columbia.” First line: “Columbia! Columbia! to glory arise”; “Union of the Gods.” First line: “To Columbia, who, gladly reclin’d at her ease”; “Ode by R.T. Paine—1811. Tune—Battle of the Nile.” First line: “Let patriot pride our patriot triumph wake!”; “The American Star.” First line: “Come, strike the bold anthem, the war-dogs are howling”; “Song on the Non-Importation Act (Charlest. Pap.)—1806.” First line: “The motley band of demagogues, who rule our potent nation”; “Ode to Washington.” First line: “The morning dawns with joyful ray”; “Washington’s Birth Day. By a Lady.” First line: “Hail, fairest Columbia! thy bold, rock shore.” Advertised as “just published” in Salem Gazette, 3 July 1812, 3. Copy in Brown University and Library Congress. “A Song for the Fourth of July. By a gentleman of this city [Elizabeth-Town, NJ]. From the Baltimore Sun.” First line: “The Chief who fights in Freedom’s

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1812 cause.” Signed “J.H.P.” (“Poetry,” New Jersey Journal, 7 July 1812, 4). “‘The Spirit of Freedom.’ (An original Fourth of July ode.)” First line: “Bright Genius of Liberty, rise and rejoice!” (Sentinel of Freedom, 7 July 1812, 4). “‘The Times.’ An Ode for the Fourth of July, 1812. Written by A. Davis. Tune—Vive la.” First line: “Columbia’s sons, your sires address you” (From the Aurora as printed in New Jersey Journal, 7 July 1812, 4). Two newspapers, Independent Chronicle, 16 July 1812, 1, and Pittsfield Sun, 25 July 1812, 4, cite the first line as “Times, alas! are most distressing.” See also, Publications, 1840.

Performances District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band performed in the Hall of the House of Representatives at the Capitol with President James Madison in attendance (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1812, 2).

Maine Georgetown: “At the fort, situated on a point on the Western side of the entrance of Kennebec River,” the exercise included the singing of Psalm 101 “by a select choir of singers in the tune of Paris” and music was provided also in the procession (“Independence: Celebration at Georgetown,” Eastern Argus, 23 July 1812, 2). Hallowell: “At eleven o’clock the procession formed at the house of Maj. Robinson, under the escort of the Hallowell Light Infantry, commanded by Lieut. Coolidge, and proceeded with martial music, thro’ the principal streets in Augusta to the Court House.” After the exercises, the dinner was held at Maj. Robinson’s Hall and the entertainment included “patriotic toasts, accompanied with music and a discharge of cannon” (“Independence — 4th July, 1812,” American Advocate, 9 July 1812, 2). Saco: At the Republican celebration, “several Odes and Hymns were sung which enlivened the scene” and music also at the dinner (“Independence: Celebration at Saco,” Eastern Argus, 9 July 1812, 2). Turner: After a procession from Staple’s Hall to the Meeting House, the service included a prayer, a reading of “the President’s Message, an oration, all “interspersed by several appropriate and well performed pieces of music, conducted by Daniel Cary, Esq. (“Independence: Celebration at Turner,” Eastern Argus, 30 July 1812, 2).

Fairhaven: The “Republican citizens of Fairhaven, and the neighbouring towns” assembled at Amos Pratt’s Tavern and paraded to the Congregational Meeting House, “accompanied by an excellent band of music.” The ceremony included “an Ode, composed for the occasion, by Lieut. Henry Whiting of the U.S. Army (for which see last page) was performed by a select choir with great taste.” In addition, “several elegant pieces of music were performed by the band.” Dinner at Pratt’s Inn included the following music: Music, Hail Columbia — President’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — Anacreon in Heaven — Yankee Doodle — Battle of Prague — Rodgers and Victory305— Rise Columbia — America, Commerce and Freedom — Speed the Plough — Over the Waters to Johnny306— United States March — Massachusetts March — Bunker-Hill March — Pickering’s March — Come Haste to the Wedding (“4th of July,” New Bedford Gazette, 3 and 10 July 1812, 3 and 2 respectively). See Publications above. Marblehead: After a parade from the Town House to the New Meeting House, the order of exercises included: 1. Ode on Science. 2. 20th Psalm, omitting 3d verse, by the Rev. James Bowers. 3. Prayer by the Rev. Samuel Dana. 4. Ode —“All hail to Freedom’s natal day.” 5. Oration, by Jacob Willard, Esq. 6. Anthem on Independence. 7. Prayer, by the Rev. Ferdinand Ellis. 8. Ode —“God Save America.” [“Marblehead,” Essex Register, 8 July 1812, 2.]

Salem: The “Order of Performance” at the meeting house where the Republicans, military officers, and “citizens and gentlemen from neighbouring towns” assembled was: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Hymn. Prayer. Ode. Declaration of Independence, Manifesto and Declaration of War. 5. Select Music by the Band. 6. Oration. 7. Select Music by Band.

Massachusetts

(“Celebration of National Independence,” Essex Register, 4 July 1812, 3.); the Salem Gazette reported that a “voluntary on the organ” was to be performed by Mr. Dolliver307 at the meeting house (“American Independence,” Salem Gazette, 3 July 1812, 3).

Boston: The Washington Society “assembled in the Court Room of the United States and at 3 proceeded in procession, preceded by the (late Castle) band, to the Hall of the Exchange Coffee House” for their ceremony. Among the guests was Robert T. Paine, signer of the Declaration of Independence (“National BirthDay,” Independent Chronicle, 9 July 1812, 2).

Gilmanton: “Excellent martial and instrumental music” in the procession of “the Republican citizens of Gilmanton and the neighboring towns” to the “Town House” (“National Jubilee,” New Hampshire Patriot, 28 July 1812, 1).

New Hampshire

79 Loudon: The Washington Republicans marched “with instrumental music” to the meeting house (“National Festival,” Concord Gazette, 7 July 1812, 3). Salisbury: “The Republican citizens of Salisbury and the adjacent towns” celebrated with a procession to the Meeting House “escorted by three companies of infantry and a junior company of artillery.” The exercises included “the performance of several excellent pieces of music by a numerous vocal and instrumental choir.” Later a procession assembled “on the Green in front of the Meeting House,” where, after dinner, “toasts were drank, accompanied with appropriate music, and the discharge of cannon and musketry” (“Celebration at Salisbury,” New Hampshire Patriot, 14 July 1812, 3).

New Jersey Bloomfield: A parade included a choir of “vocal music” and “young ladies in uniform — singers included.” At a bower, the exercises included 3 odes: “the vocal music, on account of its appropriate quality, and the skill with which it was performed, under the direction of Mr. Thomas Collins, Kitchell and Rutan, excited the admiration of all present” (Centinel of Freedom, 28 July and 11 August 1812, 1 and 2, respectively). Newark: At the 1st Presbyterian Church, “after the singing of an ode, the exercises in the church were opened by a well adapted prayer by the Rev. James Richards. After singing another ode, the Declaration of Independence was read preceded by a few introductory observations. An ode followed, when an oration was pronounced by Mr. Philip Melaneton Whelpley,” followed by another ode (Newark Centinel, 7 July 1812, 3). Trenton: “The celebration of the day was opened with the firing of cannon — the ringing of bells, military music, and the decorations of the dwellings of the citizens on the principal streets.” A procession marched from Warren Street to the Presbyterian Church. “In addition to the military music usual on the occasion, a select band of amateurs attended the procession, and afforded a pleasing variety to this interesting part of the scene.” Included in the exercises were “the psalms selected for the occasion, well adapted, and sung with peculiar grace and propriety” (Trenton Federalist, 6 July 1812, 3; “Fourth of July,” Alexandria Daily Gazette, Commercial & Political, 15 July 1812, 2).

New York Brookhaven: The Washington Benevolent Society of this town, located in Suffolk County, paraded “attended by an excellent band of music, which added much to the respectability of the procession.” The ceremony was held on the green and later a dinner was served at Capt Hartt’s where the following pieces of music were heard: Music, Yankee Doodle—Music, Rosline Castle — Dirge — Music, Hamilton’s Dirge — Music, America, Commerce and Freedom — Music,

1812 The Ode to the Washington Society — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, Heart of Oak — Music, All the Way to Boston — Music, Hail Columbia — Music, Washington’s March — Music, Adams and Liberty — Music, Banks of Invarunay, Music, Rural Felicity — Music, Washington’s March — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, The Fair American (“American Independence,” New York Herald, 18 July 1812, 4). Hudson: “The Young Mechanics of both parties” assembled at Oliver Whitaker’s Inn and, “preceded by martial music, under the command of Wm. Ray” marched through city streets to Parade Hill and then to the Court House for the exercises (“National Jubilee,” Bee, 14 July 1812, 3). New York: At the Debtor’s Prison, 78 inmates and a number of guests heard the following music interspersed with the toasts: Music, Hail Columbia — Music, Madison’s March — Music, Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle—Washington’s March—We’ll Die or Be Free — Music, Tripoli — Battle of Prague — United We Stand, Divided We Fall — Galley Slave — O Dear What Can the Matter Be — Rogues March (“Debtors Prison,” Public Advertiser, 9 July 1812, 2); “At a meeting of the Delegates of the General Committee of Arrangements” of the Tammany Society, the group resolved “that the thanks of this committee, in behalf of Tammany” be extended to the various individuals and groups that made the Fourth of July celebration successful. One acknowledgment was extended to “Messrs. Duren and Seymour, and the Choir of Singers in the [Baptist] Church under their direction.” The exercises as the church included the performance of an anthem and ode and other works. (Mercantile Advertiser, 2 July 1812, 2; Columbian, 16 July 1812, 3.); the Hamilton Society and Washington Benevolent Society celebrated in tandem at Washington Hall and later a dinner at the Hamilton Hotel. “After dinner the following toasts were drank, accompanied with appropriate music”: Hail Columbia — Rise Columbia — Washington’s March — America, Commerce and Freedom — Roslin Castle — Hamilton’s March — Hamilton’s Dirge — Lexington March — Sons of Freedom Awake — The Union of Patriots — The Cheat — Anacreon — Yankee Doodle — President’s March—The Handle of a Jug—Tid rei—Rural Felicity (“Hamilton Society,” New-York Spectator, 8 July 1812, 2). See Publications above.

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At the Olympic Theater, American Naval Pillar, or, A Tribute of Respect to the Tars of Columbia, “a new musical entertainment, in two acts,” was presented.308 See also, Publications above.

Rhode Island Newport: The procession that formed at the State House at 9 A.M. included “music and standards” (“The Fourth of July,” Newport Mercury, 4 July 1812, 3). Providence: “A number of the Republicans of this town assembled at Mr. Pedge’s Hall” where the Dec-

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1813 laration of Independence was read “and the company partook of a sumptuous dinner.” Accompanying the toasts were cheers and “patriotic songs, and national music from the Columbian Band” (“Columbia’s Birth Day,” Columbian Phenix, or Providence Patriot, 11 July 1812, 2).

South Carolina Charleston: At 11 A.M. eighty members of the Republican Military School of Fishing Creek paraded before a group of citizens while a band performed “Roslin Castle” and “Yankee Doodle.” At the dinner that following a song, “which was written by Capt. Dunham” (of the U.S. Army) “some years ago, and has been frequently published since, was sung” (“Patriotic Celebration,” City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 31 July 1812, 3).

Virginia Alexandria: The Washington Society and elements of the military heard the following music upon presentation of toasts “after partaking of an excellent dinner” provided for them at the Spring Gardens: Music, Hail Columbia — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, Washington’s March — Music, Come to the Bower — Music, Oh, for a Union of Parties — Music, Roslin Castle — Music, America, Commerce & Freedom — Music, Volunteer’s March (“The Fourth of July,” Alexandria Herald, 8 July 1812, 3); an “excellent band of music attached to captain Mcknight’s Company” (Alexandria Gazette, 3 and 6 July 1812; Alexandria Herald, 8 July 1812, 3).

1813 Publications At a meeting of Friends of the Revolution at Bell Tavern, “the following extempore Verses from the pen of Wm. Manford, Esq. were sung [in Virginia] with great glee to the music of ‘On Chrismas [sic] Day in ’76’”: first line, “The month was June — the year ‘Thirteen’” (“Fourth of July,” Enquirer, 9 July 1813, 3). “Dirge, on the death of Captain Lawrence: sung upon the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hark from the main the voice of glory” (“Dirge,” Juvenile Port-Folio, and Literary Miscellany, 17 July 1813, 160). “The following Odes and Hymns, composed by gentlemen of this town [Salem, MA] for the occasion, were sung at the late Republican celebration of the anniversary of American independence”: “Ode. Tune ‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “Sound the trumpet of joy, the return of the morn”; “Ode. Tune ‘Rise Columbia.’” First line: “All hail to freedom’s natal day”; “Hymn. Tune ‘Sicilian Mariner’s Hymn.’” First line: “Now to the great and only king” (Essex Register, 7 July 1813, 1); “Elegant Song. The late anniversary of

American Independence, like most of the preceding, has presented us with a number of National Songs. The following, which was composed by a gentleman of Salem, Mass. and sung at the celebration in that town, is of the first order, for poetic as well as patriotic excellent. T. True Amer. Tune — Anacreon in Heaven.” First line: “Sound the trumpet of joy — the return of this morn” (“Poetry,” Chronicle or Harrisburgh Vistor, 2 August 1813, 4). “The following song, written for that purpose, was sung at the celebration of American Independence, in Philadelphia, on the 4th July last.[in 1812]” First line: “Hail, sole republic of the world!” (“Selected Poetry,” Native American, 21 April 1813, 4). “For the Fourth of July. Tune, ‘Wary Gods.’” First line: “Columbia’s sons, ye patriots hail”; “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Welcome! welcome the day, when assembled as [sic] one”; “Song for the Fourth of July. Tune-‘Hail Columbia.’” First line: “Welcome great auspicious day”; “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Ye patriots, rejoice, while ye hail this glad morning” (Spirit of the Press, 1 July 1813, 1–2.) “An Ode, composed for the anniversary of American independence — Air, Arethusa.” First line: “Join every Nymph, in sportive lay” (“Poetry,” New Jersey Journal, 13 July 1813, 4; Chronicle or Harrisburgh Vistor, 19 July 1813, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July.” To the tune “Hail Columbia.”309 Written “by a member of the [Washington] Society” ([Boston]: True & Rowe printers, State-Street [1813]. “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Welcome! Welcome the day, when assembled as one” (Spirit of the Press, 1 July 1813, 2). “Order of performance, for the 4th of July, 1813, at Tiverton [RI].” Contains Ode to the Revolution (first line, “Here liberty was doomed to rest”); Ode on Liberty, original (first line: “Hail liberty! celestial guest”). Broadside, Rhode Island, 1813. Copy in Brown University. “Patriotic, July the 4th, 1813 — by P.M.” First line: “Columbia’s sons salute the morn” (“Poetry,” Chronicle of Harrisburgh Visitor, 6 September 1813, 4). “Song for Volunteers. On the Fourth of July. (The following song was intended for the Fourth of July last, but came to hand too late. It is perhaps not less appropriate at this moment, just when the brethren of the District [of Columbia] have returned to their homes, than it would have been at that time). Tune — ‘Hail Columbia.’” First line: “Soldiers!— join a heartwarm lay” (National Intelligencer, 2 August 1813, 2). “A Song written on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Now Europe’s convuls’d with the discord of war” (The American Patriotic Song-Book, a Collection of Political, Descriptive, and Humourous Songs, of National Character, and the Production of American Poets Only. Interspersed with a Number Set to Music [Philadelphia: W. M’Culloch, 1813]).

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Performances Connecticut Hartford: Republication celebration “marched to a delightful grove on the margin of Connecticut river, led by a band of excellent music; composed of as many of his Excellency’s Band, as could dispence with playing ‘God Save the King!’” (“American Independence,” American Mercury, 13 July 1813, 3). Salem: A parade of Republicans included “an excellent band of music.” A dinner that day at Lynn Mineral Spring Hotel, included toasts with the following music: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Massachusetts March — Tune, God Save the King — Rise Columbia—Hail Columbia—Dead March in Saul— Dirge — Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — Adams & Liberty — Yankee Doodle — Gen. Warren’s March — The Lads of the Ocean — America, Commerce and Freedom — Gen Green’s March (Essex Register, 7 July 1813, 3).

Delaware New Castle County: “Near the Trap,” a celebration consisting of “a respectable number of citizens from the neighboring county” featured “an excellent repast,” a reading of the Declaration of Independence, and toasts “attended by the discharge of artillery and the plaudits of the company.” Some of the toasts were accompanied by music: Music, Hail Columbia — Solemn Music—Yankee Doodle—Soldiers Return— Solemn Music — Hail Columbia — The Soldiers Return (American Watchman, 10 July 1813, 3).

Maine Portland: Celebration of Republicans at “the Rev. Doct. Dean’s meeting house,” with “an excellent band of music”310: Washington’s March — United States March — President’s March — Swiss Guard March — Massachusetts March — Yankee Doodle — March in Abeilino — Hull’s Guerriere — Circus March — Columbia in Glory — Rural Felicity — Decatur’s Victory — Pleyal’s Hymn — Augusta March — Rogues’ March311—Azure—Battle of Prague—Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself312— Colonel Learned’s March (Eastern Argus, 8 July 1813, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: The Washington Republican Society celebrated at the Hall of the Exchange Coffee House, where after “an excellent dinner. ... sentiments were given, accompanied by appropriate music, and the plaudits of the company”: Hail Columbia (After this toast an excellent Ode was sung, which is on our first page) [First line: “While clouds of darkness fill’d the west” to the tune “Hail Columbia”]— Rise Columbia—President’s March—Gerry’s March—Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Capt. Hull’s March—Dirge—Jefferson’s March—Roslin Castle— Pleyel’s Hymn (After this toast an appropriate Dirge was sung, which is on our first page) [First line:

1813 “Lawrence! Valour’s gen’rous lion!” to the tune “Pleyel’s Hymn”]— God Save the Commonwealth — Dirge — Begone, Dull Care — America, Commerce and Freedom — March to Boston — Rural Felicity (“National Jubilee!” Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1813, 1–2). Brookfield: “Members of the several Washington Benevolent Societies, and citizens” as well as a military company “accompanied by a band of musick” marched to the Meeting House where at the exercises it was reported “the musick was excellent — the exercises closed by an admirable song from Mr. Hamilton, of Worcester” (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 14 July 1813, 3). Charlestown: At the Universal Meeting House “the exercises were interspersed with suitable musick, by the choir of singers” (“Charlestown Celebration,” Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1813, 2). Deerfield: In the procession on “Tuesday the 6th, ... choir of singers in pairs,” and music by the choir at the exercises (Franklin Herald, 22 June 1813, 3). Lancaster: Citizens of this town and Sterling, as well as members of the Washington Benevolent Society celebrated together. “After the delivery of the oration a patriotick ode was sung by Mr. Newell, in a style and manner which proved him adept in musick, and an enthusiast in feeling” (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 7 July 1813, 3). Roxbury: Exercises were held at the “Town House” and the following music was performed at the dinner: Adams and Liberty — Yankee Doodle — President’s March —Gerry’s March —Jefferson’s March — Liberty Tree — Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Dirge — Massachusetts’ March — Captain Kidd — O Tempore, O micres[?]— Billings’ Jargon (Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1813, 2). Salem: At the Universal Meeting House, “performance of several patriotic odes written for the occasion, and the excellent music prepared for the day,” (Essex Register, 7 July 1813, 2–3). See Publications above. Sutton: This town celebrated a month early with a procession that included music. At the Meeting House, interspersed in the exercises were “pieces of instrumental music” by a band “with taste and skilful accuracy” (“Celebration of Our National Independence at Sutton,” National Aegis, 7 July 1813, 3).

New Hampshire Candia: Members of the Washington Benevolent Society and others “marched to the meeting house, stewards bearing the Constitution of the United States, and Washington’s Farewell Address, preceeded by a choir of singers, and some excellent instrumental music, playing Washington’s March, accompanied by a large concourse of people of both sexes. After being seated, the exercises of the day” were begun with “an excellent piece of music (Denmark) was performed by the singers, accompanied by instruments.” After the Declaration was read, “a Hymn adapted to the occasion was then sung. (By field.).” Following the ora-

1813 tion, the ceremony closed “with a piece of music. (Ode on Science.)” At the dinner, toasts were “accompanied by appropriate music” (“Celebration of Independence at Candia,” Concord Gazette, 10 August 1813, 3). Chesterfield: The celebration on the “3d inst. By the Philesian Society of Chesterfield” included “a procession formed by the students, singers, members of the Society, and Trustees, preceded by music” that marched from the Academy Hall to the meeting house where the “exhibition” was begun with “instrumental music.” Included in the ceremony were “an Ode written for the occasion by L. Lyons” and another “Ode, written for the occasion by J.C. Smith.” The local newspaper reported that “the Odes were sung by a respectable choir of singers, and the exercises written by the performers were exhibited to the approbation of the audience, and the honor of this juvenile fraternity” (New-Hampshire Sentinel, 17 July 1813, 3; Reporter, 24 July 1813, 3). Hopkinton: The Washington Benevolent Society of this town and members representing towns of Concord and Dunbarton met at the court house for a procession, preceded by a band, to the meeting house. “Sacred Musick, aided in raising the affections of a numerous and respectable audience to the God of our fathers.... Of this we say no more than that the music ought to have been good — but the performers had probably seen Billings’s Jargon”313 (“Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence at Hopkinton, July 5th,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 27 July 1813, 1). Keene: On July 5 the members of the Washington Benevolent Societies “and numerous other citizens ... consisting of nearly 400 persons were formed at Fish’s tavern” and marched with a “full band of music” to the Meeting House “where the exercises commenced by sacred music.” After an additional piece of sacred music, a reading of the Declaration of Independence and oration, “an original Song of Praise [to the tune, “Old Hundred”] composed by Mr. C. ... concluded the performances”: first line, “Praise waits in Zion, Lord for Thee.” Later at a “bower in front of the Court House,” a dinner was served with toasts accompanied by music and a discharge of artillery (“Independence,” NewHampshire Sentinel, 10 July 1813, 3–4). Portsmouth: The Washington Benevolent Society of New Hampshire and other “distinguished strangers and persons belonging to other similar institutions” celebrated on July 5. They assembled at the Insurance Office at 10 A.M. and marched to the Meeting House where the exercises included a reading of Washington’s Farewell Address and “music, consisting of an original Hymn and an Ode selected for the occasion ... performed by a select choir in a superior style” (“Independence,” Portsmouth Oracle, 10 July 1813, 3). Washington: On Monday, July 5, the militia marched to the meeting house “escorted by military music. An appropriate hymn was sung” (Celebration at Washington, N.H.,” New Hampshire Patriot, 20 July 1813, 1).

82 New Jersey Jefferson Village: At a meeting for arrangements for celebrating the Fourth (possibly at Springfield), Watts Reeve and “Doctor Brown” were assigned the conductors of the music. Reeve also served as clerk of the celebration committee (Centinel of Freedom, 29 June 1813, 3).

New York Deer Park: The celebration was scheduled to occur on July 5 at the house of John Kerr and a procession to include music, and exercises to include “a patriotic song” and a “musical play called ‘The Prize’” (“Celebration of the Thirty-Seventh Anniversary of American Independence, in the Town of Deer Park,” Orange County Patriot, 22 June 1813, 1). Harpersfield: Some two thousand persons paraded accompanied by music to the Presbyterian Meeting House. A choir was present for the day’s exercises (Albany Argus, 20 July 1813, 2). New York: The Typographical Society met on July 5 at Mr. A. Ely’s School Room for the exercises followed by dinner at the Bank Coffee House. “The following Ode, written by a member for the occasion, was sung after the last toast.” First line: “Oh! ye votaries of Faust, and of Freedom combin’d” (from the Columbian as printed in “Typographical Society,” Albany Register, 13 July 1813, 2; The Yankee, 16 July 1813, 4; National Aegis, 18 August 1813, 4). Pine Plains: “A band of music” at “Mr. Trowbridge’s Hotel”: Washington’s March — Tune, 4th of July — President’s March — Tune, March to Boston — Jefferson and Liberty — Roslin Castle — King of Prussia’s March —17th Regt.— Funlem’s March — Rogues’ March — Battle of Prague — Galley Slave — Caledonia — Hail Columbia — Amoret — Yankee Doodle (“Celebration of Independence,” Columbian 20 July 1813, 2).

Ohio Perrysburg: At “Camp Meigs” for a Fourth of July celebration314 that included an artillery salute, the Independent Volunteers Band of Ohio and Kentucky provided music following toasts with over 100 officers and soldiers present: Yankee Doodle — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Hail Liberty — Rogue’s March — Roslin Castle — Columbia, Columbia to Glory Arise — Washington’s March — Stoney Point — Ere Around the Hugh Oak — Jefferson’s March — Madison’s March — Turks March — Harrison’s March—The Soldier’s Return—America, Commerce and Freedom — My Heart from My Bosom Would Fly (“Fourth of July in Camp,” National Intelligencer, 28 July 1813, 1).

Rhode Island Newport: The procession assembled at the State House “on Monday the 5th of July (the 4th being Sunday)” and marched to Trinity Church where the exercises included “vocal and instrumental music.”

83 The musicians sat in the front gallery (“Anniversary of American Independence, Newport Mercury, 3 July 1813, 3). Seekonk: At the Republican celebration, “the procession to the sanctuary was large, and a numerous company partook at the festive board. After the repast, the usual number of well seasoned sentiments were given, accompanied by discharges of cannon and music from the band” (“Independence,” Columbian Phenix, or Providence Patriot, 10 July 1813, 2).

Vermont Brattleboro: The Fourth was celebrated on July 6. A procession from the Academy Hall to the Meeting House included a band. “The exercises were introduced by singing, and an excellent well adapted prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Nye.” After an oration, “an ode written for the occasion by Thomas G. Fessenden, esq. of Bellows Falls” was sung (“Celebration,” Reporter, 10 July 1813, 3). Fairhaven: Members of the Washington Benevolent Society “and a large concourse of other citizens from the vicinity” celebrated on July 5. The procession to the church consisted of more than two thousand people, escorted by a company of cavalry. A choir of singers preceded, and a band of music followed the “societies, accompanied by a group of young lads in the sailor dress, bearing an armed ship full rigged — also seventeen misses dressed in white, bearing olive branches. After singing a hymn composed for the occasion, the throne of grace was addressed by the Rev. Mr. Bigelow, of Middleton, in a most devost, solemn and impressive manner.” Works performed included: “An Ode. For July 4th, 1813”: first line, “On broad Potomack’s margin lies”; “Independence Hymn”: first line, “O God of Hosts, by thine own arm” (“Fairhaven Celebration,” Vermont Mirror, 28 July 1813, 2; “Fairhaven (Vt.) Celebration,” Boston Daily Advertiser, 6 August 1813, 2). Ira: In the procession “on Saturday the 3d inst.” were “700 citizens ... accompanied by martial and instrumental music, under command of Capt. Tower” (“American Independence: Celebration at Ira,” Rutland Vermont Herald, 14 July 1813, 3). Middlebury: “The 4th of July falling on the Sabbath, the anniversary of the declaration of our independence was celebrated by the Washington Benevolent Society of Addison County in this place, on Friday the 2d inst.” After a procession from Mr. Bell’s House to the Meeting House, “the following exercises were performed”: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sacred Music. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Merrill Sacred Music. Oration by B. Parks Esq. Prayer by the Rev. Professor Hough Sacred Music.

After the exercises “a numerous collection of citizens repaired to Mr. Mattocks’s new hall, where they par-

1814 took of an elegant dinner prepared by Mr. Bell and drank the following toasts, accompanied by the discharge of cannon and appropriate music by the Middlebury Band”: Tune, Fourth of July — Washington’s March — Gen. Green’s March — Phyel’s [sic] Hymn — Democratic Rage — Washington Dirge — God Save America315— Hail Columbia — Vermont March—Swiss Guard—Massachusetts March—Lord Dorchester’s March — Turkish March — Boston Independent Cadets’ March—Russian March—Air Rejoicing — Battle of Prague — Monro’s March. “We cannot however omit to say, that the band of music belonging to this village, who performed on this occasion, distinguished themselves by their correct and elegant performance. Such an acquisition to this village is a subject of congratulation to every citizen and especially to the lovers of music” (“Celebration,” Vermont Mirror, 14 July 1813, 1). Poultney: Two pieces of sacred music were performed at the meeting house (Rutland Vermont Herald, 21 July 1813, 1–2).

1814 Publications The American Star: being a choice collection of the Most approved patriotic and other songs, together with many original ones never before published316 (Richmond [Va.]: Peter Cottom, 1814). “‘The Birth-Day of Freedom.’ A National Song. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “All hail to the birth of the happiest land.” By Henry C. Knight.317 (Port-Folio 4/1, July 1814, 118–21). “The Fourth of July. Tune, Rural Felicity.” First line: “What heart but throbs high with sincerest devotion” (New Hampshire Patriot, 12 July 1814, 4). “The Genius of Columbia. An Ode.” First line: “Bright from the tumult of battle advancing” (“The Museum,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 19 July 1814, 4). “The Impressment of an American Sailor Boy: Sung on Board the British Prison Ship Crown Prince, the Fourth of July, 1814 by a Number of the American Prisoners.” First line: “The youthful sailor mounts the bark.” Broadside, 1814. Copy in the New York Historical Society. “Hail Independence.318 Tune — The Dauphin.” First line: “Hail, Independence, hail!” (New Hampshire Patriot, 12 July 1814, 4; “Seat of the Muses,” Otsego Herald, 21 July 1814, 4). “Independence. Ode for the Fourth of July, 1814, by Nathan Guilford” (first line, “Again the glorious day returns”; “Ode, by Edward D. Bangs” (first line, “O’er the oak-cover’d hills and rich fields of the West.” Broadside, [Worcester, MA, 1814].319 “Ode, for the celebration of American Independence, July 4, 1814 — By Henry Small.” First line: “While the morn of blest liberty dawns in the east”

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1814 (“Poetry,” Newburyport Herald, 12 July 1814, 4; Evening Post, 19 July 1814, 2; An Oration, Pronounced before the Federal Republicans of Charlestown, Massachusetts, July 4, 1814, being the Anniversary of American Independence. By Joseph Tufts, Jun. Esq. Charlestown: Samuel Etheridge, Jun., 1814). “Ode, for the 4th of July, 1814. By W.C. Bryant.” First line: “Amidst the storms that shake the land” (“Poetry,” New Bedford Mercury, 29 July 1814, 4). “Odes to be sung at Acquacknonk [Acquackanonck, NJ], July 4th, 1814.” Contains three untitled songs. Broadside. Copy in American Antiquarian Society. “Original Hymn and Ode, for July 4, 1814. Sung at the North Meeting House” in Portsmouth, NH. Hymn, first line: “Eternal God! thy children now.” Ode, tune —“Rise Columbia,” first line: “God of the sires, defend the sons.” Note: “The musical performances added much to the pleasures of the audience. The original ode sung by Mr. Stanwood had a very fine effect” (“Poetry,” Portsmouth Oracle, 9 July 1814, 4). “Song. Tune — Rural Felicity.” First line: “All Hail Happy Day, for Americans Glory.” This work was introduced at the Union Guards celebration in New Castle, Delaware, at the “Hermitage.” “Several patriotic songs were sung. The following was composed and sung by Mr. Evan Thomas, a member of the Union Guards” (Delaware Gazette and Peninsula Advertiser, 11 July 1814, 2).

Performances Connecticut New Haven: “A large and respectable audience assembled at the White-Haven Meeting House,” and it was reported that in addition to a prayer and an address by David Daggett, “the whole was attended with appropriate Music, by a numerous choir of singers” (“Fourth of July,” Connecticut Journal, 11 July 1814, 3). Union: The Washington Benevolent Society and citizens of Warren, Waldboro, and Thomaston assembled for the exercises. “Two Hymns and an Ode were prepared for the occasion. They do great honor to their authors. The music has rarely been excelled on any similar occasion.” “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1814 — sung at table. Tune —‘Adams and Liberty’” (first line: “Our fathers, impell’d by the zeal of reform”); “Hymn, sung in the meeting house. Tune — ‘Old Hundred’” (first line: “Creator Go! the first, the last”) (“Celebration of National Independence and of the Deliverance of Europe — at Union,” Weekly Messenger, 15 July 1814, 3).

District of Columbia At M’Keowen’s Hotel “public officers, citizens, and strangers” that included members of Congress, “Heads of Departments” and military officers. At the dinner “Nathaniel Cutting, Esq. recited an appropriate ode, written by himself for the occasion” and the following pieces of music were performed following the toasts:

Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — In Freedom We’re Born — President’s March — Hail Parriot [patriot?] Band — Pleyel’s Hymn — Jefferson’s March — Hark the Trump of Fame — Yankee Doodle — The Reveille — The Watery God — Hearts of Oak — America, Commerce and Freedom — Battle of Prague—White co*ckade—Around the Hugh Oak— Rural Felicity (“Fourth July, 1814,” National Intelligencer, 6 July 1814, 3; “National Birth-Day Celebrations,” Independent Chronicle, 14 July 1814, 1). In Georgetown on the grounds “of Mr. Parrott, adjoining his rope-walk,” citizens and military (about 400 persons) assembled for an entertainment. “A number of gentlemen of Washington and Georgetown, composing a very fine band of musicians, volunteered their services for the day.” Toasts were offered with the following music: Hail Columbia—Soldiers [Return?]— Washington’s March — Madison’s March — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — By Jove We’ll Be Free — Come All Ye Social Powers — Come Thou Lovely Peace — Stoney Point — The Tars of Columbia320— When War’s Alarms — Way-Worn Traveler321—Mary’s Dream322—Trip to Canada—The Top-Sail Shivers in the Wind323— America, Commerce and Freedom — Lads and Lasses (“Georgetown Celebration,” National Intelligencer, 8 July 1814, 2).

Maine Saco: The celebration included “a respectable number of citizens of that place and its vicinity, who cheerfully partook of a well served dinner prepared by Colonel Wm. Moody. On which occasion the Hon. John Holmes presided, & read in an impressive manner, the Declaration of our Independence, after which were drank the following toasts, accompanied by music and discharges of cannon” (“Independence: Celebration at Saco,” Eastern Argus, 21 July 1814, 2). Waterville: Republicans of Waterville and adjacent towns assembled at the West Meeting House after marching with a musical escort. The exercises began with “singing an appropriate hymn” (“National Anniversary,” American Advocate, 16 July 1814, 2).

Maryland Elkton: At the Court House, “‘Ode to Science’ was played by an elegant band of music, composed of the gentlemen of the town” (“Fourth of July,” Baltimore Patriot & Evening Advertiser, 12 July 1814, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Old South Meeting House, “the musical services consisted of a symphony, under the direction of Mr. [Francesco?] Masi,324 an anthem, and a hymn” (“Fourth of July,” Weekly Messenger, 8 July 1814, 3). Charlestown: A procession of Federalists marched from Washington Hall to the Rev. Dr. Morse’s Meeting House where the “public services of the day were opened by an Anthem from the choir. The Rev. Mr. Green of Malden then led the devotions of the con-

85 gregation in prayer. A Hymn and an Ode composed for the occasion by Mr. [Henry] Small, was sung with happy effect.” “The music, vocal and instrumental, was such as to add to the general gratification” (“American Independence,” Newburyport Herald, 12 July 1814, 1, 4). See Publications above. Lexington: Up to 5000 persons assembled along with Vice President Elbridge Gerry and marched around the Lexington Monument (erected in 1794) to the Meeting House. After the exercises “the procession moved from the Meeting House with martial music, and entered the plain, where a sumptuous table was spread.” The toasts were accompanied with the following music: Yankee Doodle — President’s March — Gov. Gerry’s March325— Green’s March — Dirge — Adams and Liberty — Jefferson’s March — Gen. Eaton’s March326— Rise Columbia — Gov. Strong’s March327— Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March—Hail Columbia—Old Hundred—Rural Felicity (“Great National Jubilee at Lexington,” Yankee, 8 July 1814, 2; “Great National Festival,” Essex Register, 9 July 1814, 1). Newburyport: At the “church in Federal Street ... the exercises were opened by an anthem.” Throughout the event, “the music was judiciously selected and admirably performed by a select choir”; at a dinner celebration at Washington Hall, the following works were performed: Rise Columbia — Massachusetts March — March in Forty Thieves328— Dead March in Saul — Caravan’s March — Duke of York’s March — Yankee Doodle — Moll in the Wod — Here We Go Up, Up, Up, and Here We Go Down, Down, Downy — March in God of Love — Frog and Mouse — March in Blue Beard — Bona’s March to Elba (“Anniversary Celebration” and “Public Dinner,” Newburyport Herald, 8 July 1814, 2). Pittsfield: “The Republican citizens of Berkshire” celebrated with a procession that formed at the Hotel “and proceeded to the Meeting House, accompanied with music from the band, where the customary exercises were performed” and which included “music from the choir” (“Our National Birth-Day” and “National Jubilee,” Pittsfield Sun, 30 June and 7 July 1814, 3 and 3, respectively). Salem: “A large concourse of people moved in procession from the Court House to the North Meeting House” where included in the exercises, “the music (particularly the sublime Hallelujah Chorus) led by Dr. Peabody, was performed with great effect.” Mr. Dolliver performed a voluntary on the organ and Psalm 9 to the tune “Old Hundred” was sung. Later “a large party of gentlemen partook of a sumptuous dinner at the new Hall of the Essex Coffee House” where the toasts were presented with the following musical works: White co*ckade — Song —“In the down-hill of life, In my snug elbow chair, &c.— Massachusetts March — Strong’s March — Dead March in Saul — Hail Columbia, Happy Land!— Lady Berkley’s Whim — Hearts of Oak — Dirge — Yankee Doodle—Quebec March—There is No Luck

1814 about the House329—Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Alas! Poor Robinson Crusoe!— Catch — Men in Buckram (“American Independence” and “Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 4 and 8 July 1814, 1 and 3, respectively). Scituate: After a procession and exercises at the Meeting House, the Republicans of Scituate and surrounding towns celebrated with a dinner that included toasts, “accompanied with music and the discharge of cannon”: Hail Columbia — Adams and Liberty — President’s March — Yankee Doodle — Jefferson’s March — Old Hundred — Dead March in Saul — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself—Rural Felicity (“Celebration of American Independence at Scituate,” Boston Patriot, 9 July 1814, 2).

New Hampshire Hanover: A parade of Washington Benevolent Societies of Hanover, Lebanon, Lime, and Norwich, citizens and students of Dartmouth was “preceded by a band of instrumental music” to the meeting house. “The ceremonies were commenced by the following hymn (marked no. 1), composed for the occasion by Mr. N.C. Betton, which was performed by a select choir.” After a prayer, “the following hymn (marked no. 2) composed by Mr. George Kent, was sung by the choir. After an oration, “the following Ode, composed by Mr. Kent (marked no. 3) was sung by Col. Brewster, in a masterly style. Te Deum was performed by the choir”: “Hymn” (no. 1) [tune] Old Hundred” (first line: “Great Sovereign! of the wolds [sic] above”; “Hymn (no. 2) [tune] Denmark” (first line: “Eternal God! thy name we praise”); “Ode (no. 3) Tune — Anacreon in Heaven” (first line: “Rise, sons of Columbia! and hail the glad day”). Later at a bower, dinner was served with toasts “accompanied by airs played by the band”: Swiss Guard’s March — U.S. March — Reed’s March — Favorite March BlueBeard — Battle of the Nile — O Dear what Can the Matter Be — There is No Luck about the House — Washington’s March — Massachusetts March — Jargon330— Knox’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — Blue Bells of Scotland — Downfall of Paris — Old Hundred — Battle of Prague — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself (Concord Gazette, 12 July 1814, 3). Lyman: “At the place appointed for the exercises of the day,” there were at least two pieces of music performed. The program was listed as follows 1. 2. 3. 4.

Music. Prayer. Music. A Discourse by the Rev. Isaac Scarritt, from Ex. Xii. 14. 5. An Oration, by Caleb Emert, Esq. 6. Prayer. [“Celebration at Lyman,” Concord Gazette, 19 July 1814, 3].

Manchester: The day “was celebrated by the Republican citizens of Manchester, Goffstown, and Bed-

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1815 ford, and their vicinity” with a procession that began at 11:30 A.M. to the Meeting House. “After performance of church music by a band that roused the ‘various movements of the breast,’ the throne of Grace was addressed by the Rev. D. I. Morrill of Goffstown” (“Celebration at Manchester,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 19 July 1814, 2).

New Jersey Newark: In the procession and at the First Presbyterian Church, “Mr. Richmond and his choir of singers” (“Fourth of July Arrangements at Newark,” Centinel of Freedom, 21 June 1814, 3); at a “sumptuous dinner” event by the Newark Independent Artillery at Moses Roff ’s, the following music was played as the toasts were presented: Bunker Hill — Liberty Tree—Hail Columbia—President’s March—Patriot’s Song — Firm United — Jersey Blue331— music Yankee Doodle — America, Commerce and Freedom — Roslin Castle — Dead March — Soldiers Return — Maid of the Mill — Rural Felicity — Freedom and Peace — Women and Wine — Soldiers Farewell — Tune, a Sailors Life at Sea — Victory or Death — The Volunteer — The Patriots Prayer332— To Arms — The Drum—The Votive Wreath (The Centinel of Freedom, 12 July 1814, 3). Patterson Landing: A parade included a band of “martial musick” and 186 ladies “all dressed in white, and heads trimmed with ribbon, singing Columbia at every interval of the martial music.” At the church, the exercises included singing three odes and one psalm (Centinel of Freedom, 26 July 1814, 2). Springfield: Plans for the forthcoming celebration named Watts Reeve as leader of the “music, vocal and instrumental” contribution to the event at the church (“At Springfield,” Centinel of Freedom, 21 June 1814, 3).

New York Florida: The citizens of Goshen and Florida formed a procession that included the Middletown Band. The group marched to the church where the exercises were performed (“Fourth of July, 1814,” Orange County Patriot; or, the Spirit of ‘Seventy-Six,’ 28 June 1814, 2). New York: An interlude of songs and choruses performed titled The Launch of the Independence at the Theatre (New-York Evening Post, 2 July 1814, 2–3); “Ode (altered from R.T. Payne, Jun. Esq.). Adapted to the celebration of the 4th of July, 1814, by the Washington Benevolent Society. (Set to music and sung by Uri K. Hill).” First line: “Hail! hail ye patriot spirits!” (New-York Commercial Advertiser, 5 July 1814, 2; New York Evening Post, 2 July 1814, 2–3; Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1814, 2).

Pennsylvania Carlisle: The Carlisle mechanics met “at Holmes’s Spring, where an elegant dinner was prepared for the occasion. The time was occupied in rural sport, enlivened occasionally by an agreeable band of music.”

After dinner toasts were offered accompanied by the following music: Tune—Washington’s March—Yankee Doodle — Hail Liberty — Hail Columbia — Union — Yankee Doodle — The Wedding — Buckskins’ March — Girl I Left Behind Me — Liberty Tree — Life Let Us Cherish — Rural Felicity (“The Fourth of July,” Kline’s Weekly Carlisle Gazette, 8 July 1814, 3). Philadelphia: The Washington Guards and the Washington Benevolent Society celebrated at the Theatre, followed by dinner in the afternoon. Toasts were offered accompanied by the following music: Yankee Doodle — Roslin Castle — Tars of Columbia — Hail Columbia—Dead March in Saul—Life Let Us Cherish — Washington’s March — See the Conquering Hero Comes — Grand Cossac March — The Rogue’s March —’Twas on the 21st of June (Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1814, 3).

Rhode Island Providence: At the Providence Theatre, which “opened for the season on Monday, July 4, 1814,” the five-act comedy Soldier Daughter was presented and at the “end of the comedy, a new song, called ‘Sandy and Jenny’” was sung by Mr. Garner and “a favourite song” sung by Mrs. Wheatley. A second play, Fortune’s Frolick, or, the True Use of Riches! was presented, after which “a patriotick song by Mr. Garner” was sung (Rhode-Island American, and General Advertiser, 1 July 1814, 3).

Vermont Middlebury: After a procession of Republicans “from the College green to the Court House,” food and drink were provided back at the college. After the first toast to “the Fourth of July,” an “Ode, composed for the occasion, by N.H. Wright, was sung in excellent style, by Mr. Thomas Hagar. Tune —‘Hail Columbia.’” First line: “Sons of Freedom! hail the day” (“Fourth of July,” Columbian Patriot, 6 July 1814, 3). Poultney: Washington Benevolent Societies from several towns marched in the parade. “As the procession entered the meeting house, a choir of young ladies dressed in white, melodiously sung the Federal song, ‘Hail Columbia happy land. Hail ye heroes heaven born band.’” The exercises opened with singing and “a national ode closed the exercises” (“Poultney Celebration,” Vermont Mirror, 27 July 1814, 1).

1815 Publications “American Independence. An Ode. For the Fourth of July 1798 (never before published).”333 First line: “While savage war with ruthless hand” (“For the Evening Post,” New-York Herald, 2 December 1815, 2;

87 “Pauperrimus,” Albany Advertiser, 9 December 1815, 3; Federal Republican, 12 December 1815, 4). “Columbia’s Independence. Tune —‘Reels of Tullochgorum.’” First line: “Come crowd around the festive board” (The Columbian, 3 July 1815, 2). “The following ‘Ode,’ for the 4th of July, is the production of Mr. Wm. C. Bryant, a young gentleman to whom we have been repeatedly indebted for his elegant and poetic effusions.” First line: “This festive day when last we kept” (New Bedford Mercury, 21 July 1815, 4; Connecticut Journal, 24 July 1815, 2; “Patriotic Ode, Not in Bryant’s Volumes,” Ballou’s Monthly Magazine, [February 1882]:162). “Independence, a Song for the Fourth of July. Tune — Anacreon in Heaven.” Signed “Bob Short.” First line: “’Tis the birthday of freedom, Columbians rejoice” (Mechanics’ Gazette, 3 July 1815, 2). “National Song, for the 4th of July, 1815, the BirthDay of American independence. ‘[Written by Mrs. Rowson,334 and sung by Mr. Rowson, at the celebration in Lexington.]’” First line: “Strike! strike! the chord, raise! raise! the strain.” Music by Samuel Arnold (1740–1802). (“Poetry,” Northern Post, 3 August 1815, 4; National Song for the 4th of July the Birth Day of American Independence. Boston: Published and sold by G. Graupner at his music store, [1815]. Copy in Newberry Library); National Intelligencer, 14 July 1815, 3). “New Song Composed for the 4th of July, 1815.” First line: “It is not the latitude, climate or spot” (National Intelligencer, 25 July 1815). “‘No More the Loud Tones of the Trumpet Resound.’ Written for the 4th July, 1815.” To the tune “To Anacreon in Heaven.” This work was sung in Petersburgh, VA. Text printed in John M’Creery, A Selection from the Ancient Music of Ireland (Petersburg, VA: Yancy & Burton, 1824), 204–05, and Western American, 30 September 1815, 1.335 “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1815.”336 First line: “In the east, full of light, darts the sun his bright ray” (American Watchman, 2 August 1815, 1). “Ode, for the occasion, written by a lady.” Note: “The following Ode was written by a young lady of this town for the Republican Celebration at Lexington, on the 4th of July, and was sung in the Meetinghouse by Mr. Rawson. It is an elegant and tasteful composition, and deserves the praise of combining noble sentiments with harmonious poetry.” First line: “Hail! to the birth of America’s glory” (From the Boston Chronicle, as published in “Poetry,” Union, 25 August 1815, 4). “An Ode [“Typographical Ode”].337 Written by Mr. Samuel Woodworth, and sung before the New-York Typographical Society on the 4th of July, 1815. Tune— ‘Let Fame Sound the Trumpet.’” First line: “Awake the loud trumpet, ’tis freedom invites” (National Advocate, 8 July 1815, 2; “Poetry,” Ulster Plebeian, 29 August 1815, 4; Woodworth, Melodies, Duets, Trios, Songs, and Ballads, 136). “Odes in celebration of independence, July 4th, 1815.” By J. Fellowes.338 Broadside, [Exeter, NH, 1815].

1815 “Song for the Fourth of July.” From the Virginia Herald. First line: “The yell of death is hush’d” (Centinel of Freedom, 11 July 1815, 4; True American, 13 July 1815, 2).

Performances District of Columbia At the Washington Theatre, “on Tuesday Evening, July 4, 1815, will be presented a celebrated play, in three acts interspersed with songs, called the Hero of the North; or, The Deliverer of His Country.” At the end of the play a “national scene” was displayed and included “the celebrated song of the ‘Star-Spangled Banner,’339 (written by F.S. Key, Esq. during the bombardment of Fort M’Henry) by Mr. Steward,” and a “comic song, ‘My Deary,’ by Mr. Entwisle,” followed by the presentation of the “comic opera of The Poor Soldier” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” National Intelligencer, 3 July 1815, 3).

Maine Hallowell: After exercises held at Social Hall, the participants returned to Palmer’s Hotel “and partook of an elegant entertainment provided for the occasion.” Toasts “were drank, accompanied by discharge of cannon and appropriate music” (“National Jubilee,” American Advocate and Kennebec Advertiser, 8 July 1815, 2).

Maryland Chaptico: “A considerable number of gentlemen” celebrated with dinner and toasts, “interspersed with a variety of patriotic songs” (National Intelligencer, 18 August 1815, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: “The Washington Society celebrated the glorious anniversary of American independence in this town, at the Columbian Coffee House, by a public festival.” An address by William Gale was presented and a dinner included toasts accompanied by the following pieces: Tune, a National Ode—U.S. March— President’s March — Dirge — America, Commerce and Freedom — Dirge — Adams & Liberty — Jefferson and Liberty — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle—Around the Huge Oak—Rise Columbia— Dirge composed for the occasion. Tune, Pleyel’s Hymn (first line: “Sweet remembrance of the brave!”)— Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Billings Favor — Yid re I — O! Dear What Can the Matter Be — Come Haste to the Wedding (Independent Chronicle, 6 July 1815, 2; Yankee, 7 July 1815, 3); another newspaper reported this list of tunes sung with toasts that day: Dirge — Jefferson and Liberty — Yankee Doodle — Around the Hugh Oak — Rise Columbia — Dirge composed for the occasion. Tune, Pleyel’s Hymn (first line: “Sweet remembrance of the brave”)— Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself340— Billings’ Jargon341— Tid-Re-I — O! Dear what Can

1815

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to increase patriotism and harmony among the American family on the principles of ’76.” The group later processed to “a bower near the North Meeting House” for dinner. Toasts were drank accompanied by the following pieces of music: Tune, Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Pres’t March—Pleyel’s Hymn— Dead March in Saul — America, Commerce and freedom — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Yankee Doodle — Rule Britannia — Gen. Eaten’s March—Jefferson’s March — Roslin Castle — Rise Columbia — Adams & Liberty — Tompkin’s March (“Celebration of Independence at Dorchester” and “Dorchester Celebration,” Independent Chronicle, 29 June and 6 July 1815, 2 and 2, respectively). Leominster: The Leominster Band provided music for toasts that followed “an agreeable collation” (“Celebration at Leominster,” National Aegis, 12 July 1815, 2). Lexington: “At the meeting house, appropriate music was performed by the band and the choir” Francis Scott Key’s original hand written copy of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” September 14, 1814. Facsimile printed by the Potomac Edison Com- and an ode was sung by Mr. Rowson. A band pany, Hagerstown, Maryland (author’s collection). played two dirges at the dinner provided by Capt. the Matter Be — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself Parker (“Fourth of July Celebration at Lexington,” (American Watchman, 15 July 1815, 1). The Yankee, 7 July 1815, 3; Essex Register, 8 July 1815, Braintree: After exercises at Mr. Storrs’ Meeting 3). See Publications above. House, a procession, “attended by Musick,” marched Pittsfield: “The Republican citizens of Berkshire, to a bower for dinner and toasts with accompanying and many from the neighboring counties” assembled music (“Celebration of Independence, at Braintree,” “at an early hour, at the Pittsfield Hotel, and at 12 o’New-England Palladium & Commercial Advertiser, 7 clock a large and respectable procession was formed” July 1815, 2). and “escorted by Capt. Chappell’s company of BerkDorchester: “The Fourth of July was celebrated at shire Blues, animated and enlivened by the excellent Dorchester by the Roxbury, Dorchester and Milton band of martial music from the Cantonment (many of Association of Republicans” who marched to “Revwhom assisted in animating our gallant heroes at the erend John Codman’s Meeting House” where the exbattles of Chippewa and Erie) and the Pittsfield Band” ercises were held. “The whole exercises were interand marched to the Meeting House, where “the exerspersed with select music by a choir of singers, and cises were admirably performed....The odes sung by occasional performances on the organ, and calculated the choir, under the direction of Mr. Morgan, do him

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and his associates great credit for their skillful and happy performances, and gave a zest to the occasion, which will long be remembered.” Back at the Pittsfield Hotel, “a sumptuous dinner was provided by Capt. Sabin” and “toasts were drank, accompanied with music from the bands, and a discharge of cannon” (“Great National Jubilee,” Pittsfield Sun, 6 July 1815, 3). Worcester: A morning procession of Republicans and militia ended at the South Meeting House. “The publick exercises were opened by vocal musick from an excellent choir of singers led by Mr. John Coolidge,”342 and ended “by an appropriate anthem.” Later at a dinner, “toasts were drunk, received with loud cheers and answered by the discharge of cannon. At proper intervals, patriotick songs were given, and echoed by the company” (National Aegis, 12 July 1815, 2).

Rogues March—Bonaparte’s March to Elba—Downfall of Paris — Anacreon in Heaven — Rose Tree (Centinel of Freedom, 18 July 1815, 3). Plainfield:

New Hampshire

The group marched to the Academy where the exercises were held with 1200 persons attending. “In the intervals of the exercises three appropriate odes were sung — an ode was also sung as the procession moved to the academy, and another on its return”(Centinel of Freedom, 11 July 1815, 3; “Fourth of July,” New Jersey Journal, 18 July 1815, 3). Springfield: At a meeting for celebration arrangements, Watts Reeve was named “conductor of the music” and the musicians were assigned position no. 2 in the procession from the “house of Luther Bonuel to the church,” where at the latter three odes were to be performed (Centinel of Freedom, 20 June 1815, 3).

Londonderry: This town’s celebration included the Washington Benevolent Societies of Londonderry, Hampstead, and Bedford and included a parade and exercises at the meeting house. “The performance of a number of pieces of music, by the Musical Society in Londonderry,343 and the band from Haverhill, in a style of improved taste, tended much to increase the pleasure which a numerous assemblage manifestly derived from the other exercises of the day”344 (Farmers’ Cabinet, 22 July 1815, 1). Meredith: “The anniversary of American Independence was celebrated at Meredith, by a respectable number of the Friends of Union of that, and the adjacent towns.” At the dinner, “toasts were drank accompanied with music and guns”: Yankee Doodle—Hail Columbia—Washington’s March—Jefferson and Liberty — Jefferson’s March — Blue Beard — Separation — Reed’s March — Roslin Castle — Rural Felicity — There Is No Luck about the House — Danty Davy — Moll Brook — The Retreat — Miller’s March — Major Minor — Knox’s March — Gen. Green’s March (“Celebration at Meredith,” NewHampshire Patriot, 25 July 1815, 3).

New Jersey Bloomfield: A parade had 13 sections, including one for “martial music,” one for “instrumental band” and another for “vocal music.” The procession marched around the green, “while the vocal, instrumental, and martial music alternately aroused the attention of the assembly to the harmony of sound.” In the church, “the vocal and instrumental band introduced the procession till being seated.” Interspersed in the ceremony, “odes were sung by Mr. T. Collins’ band, concluding with appropriate tune from the instrumental band.” Later at a dinner, toasts were accompanied with: Tune, Hail Columbia — Vive la Constitution — President’s March — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Soldier’s Return — Jersey Blue — Restoration March — Roslin Castle — Rural Felicity — Madison and Liberty — Bellisle March —

The inhabitants of the township of Westfield and the surrounding neighborhood, met at Samuel Manning’s tavern, at Plainfield, to celebrate the anniversary of independence. Between 11 and 12 o’clock the procession was formed — in which were about 60 of the venerable actors in the perilous days of ’76 — the company was likewise gratified, and the procession adorned by the presence of about 400 ladies — 60 of the young ladies dressed in white, under the charge of Mr. Wm. Lever, music master, by whom they had been duly prepared to unite in singing, the odes selected for the day.

New York New York: The New York Typographical Society assembled at “the Rev. Mr. Mitchell’s Church in Pearl St. at one o’clock to commence the celebrations of the day.” After an “introductory prayer,” a reading of the Declaration of Independence by “Mr. S. Woodworth” and an oration “by Mr. I. Hoit,” was presented as well as “an Ode, written for the occasion, by Mr. [Samuel] Woodworth, and sung by Mr. Pritchard.”345 Later at the Exchange Tavern, the group dined and exchanged toasts “interspersed with a variety of patriotic and other songs, several of which were sung by Mr. Pritchard, in his usual style of excellence” (Columbian, 8 July 1815, 2; Alexandria Herald, 17 July 1815, 1; National Advocate, 8 July 1815, 2). See Publications above. Troy: At the Presbyterian Meeting House, the exercises included the ‘Ode to Science’ (a very appropriate one for the occasion) was sung by an excellent and numerous choir, under the direction of Capt. George Allen, one of the staunch whigs who nobly took his stand in the first ranks in those perilous periods of the revolution which emphatically ‘tried men’s souls’— then an appropriate Psalm — which was followed by reading the Declaration of Independence.... After the oration, an Ode (prepared for the occasion) was sung, and the exercises were closed by an appropriate prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Wayland, and a hymn.

90

1816 At the dinner that followed, toasts were drank accompanied by the following music: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Long Way Off at Sea346— NewYork Quick March — Tompkins’ March — Yankee Doodle — Hearts of Oak — Washington’s March — Jefferson & Liberty—Roslin Castle (“Independence,” Farmers’ Register, 11 July 1815, 2).

North Carolina Salem: The Moravians presented a trombone concert in the orchard of the Brothers House.347

Rhode Island Providence: On July 4, the “much admired play in 3 acts, called the Point of Honor, or A School for Soldiers” was presented at the Providence Theatre followed by an interlude that included the premiere of a song titled the “Proclamation and Ratification of Peace and Plenty,” sung by Mr. Bray, followed by the song “Columbia, Land of Liberty” sung by Mr. Jones (Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 1 July 1815, 3).

Vermont Bennington: The Sons of Liberty assembled at the State Arms Tavern and with others, “preceded by an elegant band of music,” marched to the Meeting House where the exercises were “accompanied at suitable intervals by solemn tunes, judiciously performed by the band.” A dinner was held at the Tavern where the following songs were sung: “‘Song for July 4th, 1815.’ Tune, ‘Bouyne Water.’” First line: “July the fourth effulgent springs.”; “‘National Independence.’ Tune, ‘Derry Down.’” First line: “’Tis the fourth of July that enlivens the strain.”; “‘A New Liberty Tree,’ to its old proper tune.” First line: “Well met fellow freemen at Liberty’s shrine.”; “‘Song’ written during the entertainment. Tune, ‘Yankee Doodle.’” First line: “The diamond genius of the land” (Green-Mountain Farmer, 10 July 1815, 1). Fairfield: Among the exercises of the day, “an Ode was sung adapted to the occasion” (Burlington Gazette, 28 July 1815, 3). Hinesburgh: A parade of 1000 persons to the meeting house included Governor Martin Chittenden and other digitaries, as well as a band of music. “Appropriate music from the band” accompanied the toasts at the dinner: Tune, Massachusetts March — Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — Hail Columbia — Lord Barnett’s March — Paris March — Vermont Quick Step — Bugle Horn Quick Step — March in Forty Thieves — American Favorite348— Handel’s Clarionet — March in the Battle of Prague — General Muster—Lesson by Morilli—Turkish March—Orn’s March — Gen. Greene’s March — Serenade (“Hinesburgh Celebration,” Columbian Patriot, 19 July 1815, 3). Poultney: “The procession was animated by a band of music, from Mr. Loomis’s to an adjacent grove of sugar maple.” The exercises included “select appro-

priate vocal music.” The toasts were accompanied by the following music: Bunkers Hill — Presidents March — The Wounded Hussar — Soldiers Return — Allens March Revillie — Strike your tents and march away — Rule Britannia — Jacksons March — O dear what can the matter be!— On the road to Washington — Hail Columbia Happy Land (“At Poultney,” Rutland Herald, 26 July 1815, 3). Rutland: “Federal Republican citizens,” members of the Washington Benevolent Societies of this and surrounding towns, a “band of martial musick,”and a “choir of singers” marched in a procession from Gould’s to the meeting house. The service included singing of a “national ode” (“Communication,” Rutland Herald, 12 July 1815, 3). Sudbury: The day was celebrated “by a large and respectable concourse of the citizens of Sudbury and the adjacent towns, with suitable demonstrations of joy.” At 11 A.M. a procession to the Meeting House was led by “martial music.” The exercises included a reading of the Declaration of Independence “after which an Ode adapted to the occasion was sung.” After the oration, “the service was closed by an excellent Ode, written by James O. Walker, Esq.” (“Celebration at Sudbury,” Rutland Herald, 26 July 1815, 3). West Haven: At the new Meeting House, “services were introduced by sacred vocal music.” “Martial Music” followed the reading of the Declaration of Independence. After the oration, “an Ode adapted to the occasion was performed by a select choir.” Later “300 ladies and gentlemen partook of an excellent dinner” at a specially erected bower. The following “appropriate music” accompanied the toasts: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Mountaineers — Jefferson’s March — Speed the Plough — Yankee Doodle—Song, Freedom of the Seas—Steuben’s March— Gen. Green’s March — See the Conquering Hero Comes — Dirge, Logan Water — Bugle Quick Step — Caledonian Ladie.B — Song, Hotham’s Victory, or Five to One349 (“Celebration of Independence at West Haven,” Rutland Herald, 2 August 1815, 3).

Virginia Petersburg: A procession “accompanied by a fine band of music marched to the Presbyterian Church.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, the band played “Hail Columbia” (Richmond Enquirer, 8 July 1815, 2).

1816 Publications “The following Songs were composed by Maj. J[ames]. N. Barker, of Philadelphia, and sung by him at the Spring Garden on the Fourth of July.” From the Democratic Press. “The Day”: first line, “Since a toast you demand, and I can’t say you nay”;350 “The Exile’s Welcome”351: first line, “Hail to the Exile,

91 whose crime was devotion”; “The Way to Be Happy”: first line, “Some think it a hardship to work for their bread” (Essex Register, 20 July 1816, 4; Rhode-Island Republican, 24 July 1816, 4; Washington Whig, 29 July 1816, 3; Shamrock, 3 August 1816, 360; “Poetry,” Western American, 17 August 1816, 4). “An irregular Ode, commemorative of the naval and military glory of America; composed in honor of July 4, 1816, by J. Lathrop, esq.” First line: “When, Heaven appeas’d, the ruin’d world” (National Intelligencer, 6 July 1816, 2). “Ode, composed by Samuel Webber, A.B. and sung at the celebration of independence, in Hallowell, (Maine), July 4th, 1816.” First line: “All hail to the morn, which again brightly beaming” (“Selected Poetry,” Dedham Gazette, 19 July 1816, 4). “Ode, for the celebration by the Washington Society, of the anniversary of American independence, Fourth July 1816. By a member of the Society. Tune— ‘Adams and Liberty.’” First line: “Again we assemble, to honour the day” (“Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 11 July 1816, 4). “Ode, for the Fourth of July.” First line: “All hail to the day when fair Freedom arose” (National Intelligencer, 4 July 1816, 3; “Poetry,” Reporter, 24 July 1816, 4). “Odes sung at the celebration in Elizabeth-Town, July 4th, 1816.” First lines: “To thee, who reign’st supreme above”; “To the great King of kings we raise” (“Poetry,” New Jersey Journal, 9 July 1816, 4). “Odes to be sung at Camptown, July 4th, 1816.” Ode 1: first line, “Freemen all hail the glorious day”; Ode 2: first line, “Ye freeborn sons of freedom’s soil”; Ode 3: first line, “When the merciless legions of Britain came o’er.” Broadside, 1816. “A Song written on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Now Europe’s convuls’d with the discord of war” (The American Patriotic Song-Book, a Collection of Political, Descriptive, and Humourous Songs of National Character, and the Production of American Poets Only [Philadelphia: John Bioren, 1816]). The Star-Spangled Banner: Being a Collection of the Best Naval, Martial, Patriotic Songs, &c. (Wilmington, DE: J. Wilson, 1816). Contains among other songs: Hail Columbia — Merseilles Hymn — Meeting of the Waters — New Yankee Doodle — Ode by M.L. Sargent — Ode by J. Story — Ode by R.T. Paine — Star-Spangled Banner — Typographical Ode — Roslin Castle. Advertised for sale in American Watchman, 7 December 1816, 4.

Performances

1816 dle — Soldier’s Return353— Mason’s Holiday — White co*ckade — Banks of Kentucky — Fancy Cotillion — Lass of Richmond Hill (The Columbian, 16 July 1816, 2; “Communicated,” American Mercury, 23 July 1816, 3).

Maine Bath: “During the morning a large and respectable number of people from this and the neighboring towns, without distinction of party, assembled at the Hotel, and a little before noon, moved in procession thence to the South Meeting House, escorted by the Bath Light Infantry, accompanied by the Brigade Band of music, while a federal salute was discharged from the Artillery” (“Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence at Bath,” Portland Gazette and Maine Advertiser, 16 July 1816, 1).

Maryland Annapolis: Gaetano Carusi and his “superb” Italian band354 presented an anniversary concert accompanying toasts presented for “Republican citizens” at the Assembly Room: Hail Columbia — Jackson’s March — Madison’s March — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Come Haste to the Wedding — Pleyel’s Hymn (Maryland Republican, 6 July 1816).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Old South Meeting House with John Adams in attendance, “several excellent pieces of music were sung by the Old South Choir; the audience joining in the stanza”: “With grateful hearts, with joyful tongues” (Commercial Advertiser, 9 July 1816, 2). Pittsfield: At the meeting house, after a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “appropriate music by the choir” was performed ... the exercises were closed by singing an ode” (“Our National Anniversary,” Pittsfield Sun, 11 July 1816, 3). Richmond: “A band of music” in the procession and at the dinner held at Mr. Peirson’s ... toasts were drank, attended with discharges of a field piece, and music from an excellent Band” (“National Birth Day,” The Pittsfield Sun, 11 July 1816, 3). Worcester: Various military companies and citizens marched from Hathaway’s Hall to the South Meeting House, “accompanied by a band of musick ... at the close of the publick services, the following ‘Ode’ written for the occasion, was sung, with taste and spirit, by Lt. Hamilton.” First line: “Again fair Freedom’s sons appear” (“National Festival,” Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 10 July 1816, 2).

Connecticut

New Hampshire

Riverhead: Republicans of Lyme and Waterford, “at a sumptuous repast,” enjoyed hearing these works: Hail Columbia — Green’s March — Money in Both Pockets — Hölstein’s March352— Jefferson’s March — Rural Felicity — Fresh and Strong — Dead March — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Yankee Doo-

Wilton: A town procession “was escorted to the meeting-house by a band of excellent music” (Farmers’ Cabinet, 13 July 1816, 2; “Celebration of Independence at Wilton,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 23 July 1816, 3).

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Annapolis’ “Assembly Rooms,” built before the Revolutionary War and now home for City Hall and the mayor’s office, was a favorite place for public entertainments and rebuilt by 1868 after a fire. George Washington was one of the favorite visitors. One of the notable Fourth of July events there took place on July 4, 1816, when the Italian Gaetano Carusi and his band played patriotic tunes for a celebration of “Republican citizens” (author’s photograph).

New Jersey Bloomfield: “Instrumental Band” and singers in procession to the church where “the vocal and instrumental music charmed the ear during the intervals.” Later, “after dinner the citizens again met on the Green” and drank toasts interspersed with the following music: tune Hail Columbia—Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, vive La — Tune, Departed Heroes — Tune, Thunder Storm — Roslin Castle — Tune, Madison’s March — Tune, Thurot’s Defeat — Tune, Jersey Blue — Tune, Sailors Rights — Tune Freedom and Peace — Tune, Commerce and Freedom — Tune, March in Pizzaro — Tune, Come Haste to the Wedding—Tune, Tid re i—Tune, Soldiers Adieu—Tune, Lovely Fair — Tune, Happy Day (“Celebration of Independence at Bloomfield,” Centinel of Freedom, 23 July 1816, 3). Millville: After a noon-time dinner, citizens paraded to the Union school house for the exercises which began with a prayer. “A psalm from Davis’s American version, entitled Independence, was then sung, after which a patriotic and eloquent oration was deliverd by Mr. William Curll” (“Fourth of July, at Millville,” Washington Whig, 15 July 1816, 3). Scotch Plains: A parade included “martial music” and the music at the Baptist Meeting House was under

the direction of Aaron Ball.355 Three odes were sung. Later the dinner included toasts accompanied by music (New Jersey Journal, 16 July 1816, 2). Springfield: The procession included “military music” and “the choir of vocal and instrumental music conducted by Mr. Watts Reeve.” After the exercises, “an Ode composed for the occasion, accompanied by Messrs Durands on the clarionet [sic] and flute, tune ‘Liberty’ ... Second Ode, tune ‘Dauphin’— Third Ode, tune ‘Independence.’” At the dinner, “a number of patriotic songs were sung by Mr. Reeve and others, accompanied by Mr. Durand on the clarionet” (“Celebration of the 4th of July at Springfield,” The Centinel of Freedom, 16 July 1816, 3).

New York Ballston Spa: The “order of procession” for the parade included the Saratoga Band of music and the exercises at the Baptist Meeting House included the performance of two odes; the Mechanical Association planned for its procession which was “escorted by the Band of Music” (Independent American, 26 June 1816, 3). New York: At the Tammany celebration, the following pieces of music were performed between the toasts at the “dinner provided by brothers Martling and Cozzens: Hail Columbia — Columbia to Glory

93 Arise — Solemn Dirge — Washington’s March — We Have Broke the Vassal Yoke — Madison’s March — Governor Tompkins’ March356— Hail! Great Republic of the World!— America, Commerce and Freedom—Hull’s Victory357—Jefferson’s March—Bolivar’s March — Ere Around the Huge Oak — The Son of Alknomak—American Independence—The Spinning Wheel — The Sons of Tammany — Machere Amie (“Tammany Society,” The Shamrock, 13 July 1816, 333).

Rhode Island Foster: A military procession marched “with martial music to the Baptist Meeting-House, near the centre of the town” (“Celebration of Independence at Foster,” Providence Gazette, 27 July 1816, 2). Providence: “The people of this town and its vicinity” marched “through the principal streets to the Beneficent Congregational Church” where the exercises included prayers and an oration. “We should be neglectful, should we fail to mention that the welladapted Psalms, which were so admirably sung, added much to the interest and solemnity of the scene” (“National Jubilee,” Rhode-Island American and General Advertiser, 5 July 1816, 3).

South Carolina Charleston: “The Indian Land Library Society, together with a large number of ladies and gentlemen of the first respectability, met at the house of Benjamin Person, Esq. York District, S.C. to celebrate the fortieth Anniversary of American Independence.” At the dinner, the following pieces of music were played or sung as the toasts were presented: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia—Hail Liberty—America, Commerce and Freedom — Jefferson and Liberty — Life Let Us Cherish — Volunteers New Dead March — Traitors Go Home — Yankee Doodle — Tars of Columbia — Jackson’s March — Na [sic] Luck about the House — Rights of Man — Baltimore — Rose Tree — Shillinaguira358— Sea Flower — Soldiers’ Joy — Handels’ Clarionet (“Celebration of the 4th of July,” City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 31 July 1816, 2).

Vermont Bridport: a procession that included citizens and officials was led by the “Bridport band of music” and parade ended at the Meeting House where the exercises were as follows: Ode sung by the choir. Prayer by the Rev. Increase Graves. Music from the Band. Declaration of Independence read by the Rev. A. Stone. Oration by the Hon. Charles Rich. Music from the Band. Prayer by Elder Henry Chamberlain. Ode by the choir.

The band also provided music at the celebration of toasts that followed (“Union Celebration at Bridport,” National Standard, 17 July 1816, 3).

1817 Middlebury: “Agreeably to previous arrangement, a procession was formed on the College Green, at 10 o’clock A.M....” Included in the procession were the “Volunteer Music — Middlebury Band” and a “choir of singers and young ladies.” At the meeting house were the following “Order of Exercises”: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sacred Music. Prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Merrill. Sermon, by the Rev. Mr. [Daniel O.] Morton. Sacred music. Oration, by Mr. Cha. G. Haines. Ode, written by Mr. N. Hill Wright, and sung by the choir. [First line: “Let the loud clarion’s notes resound”]. 7. Concluding prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Kendrick.

At the dinner held at Mr. Campbell’s Hotel, only the men attended and after “toasts were drank, accompanied by a discharge of cannon, and the music of the Band”: Music, Valenciennes March — Hail Columbia — Vermont Quick Step — Gen. Greene’s March — Serenade — Gen. Orne’s March — Handel’s Water-Piece — Monroe’s March — Rise Columbia — Dorchester’s March — Hail Liberty — First Lesson — Solemn Dirge — Washington’s March — Battle of Prague — Waltz — Boston Cadets — Pleyel’s Hymn — March in the God of Love (“Union Celebration of the 4th of July at Middlebury,” Vermont Mirror, 26 June and 10 July 1816, 3 and 3, respectively; “Independence!” National Standard, 10 July 1816, 3).

1817 Publications “The following Ode was sung at the celebration of independence by the Washington Society, in Boston on the 4th inst. It is from the pen of Mr. N.H. Wright. Air —‘Wreaths for the Chieftain.’” First line: “Wreaths for the heroes who gain’d independence” (Essex Register, 16 July 1817, 4; National Aegis, 16 July 1817, 4). The poem was printed under the title “American Independence” and cited as composed by “N. Hillwright” in American Star, 30 October 1817, 3. “Ode, for the anniversary of American Independence, July 4th, 1817. Tune —‘Hail Columbia! happy land!’” By Edward D. Bangs. First line: “Hail the glad, the glorious day!” (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 9 July 1817, 3; “Poetry,” Ulster Plebeian, 26 July 1817, 4.); broadside (Worcester, MA, 1817). Copy in Brown University. “Ode for the 4th July, 1817.” Note: “The following ode, written for the occasion by a member of the Washington Society, was sung at their late celebration in this town [Boston]. Tune—‘Columbia Land of Liberty.’” First line: “Let grateful notes this day arise” (“Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 12 July 1817, 4). “Ode for the 41st anniversary of American independence.” First line: “All hail to the day that gave

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1817 Liberty birth!” (Alexandria Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1817, 2). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1817. By Thomas Stuntevant, esq.” First line: “Hail! independence blest!” (from the Albany Argus, as published in “Poetry,” Independent Chronicle, 4 July 1817, 2). “Ode on the 4th July, 1817.” First line: “All hail! to the day, when from anarchy free” (National Advocate, 4 July 1817, 2). “Ode, Sung on the 4th of July, 1817.” Air: “The Hermit.” First line: “‘Remember the day,’ cries the voice of the brave.” Broadside. [Hanover, N.H.], 1817. Copy in Brown University. “Patriotic Song, Commemorative of Opening the Union Hotel, in the City of Richmond Virga. On the Fourth of July, 1817.” By Leroy Anderson, Esqr. Music by Miss S. Sully.359 (New York; J.A. & W. Geib, [1817–21?] “Air —‘Banish Sorrow, Grief ’s a Folly.’’’ First line: “Down the stream of time have glided” (American Beacon and Commercial Diary, 10–11 July 1817, 2 and 4, respectively; from the Richmond Compiler, printed in “Poetry,” Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 2 August 1817, 1). “The Zone of Freedom.” Sung at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. Published in Thomas Cogswell Upham, The Home in the West: A Poem Delivered at Dartmouth College, July 4, 1817 (Hanover, NH: David Watson, Jun. printer, 1817).

Performances Connecticut Hartford: Celebration by “the Harmony Society, no. 2 and a number of citizens.” A parade to the Baptist Meeting House included “an excellent band of Musick.” Exercises included: “Ode, for the occasion, sung by the choir under the direction of Mr. George Bolles,” a second “Ode,” and third “Ode, composed by a brother for the occasion. The performance of the choir was admirable, and reflected much credit on its members and their ingenius and assiduous instructor.” At the dinner held at the hall: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Adams and Liberty — Roslin Castle (“Independence,” The Times, 8 July 1817, 3); another newspaper reported the second ode was “set to Handel’s 148th” and that the exercises were closed with the ode together with a performance “by the band of a national air” (Columbian Register, 12 July 1817, 2). New Haven: Members of the Harmony Society celebrated “together with a respectable audience of ladies and gentlemen” at Doolittle’s Long Room. After an opening prayer, “an Ode, composed for the occasion, was then sung; the Declaration of Independence was then read, and succeeded by the patriotic ode of ‘Adams and Liberty.’ ... The choir of music was led by Mr. Allen Brown, and performed in a manner highly creditable to the talents of that gentleman. We take the liberty of inserting the Ode, which was composed by a member. It will not suffer by a compari-

son with any similar production that has appeared in the United States for the last ten years.” “‘Sapphic Ode.’ Tune ‘Bunker-Hill.’” First line: “When first Britannia, to enslave our country.” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July, by Harmony Society, No. I (at NewHaven),” Columbian Register, 12 July 1817, 2).

Massachusetts Amesbury: “The two parties of this and other adjoining towns united in commemorating” the day. After a procession to the Meeting House, the services “were opened by an Anthem from the choir.” After a prayer, “two hymns were sung; & also an Ode, composed for the occasion” (“Independence,” Essex Patriot, 12 July 1817, 3). Boston: The Washington Society met at the Commercial Coffee House “where they partook of a splendid and sumptuous entertainment” and heard an address by Henry Orne. Toasts were presented “accompanied by military music, a number of national songs, and an ode, written for the occasion by a member of the Society” (“Washington Society,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 9 July 1817, 1). Northampton: After the exercises at the church, and dinner “at the public house of Levi Lyman,” the men attended a “ladies Tea Party, where as the mind and appetite had enjoined their feast, there was every thing selected and tastefully arranged, to please the eye and the fancy, heightened by the charms of music and the ‘merry belles,’ to delight the ear and the heart. The whole was succeeded by a ball, in the evening, from the gentlemen, which, by the courtesy of the ladies, was said to be, no unpleasant termination of the amusem*nts of the day” (“Independence,” Boston Intelligencer, and Morning & Evening Advertiser, 12 July 1817, 2). Williamstown: “An excellent band of music” joined with “Capt. Harrison’s company of infantry” and “marched east to the colleges and thence to the Meeting-House.” After the exercises, at “the tables prepared for the ... excellent repast” there was “music from the band” (“National Birth-Day,” Pittsfield Sun, 16 July 1817, 3). Worcester: At the South Meeting House, “the exercises were commenced with an appropriate hymn from a select choir of singers ... An Ode, (which is inserted below), composed for the occasion by Edward D. Bangs,360 Esq. was sung by Capt. S. Hamilton.... Several appropriate songs gave a high zest to the concluding part of the festivity” (Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 9 July 1817, 2–3). See Publications above.

New Hampshire Meredith Bridge: Citizens of this and “adjoining towns assembled and proceeded to the Meeting House “where the Declaration of Independence was read in an interesting and solemn manner” and an “impressive discourse was delivered by H.H. Orne, preceded and followed by instrumental and vocal music.” Toasts

95 delivered included the following pieces: Handel’s Clarionet — Rogue’s March — Durham March — Jefferson’s March — Funeral Dirge — Yankee Doodle — Katy’s Rambles — Soldiers’ Joy (“Celebration at Meredith Bridge,” New Hampshire Patriot, 15 July 1817, 1).

New Jersey Elizabethtown: The “Order of Procession” was assembled at the City Tavern at 9:30 A.M. and marched to the Presbyterian Church with “Martial Music” in the lead (“Amor Patria,” New Jersey Journal, 24 June 1817, 3). Hackensack: “At 11 o’clock, the large concourse of citizens who had assembled, together with the Military, the latter composing seven uniformed Companies, the Civil Officers, Bands of Musick, male and female schools, &c. were arranged in order of procession.... The Procession having moved a short distance, to the sprightly sound of national and patriotic airs from the Band, crossed the Green and halted at the Church.” In the church, “the front seats of the Gallery being occupied by the Choristers and Music—and the residue by the Schools and Citizens.” The exercises in the Church, were conducted in the following order: 1. Grace, by the Rev. Mr. Romeyn. 2. A patriotic Ode, with vocal and instrumental music. 3. The Declaration of Independence read by Mr. Archibald Campbell. 4. Ode — with music. 5. A well composed and patriotic Oration, delivered by Mr. Thomas M. Gahagan. 6. Ode — with music. 7. The Farewell Address of Washington read by Mr. James Romeyn. 8. Ode to Freedom — with music. 9. Conclusion with Prayer.

Later at the dinner held at the “Long Room of Jone’s Hotel, ... toasts were drank, accompanied by music from the Band, and a discharge of Cannon” (“Celebration of the 41st Anniversary of American Independence, at Hackensack, N.J.,” Centinel of Freedom, 29 July 1817, 2). Newark: After a procession to the First Presbyterian Church, the exercises included “vocal music lead by Mr. E. Beach” and “the singing of an Ode.” A reporter noted that “the music (with scarce any preparation) was pleasing and satisfactory” (“Fourth of July,” Centinel of Freedom, 8 July 1817, 3).

New York New York: Several societies of the city, including Tammany Society, Hibernian Provident Society, and Columbian Society, marched through city streets to Spring Street Church where the exercises were begun with a prayer, “succeeded by an ‘Ode on Science,’ by a choir of professors and amateurs.” After parts of

1817 Washington’s Farewell Address were read, an “Independence Anthem” was “sung with great spirit and taste by the ladies and gentlemen composing the choir.” The services ended with “music from the band, and a prayer,” as well as a “‘Thanksgiving Anthem,’ by the choir” (“National Anniversary Arrangements,” Commercial Advertiser, 3 July 1817, 3; New-York Columbian, 3 July 1817, 3; “Fourth of July,” National Advocate, 7 July 1817, 2); at Vauxhall Gardens, the proprietor provided a Musical entertainment of songs and recitations, to be performed by persons of known talents, in the elegant new orchestra, which will be richly illuminated with coloured lamps ... and a full orchestra of music [to] accompany the songs and other entertainments.... that the entertainments may not extend to a longer period than usual, the Concert will begin at an early hour, and is calculated to continue till the commencement of the fire-works. Military music during the afternoon. The Concert will open with President Monroe’s March, composed by Mr. Gilles,361 sen. Dedicated and presented to the President on his late visit to this city, and accepted by his Excellency as his adopted march — arranged expressly for this occasion, with accompaniments for a completely full Military Band, in the style of the Imperial Music of France — by the author. After which, Mr. Betterton, from the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, will deliver an appropriate address. Military Song, “The Host that Fights for Liberty,”362 written by the late J. Henry Mills, and to be sung by Mrs. Mills Military Symphony, Full Orchestra Song, “The Pillar of Glory,” Mr. Green Comic Recitation, “Grecian Fabulist,” Mr. Betterton Song, “Love and Valor,” from Champions Freedom — music by an amateur, Mrs. Mills Full Band, Hail Columbia

Tickets were 4 shillings and could be obtained from Mr. Paff ’s Music Store, Wall Street and Mr. Riley’s Music Store, Chatham Street, and other venues (NewYork Columbian, 1 July 1817, 3; New York Evening Post, 2 July 1817; Commercial Advertiser, 3 July 1817, 3; “Celebration of Independence at New York,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 9 July 1817, 2); at the Theatre, ... this evening, July 4, will be presented, the musical entertainment of The Purse, or The American Tar. Will Steady, Mr. Hilson. After which will be performed (for the 1st time in America, the Musical Drama of the Slave, or the Triumph of Generosity.... In the course of the evening, Mr. Baldwin, will sing the comic song of Arthur O’Bradley’s Wedding. Hard Times or the Year 1762, by Mr. Barnes. The evening’s entertainments, to conclude with the Farce of the Tooth Ache, or, The Mistakes of a Morning. Barogo, Mr. Hilson (New-York Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1817, 3).

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1818 Plattsburgh: At the U.S. Cantonment, near Plattsburgh, the officers of the 6th U.S. Regiment and “a few friends” dined in the Regimental Mess Room. Toasts were drunk with the following music performed by the Regimental Band: Hail Columbia — Tune, Pleyel’s Hymn — The President’s March — March in the Battle of Prague — Green’s March — Tune, The Merry Diggers—Brown’s March—Cossack Dance — Grenadier’s March — the Volunteer — Soldier’s Joy—March in Pizarro—Washington’s March— Portuguese Hymn — Perry’s Quick Step — Vision of Columbus — Copenhagen Waltz — She Lives in the Valley Below363 (“Celebration of the 4th of July, 1817,” Plattsburgh Republican, 2 August 1817, 2). Sag Harbor: “The day was ushered in by the discharge of cannon, ringing of bells and music from an excellent martial band” (“Fourth of July,” Suffolk County Recorder, 5 July 1817, 3). West Point: Cadets of the Military Academy marched “to military music”364 to the “arbor erected for the purpose” of sitting down to “an excellent dinner, prepared by the steward, under the management of a committee of cadets.” Toasts were drank accompanied by cheers, artillery salutes, and the following pieces of music: Hail Columbia — President’s March—Waltz—Pleyel’s Hymn—Monroe’s March— Yankee Doodle — Overture to Artaxerxes — Cadet’s Grand March — Wounded Hussar365— Quick Step — Fort Erie March — Soldier’s Return — Erin Go Bragh — Downfall of Paris — Portuguese Hymn — Trumpet March — Overture to St. Jean — Capt. Partridge’s Quick Step Nightingale. “A ball was given in the evening, and the enjoyment of the dance terminated the celebration” (Evening Post, 12 July 1817, 2; National Advocate, 12 July 1817, 2; “Anniversary at West Point,” National Intelligencer, 15 July 1817, 3; NewYork Herald, 16 July 1817, 1).

Pennsylvania Bethlehem: Citizens “assembled at 2 o’clock, P.M. on the Island, caused by the junction of that beautiful stream Monocasy with the river Lehigh.” After an oration, toasts were presented with the following music: Hail Columbia — Dead March — Monroe’s March — Bunker’s Hill — Lexington March — Governor Strong’s March — Marshal’s March366— Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Franklin’s March — Battle of Prague, Slow March — Turkish Music — Pennsylvania Song — Pennsylvania March — Alexander’s March — Decatur’s Victory — President’s March — Country Song (“Communicated,” Lancaster Journal, 9 July 1817, 3).

Rhode Island Providence: At the Beneficent Congregational Meeting-House, “a number of appropriate hymns had been sung” as part of the exercises attended “by a large number of strangers and citizens” (“National Jubilee,” Providence Gazette, 5 July 1817, 2).

South Carolina Charleston: The ’76 Association paraded “preceded by a band of music” to St. Philip’s Church. The Society of the Cincinnati and the American Revolution Society, “in conjunction, also preceded by a band of music, moved in procession to St. Michael’s Church” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1817, 2).

Vermont Windsor: Proposed “musical oratorio, to be performed by the amateurs of the vicinity. The pieces selected for the occasion are principally from Handel. The performance is to commence at 10 o’clock in the morning, and is to be resumed in the afternoon” and “we doubt not but that the public generally, and particularly the lovers of ‘sacred song,’ will find in the exercises, an intellectual treat worthy of the day designated for its enjoyment” (“Oratorio on the Fourth of July,” Vermont Intelligencer and Bellows’ Falls Advertiser, 23 June 1817, 3; The Repertory, 24 June 1817, 4).

Virginia Petersburg: At a dinner celebration at Poplar Spring, the following pieces were performed as the toasts were given: Hail Columbia—Yankee Doodle— Star-Spangled Banner367— America, Commerce and Freedom — Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Madison’s March — Jackson’s March — President’s March — Perry’s Victory — Rural Felicity — Hail Columbia—Yankee Doodle—Jefferson and Lib.[erty]— Hail to the Chief368— Russian Dance (“Fourth of July,” American Star, 7 July 1817, 3).

1818 Publications “The following Ode, composed by Bellamy Storer,369 esq. late of this town [Portland, ME], was sung at Cincinnati, at the celebration of the anniversary of independence.” First line: “O, hallow the day, when from regions of light” (Eastern Argus, 4 August 1818, 3). “Liberty’s Birth Day”370 (first line: “Hallow’d the birth-day”); “Fourth of July” (first line: “On the files of old time”); “July Fourth” (first line: “When Columbia arose”); “Fourth of July” (“Hail freedom’s Aurora”) “Weekly Song-Book,” 7 books (Philadelphia” H.C. Lewis, 1818, books 5–7. Advertised with songs listed in Ladys and Gentlemans Weekly Museum and Philadelphia Reporter (1818): 32. “Ode, for the anniversary of American Independence, A.D. 1818.” First line: “Hail! to the glorious jubilee” (“Poetry,” Newport Mercury, 4 July 1818, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1818. Written for and sung at the late anniversary of the Washington Society, by a member. Tune—‘Rise Columbia.’” First line:

97 “When Freedom’s fire first burst in flame” (Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 18 July 1818, 4; “Poetry,” American Advocate and Kennebec Advertiser, 25 July 1818, 4). “Ode to Columbian Independence. By G.J. Hunt.” First line: “Wake, Columbia! wake thy lyre” (from the Republican Chronicle as published in “Political Department,” Centinel of Freedom, 21 July 1818, 4). “Ode to Independence.” First line: “The sun had risen’ o’er the sea” (Boston Patriot and Daily Chronicle, 20 July 1818, 2; Pittsfield Sun, 5 August 1818, 1). “Ode to Liberty. For the Anniversary of American Independence. (4th July, 1818).” The following lines are from the pen of a young gentleman of this city....” First line: “O liberty! whose parent sway” (National Intelligencer, 4 July 1818, 3). “Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Behold, from the brow of the mountain advancing” (“The Parterre,” Village Record, or Chester and Delaware Federalist, 1 July 1818, 4). “Sung in Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1794.” First line: “Old Time looking over his wonderful page” (The Idiot, or, Invisible Rambler, 20 June 1818, 4).

Performances Connecticut New Haven: General Society of Mechanics at the meeting house, “an Ode, composed for the occasion, by a full choir of singers” and “the exercises will close by appropriate music by the choir” (“Fourth of July, Connecticut Journal, 30 June 1818, 3); the Harmonic Society organized an event held at the Old Church. The day began with a procession that included a band of music. The exercises at the church included: 1st. Music — An Ode by a choir of singers accompanied by a band. 2d. Introductory prayer by the Rev. Mr. Taylor. 3d. The Declaration of Independence, to be read by brother Henry C. Flagg. 4th. Music — an Ode composed for the occasion. 5th. An oration, by brother S.R. Crane. 6th. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Croswell. 7th. Music — An Ode. [“Fourth of July,” Columbian Register and True Republican, 30 June and 4 July 1818, 3 and 2, respectively].

District of Columbia “The militia of this district, under the command of Capt. William Mckee” paraded and later “sat down to a handsome entertainment provided for the occasion.” The utmost harmony, unanimity and hilarity prevailed — a few good songs contributed not a little to enliven the day.” The following music accompanied a selection of toasts: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Jefferson’s March — Dead March — Erin Go Bragh — Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Song, Hull, Decatur and Jones (National Intelligencer, 12 July 1818, 3).

1818 Georgia Milledgeville: After the exercises held at the State House, “ a large company sat down to an excellent dinner” replete with toasts “interspersed with patriotic songs”: Music, Yankee Doodle—President’s March— Life Let Us Cherish371— Hail Columbia — Logan Water—Roslin Castle—Jefferson’s March—Rural Felicity — Yankee Doodle — Hollow Drum — Jefferson and Liberty—White co*ckade—Roslin Castle—Hail Columbia—Hail Columbia—Jefferson and Liberty— Hail Columbia — Washington’s March —[Come] Haste to the Wedding (“Fourth of July,” Reflector, 7 July 1818, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: The Washington Society celebrated at the Exchange Coffee House, where they heard the following music performed: Rise Columbia — America, Commerce and Freedom — President’s March — Battle of New-Orleans — Turn ye, turn ye, why will ye die?— Pleyel’s Hymn — Adams and Liberty — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Siege of Tripoli — Washington’s March — Rural Felicity (“Independence,” Independent Chronicle, 8 July 1818, 1). Pittsfield: At the “old” meeting house, “the music from the choir, interspersed as usual with the performances was happily performed, and gave delight to the auditory, and a rest to the animating occasion.” Later in the hall of the hotel, toasts were given accompanied by martial music (“Celebration,” Pittsfield Sun, 8 July 1818, 3). Wrentham: In the meeting house, “some fine music [was] performed, led by Mr. Allen” (“National Jubilee,” Columbian Centinel, 11 July 1818, 2).

New Jersey Bergen: A large parade was “accompanied by an elegant band of music.” At the church the exercises included “sacred music from the choir, and national airs from the band [which] added uncommon interests to the scene” (“Original Communications,” Centinel of Freedom, 14 July 1818, 2). Bridgeton: “Hail Columbia” was performed by the Harmonic Society at the Presbyterian Church (Washington Whig, 6 July 1818, 3). Elizabethtown: The procession included “martial music” (New Jersey Journal, 30 June 1818, 4). Newark: Arrangements for the Fourth designated “a full band of music will play several national airs from the 1st banister of the 1st Presbyterian Church.” A procession included a “full band under the direction of Dr. B.W. Budd” and “on being seated in the church the band will play a national air.” The exercises included three odes. “The evening amusem*nts will be concluded with fireworks, and a national air from the band” (“Arrangements for the Ensuing Fourth of July,” Centinel of Freedom, 30 June and 7 July, 1818, 3 and 3, respectively; Commercial Advertiser, 9 July 1818, 2). Paterson: At the church, “in the different intervals” of the ceremony, “suitable Odes were sung, and the

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1818 service of the church ended with prayer (New York Columbian, 14 July 1818, 2).

New York Cooperstown: A parade to the Presbyterian Church included a “martial band.” The exercises “were opened by singing the 144th psalm, and a prayer, after which an ode, suited to the occasion, was sung.” Dinner was accompanied with “appropriate music” (“Independence,” Otsego Herald, 6 July 1818, 2). New York: At J. Scudder’s American Museum, a Museum Band performed background music as spectators viewed a “Grand Cosmorama ... a superb view (never before exhibited in this city) of the whole city of Constantinople — a most splendid view of the emperor of China investing Tohao Hoci with the command of his army” and “a great variety of wax figures.” Some of the musical pieces performed included: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Washington’s Grand March Grand Overture of Henry 4th Gen. Jackson’s Grand March Robin Adair, with variations, Kent Bugle, arranged by Eley

(“Museum. American Independence, July 4, 1776,” New-York Columbian, 3 July 1818, 2); at a dinner celebration of the Typographical Society, the following pieces of music accompanied the toasts: Song, Hail to the Day Which Arises in Splendor — Ode, The Art of Printing372— Song, Honest Bill Bobstay373— Song, The Drum — Song, Ne’er Shall the Sons of Columbia be Slaves — Song, Victory No. 5 — Song, My Sweet Girl, My Friend and Pitcher (“The Typographical Society,” New-York Columbian, 9 July 1818, 2; National Advocate, 10 July 1818, 2; City of Washington Gazette, 13 July 1818, 2; American Beacon, 17 July 1818, 2). Plattsburgh: Citizens and military officers assembled at Green’s Hotel. After dinner toasts were offered with music performed by the band of the 6th Regiment374: Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Col. Jessup’s March — Corolan’s Concert375— Speed the Plough — President Monroe’s March — N.Y. Volunteer Quick Step376— Gen. Swifts’ March — Fort Erie Grand March — Com. Perry’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — Col. Atkinson’s March — Col. Snelling’s March — Pioneer’s March — Go to the Devil & Shake, &c.— Hail Columbia — Roberdeau’s Waltz (Plattsburgh Republican, 11 July 1818, 3).

Pennsylvania Delaware County, near West Chester: The Union Troop of Chester and Delaware met at the Spread Eagle Tavern for military drills parade and later had dinner with the following music in “an adjoining grove”: Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — President’s March — Roslin Castle — Dead March in Saul — Wayne’s March — Duette, All’s Well — Bluebeard’s March — Yankee Doodle — Decatur’s Victory — Ye Tars of Columbia — Quick Step — Washington’s March — Life Let Us Cherish —

Oh! Welcome Once More to the Land of Thy Birth377— Song, Paddy Carey378— Roslin Castle — ‘Round the Flag of Freedom, Rally—Is There a Heart That Never Loved — Free Mason’s March — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Song, Eveleen’s Bower (Village Record, or Chester and Delaware Federalist, 15 July 1818, 3). Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Harmonic Society took a Barge trip on the Allegheny River, from Davis’s Ferry to Foster’s Ferry. The trip was “enlivened by the music of amateurs.”379

South Carolina Bradford Springs: At Mount Pisgah Church, “an appropriate hymn was sung.” Following the oration, “a national air was afterwards sung, and the company retired to an abundant and excellent repast” (“Communicated,” Camden Gazette, 18 July 1818, 3). Charleston: “Between 10 and 11 o’clock, the ’76 Association met at Jones’, and after transacting the necessary business, walked in procession to St. Michael’s Church, accompanied by a band of music” (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1818, 2); “Extracts from Toasts Drank at Charleston, S.C.” included the following music: Solemn Dirge and Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — Adams and Liberty — Madison’s March—South-Carolina Hymn380—Tune, Oil of Hickory — Huzza for the Constitution381— Solemn Dirge (“Fourth of July,” National Messenger, 20 July 1818, 2).

Vermont Middlebury: I take the liberty to remind the public through the medium of your paper that the Handel Society and Middlebury College Singing Society hold their anniversary celebration tomorrow at 2 o’clock P.M. I should extremely regret to see the exertions of individuals, or the particular efforts of these Societies, to gratify the public with an exhibition of Sacred Music neglected. Music of this nature is not merely calculated to delight the ear, it is designed to warm the hearts, enliven the affections, and animate the devotions of Christians. It ever has and will continue to form a most interesting and important part of public worship; and therefore every laudable though feeble attempt to improve the style and elevate the character of Psalmody, ought to receive the countenance and support of all lovers of harmony and particularly of Christians. I hope that every individual who is delighted with the praises of Jehovah, will interest himself in the anticipated formation of a County Society, for the purpose of correcting the taste and improving the style of Church music. P.M.S. July 3, 1818. [“Communicated,” Christian Messenger, 8 July 1818, 3.]

Virginia Norfolk: At the Wig Wam Gardens, military companies assembled to enjoyed a dinner “provided by a

99 committee from each of the corps” and heard toasts “accompanied by discharges of cannon and patriotic songs” (“National Festival,” American Beacon and Commercial Diary,” 7 July 1818, 3); at the Theatre, “this evening, Saturday ‘July 4th,’ 1818, will be performed (for the first time here) the Operatic Drama of Brother & Sister. The music by Mr. Besnor of London.... At the end of the drama, the following entertainments: Song —“The Star-Spangled Banner.” By Mr. Nichols. Prime! Bang up! By Mr. Spiller. A Hornpipe, by Miss Clarke. The National Song, written by Edwin C. Holland,382 Esq called the “Pillar of Glory,”383 by Mr. Page.

To which will be added (for the first time here) a new National Drama called the Battle of New-Orleans, or, The Glorious 8th of January written by William Spiller, Esq and performed in New-York and Charleston, with unbounded applause.... The whole to conclude with the grand chorus of ‘God Save the United States,’ by the characters.” (American Beacon and Commercial Diary, 4 July 1818, 3). Petersburg: At the Presbyterian Church “had assembled one of the most numerous audiences we have ever seen in Petersburg.... It is supposed the Church contained about a thousand persons; yet many, very many were there, who pressed in vain for admittance. Three discharges of cannon were the signal for the proceedings at the Church which were commenced by the singing the following Anthem of praise to the Deity. Anthem (Hundredth Psalm).” First line: “To God who rolls the orbs of light.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “the favorite national tune ‘Hail Columbia’ was given in elegant style by the Band of Amateurs.” The oration by James S. Gilliam followed and “the proceedings at the Church were concluded by singing a new patriotic Ode, composed for the occasion by Mr. John M’Creery.”384 Later “there were several dining parties. The largest one assembled at Bath Springs” and the following tunes were sung or played following the presentation of the toasts: Hail Col.— Yankee Doodle — Marseilles Hymn — Wash. March — Dirge — How Sleep the Brave — Ere around the Huge Oak — Reveille — March — Liberty Walked, &c.— Madison’s March — ?— Scots wha ha385— Hull’s Victory — Though in the Dark Dungien—Liberty Boys—America, Commerce and Freedom—Ca Ira—Rural Felicity—Come Haste to the Wedding (“Fourth of July,” Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1818, 2); “Ode Sung at Petersburg on the 4th Day of July, (composed by Mr. John M’Creery, tune ‘Anacreon’).” First line: “When Brennus led down his fierce conquering hosts.” (Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1818, 4). Words printed in John M’Creery, A Selection from the Ancient Music of Ireland (Petersburg, VA: Yancy & Burton, 1824), 202.

1819

1819 Publications “Anniversary Ode. The Following Ode, written for the occasion, by a member,386 was sung with great spirit and effect at the celebration, by the Washington Society in Boston, of the forty third Anniversary of Independence. Tune —‘Wreaths for the Chieftain.’” First line: “Sons of the heroes who nobly contended” (“Selected Poetry,” American Advocate, and Kennebec Advertiser, 17 July 1819, 4). “The following original Ode was sung by the Franklin Association, of this town, on the 5th ult.— written by a member). Tune —‘Scots who have with Wallace bled.’” First line: “Hail Columbia’s natal day” (“Poetry,” Salem Gazette, 13 July 1819, 4). “The Fourth of July. A Hymn.” [“The following lines were found among the papers of the Rev. William Ormond, who died on Greensville circuit, Virginia, October 30th, 1803”]. First line: “Almighty Sovereign deign to hear” (“Poetry,” Methodist Magazine [July 1819]:2). “Fourth of July. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “’Tis night at noon-day, lo the angel of storm.” “This political and national festival annually elicits some poetical offering to patriotism. The following, sung at Baltimore [by the Seventy-Six Society], is the best we have seen among the productions of the present year” (New-England Galaxy & Masonic Magazine, 16 July 1819, 160; Essex Register, 24 July 1819, 4; Vermont Intelligencer and Bellows’ Falls Advertiser, 26 July 1819, 4). “The Fourth of July, 1819. Tune — Anacreon in Heaven.” First line: “Were the wrongs that our fathers endur’d” (National Messenger (District of Columbia), 14 July 1819, 2). “Freedom’s Jubilee. Tune — Scots wha ha’ wi’ Wallace bled.” First line: “Freedom’s jubilee again.” Note: “The following beautiful Ode, composed by Samuel Woodworth, esq. printer, of New-York, was sung with excellent effect by Mr. Pomroy, at the North Meeting House, on Monday, 5th inst.” (“Poetry,” Alexandria Herald, 21 July 1819, 4). “The Fourth of July. A National Jubilee” Signed “l.P.”Intended to be sung in Georgetown, but reached the committee of arrangements too late. (National Messenger, 14 July 1819, 3). “The Fourth of July, 1819” to the tune “Anacreon in Heaven.” Verses partially illegible (National Messenger, 14 July 1819, 3). “Hymn for the 4th of July.” First line: “O God, once on the stormy deep” (Concord Observer, 5 July 1819, 3.) “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1819.” [“From the NewYork Columbian.”] “S of New Jersey.” First line: “With wand’ring glance and laurell’d head.” Note: “The following ode, though it lacks neither imagery nor sentiment, is nevertheless, throughout so tame in expres-

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1819 sion and long winded, that it tires one out to get at the author’s point or to even catch his meaning: still there is a simplicity and smoothness in the versification, which added to the laudable intentions of the writer, demands some weight in recommending his seasonable and well meant effusion; patriotism and poetry, however, generally keep at as respectful a distance from each other, as poverty and riches”(“From the New-York Columbian,” City of Washington Gazette, 25 June 1819, 3). “Ode, written by Lieut. N.G. Dana,387 of the U.S. Army, and sung at the raising of the new flag, at Fort Constitution,388 on the morning of the 4th of July last [1818]. Tune—‘Hail to the Chief.’” First line: “Hail to the day when from slumber of ages” (Genius of Liberty, 12 January 1819, 4; Alexandria Herald, 9 August 1819, 4). “Song for the anniversary of American independence, 1819. Tune, ‘Ye Mariners of England.’” First line: “All hail, blest independence.” Broadside, Newburyport [MA}: E.W. Allen, 1819. “Song-Fourth of July. By Thomas Paine. Tune — ‘Rule Britannia.’” First line: “Hail! Great republic of the world” (Palladium of Liberty, 16 July 1819, 4).

Performances Connecticut Windsor: The Republican residents celebrated on Monday, July 5, with a procession that assembled at Drake’s Hotel, and preceded by a band of martial music moved to the meeting house under the direction of the marshals of the day. The exercises were 1. Singing. 2. Prayer by the Rev. Henry A. Bowland. 3. Declaration of Independence by Joseph H. Russell, Esq. 4. A very appropriate oration by the Rev. Augustus Bolles. 5. Singing. 6. Prayer by the Rev. Coles Carpenter. 7. Singing, conducted by Mr. Chandler, which was performed in a very handsome style.

Later at a dinner were 130 persons gathered under a bower, toasts were drank “accompanied by appropriate music from an excellent band” (“Windsor Celebration,” Times, 20 July 1819, 3).

District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band performed in the Hall of the House of Representatives at the Capitol and later that day at a dinner celebration held in the Congress Hall Hotel (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1819, 3); numerous citizens, militia and others marched “with a band of musick” to Christ Church for the exercises held there (National Messenger, 14 July 1819, 2). See Publications above.

Maine New Castle: At Capt. Chase’s, a “sumptuous entertainment” included “odes, songs, &c. appropriate to the occasion” (Boston Patriot & Daily Mercantile Advertiser, 28 July 1819, 2).

Massachusetts Amesbury: A celebration “by the citizens of Amesbury, Salisbury and vicinity.... At 11 o’clock A. M. a respectable procession was formed at the Academy, with a good band of music, & proceeded to the meeting-house.” After the exercises, “the procession again formed and moved to Mr. Valentine Bagley’s Inn, where about 60 Gentlemen partook of a public dinner, served in a very handsome style.... Sentiments were given, accompanied with the Band of Music and regular discharge of Cannon” (“Communications,” Newburyport Herald, 9 July 1819, 3). Boston: At the dinner celebration of the Washington Society at “Forster’s Coffee House in Court Street,” the “music of an excellent band, and the singing of various patriotic and humorous songs, gave additional zest to the hilarity of the occasion.” The music interspersed between the toasts included: Anniversary Ode — President’s March — Dirge — America, Commerce and Freedom — Massachusetts’ March — Yankee Doodle — Hull’s Victory — Wreaths for the Chieftain — Gov. Wolcott’s March — Boston Quick Step — Adams and Liberty — Billings’ Jargon389— Come, Haste to the Wedding (“National Jubilee,” Boston Patriot & Daily Mercantile Advertiser, 7 July 1819, 2; Independent Chronicle 7 July 1819, 2; Baltimore Patriot, 13 July 1819, 2); in the new meeting house “in School Street,” the Republicans of Boston met for their exercises that included “a number of appropriate pieces of music [that] were performed by the choir in a scientific and masterly style.” Later at Faneuil Hall, the group enjoyed a “Republican collation” and the following music was provided between the toasts at the dinner: Yankee Doodle — Adams and Liberty — Hail Columbia — President’s March — Jefferson’s March — Massachusetts March — Yankee Doodle — Dirge — Dirge — Victory is Ours — Friendship — Bunker Hill — The Wedding Day390 (“Independence! Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 7 July 1819; “National Jubilee,” The Yankee, 8 July 1819, 2–3); a group of dignitaries and citizens had ceremonies at the Old South Meeting House. “The musical performances were by the choir of the Old South Society, and the effect of an ode, sung by Mr. Bailey, their leader, was electrical, particularly the following stanza:” Long and bloody was the fray, Ere Columbia gain’d the day; Lowly many a hero lay, Dying to be free. But immortal Washington, Led Columbia’s patriots on, Till the glorious prize was won, Peace and liberty.

101 (“Festival of Independence,” Columbian Centinel, 7 July 1819, 2; Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 10 July 1819, 1; Connecticut Gazette, 14 July 1819, 2). Charlton: A large crowd met “in the centre” of the town, and “preceded by a band of music” marched to the meeting house where the exercises were begun with “an appropriate hymn.” Later at the dinner the toasts “were drank with more than usual hilarity, accompanied by the discharge of cannon and interspersed with appropriate musick by the band” (“National Festival,” Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 7 July 1819, 3; National Aegis, 14 July 1819, 3). Salem: Citizens and members of the Association of the Essex Reading Room, Franklin Association, Mechanic Association, and Mechanic Light Infantry assembled at the “meeting house of the Rev. Mr. Abbott.... The religious services at the church were fervent and patriotic, and the music such as to give high satisfaction.” Dinner at Pickering Hall included toasts accompanied by the following music: Hail Columbia — Carovan March — Washington’s March — Massachusetts March — Monroe’s March — Gov. Brook’s March — Coronation March — Wreaths for the Chieftains — Mozart’s Waltz — Queen of Prussia’s Waltz (“Celebration in Salem,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 10 July 1819, 1). Springfield: “At half past 10 o’clock, A.M. a procession, composed of a large number of citizens, of both political parties, was formed on the public ground, and moved with martial music, to the U.S. Chapel, where, after sacred music, and a solemn and fervent prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Dorchester, the Declaration of Independence was read by Edmund Bliss, Esq.” After an oration, “the exercises at the Chapel closed with sacred music” (“Independence,” Hampden Federalist & Public Journal, 7 July 1819, 3).

New Hampshire Hopkinton: The town celebration on July 5. “At 12 o’clock, a procession was formed at the Court House, which proceeded from thence to the Meeting House, where an appropriate piece of music was performed by a select choir in a superior style.” Later at the dinner held at the court house, the following music accompanied the toasts: Song, J(?) of Freedom — Hail Columbia — President’s March — Roslin Castle — Rural Felicity — song, Yankee Thunders391— song, Adams and Liberty (“Celebration at Hopkinton,” NewHampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 13 July 1819, 3). Lebanon: Citizens from this and adjacent towns paraded with “a band of martial and instrumental music, each playing alternately.” Both vocal and instrumental music were performed at the ceremonies (“Celebration at Lebanon,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 13 July 1819, 3). Portsmouth: Troops from Fort Constitution paraded, “accompanied by an elegant band.” Later at the Portsmouth Hotel, 13 toasts were drunk “enlivened by some excellent songs and musick” (Portsmouth Oracle, 10 July 1819, 3).

1819 New Jersey Belleville: The day began with “firing a national salute,” ringing bells, and a flag presentation. A parade to the Dutch Reformed Church included a band attached to Capt. Dow’s Company of Washington Volunteers. The services in the church included the performance of three odes (“Anniversary Celebration,” Centinel of Freedom, 20 July 1819, 2). Elizabethtown: An ode “composed for the occasion” to the tune “Miriam’s Song” was performed, as well as “100th Psalm: tune, Denmark” and an anthem by Handel (Washington Whig [Bridgeton], 19 July 1819, 2). South Orange: A procession from the house of Capt. Isaac Combs to the Academy included instrumental and vocal music. The exercises included the singing of three odes (Centinel of Freedom, 13 July 1819, 3). Springfield: At a meeting for celebration arrangments of the inhabitants of the town, it was decided that the holiday would occur on July 5 and that Watts Reeve would “conduct the singing” (Centinel of Freedom, 15 June 1819, 3).

New York Cherry Valley: “About 3 miles from the village,” a number of men and women celebrated on Mount Independence with a “cold collation” after which they sang “the national song of ‘Hail Columbia’” (“Anniversary of Our Independence,” Cherry-Valley Gazette, 6 July 1819, 3; Otsego Herald, 12 July 1819, 3). New York: “At a dinner given by the Company under the command of Captain Thomas Cooper, of the 11th Regiment of New-York State Artillery” held at the “Hotel of J.E. Hyde,” the following pieces of music were sung as accompaniment to selected toasts: Song, Yankee Chronology — Song, When Vulcan forged the bolts of Jove — Song, Pillar of Glory — Song, I knew by the smoke that so gracefully curl’d392—Song, May we ne’er want a friend nor a bottle to give him (National Advocate, 9 July 1819, 2); at the Theatre, on July 5 the “historical drama, in 3 acts, interspersed with songs, of She Would Be A Soldier, or the Battle of Chippewa, written by M.M. Noah of this city.” In addition the “musical entertainment of the Tars from Tripoli, or, The Heroes of Columbia. In the course of the entertainment the following Songs will be sung: ‘The Origin of Gunpowder,’ by Mr. Howard; ‘The Bundle of Truths,’ by Mr. Baldwin; the duet of ‘All’s Well,’ (from the Opera of the English Fleet) by Messrs. Howard and Moreland; ‘Barney Leave the Girls Alone,’ by Mr. Barnes; and the patriotic ode of ‘Rise, Columbia, Brave and Free’” (Mercantile Advertiser, 5 July 1819, 2; New-York Daily Advertiser, 5 July 1819, 2). Sing Sing: Arrangements for the Fourth included services at the Presbyterian Church where “several pieces of sacred music will be sung by Mr. J.W. Purdy, and the young ladies and gentlemen of this village and

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1820 Tarrytown, under his tuition.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence and an oration, “the services in the church will conclude with several national airs by an excellent band of music, under the command of Mr. Little, from Greensburgh[Greensburg]” (Westchester Herald, 29 June 1819, 2). West Point: On Monday, July 5, the cadets and “families resident at the post, and visitors” celebrated with a parade, ceremony at the chapel, and dinner, complete with toasts, cheers, artillery salutes, and music provided by the “military band of the academy.” The following pieces accompanied the toasts: Hail Columbia — Dirge — Jefferson’s March — Monroe’s March — To Liberty’s enraptured sight — Tompkins’ Waltze — Jackson’s March — Fort Erie March — Yankee Doodle — Spanish Patriots — Meeting of the waters393— Dead March — Star-Spangled Banner—Beautiful Maid (National Advocate, 17 July 1819, 2).

North Carolina Raleigh: “After a sermon on the Day, the reading of the Declaration of Independence, and a Public Dinner, in the evening a concert of vocal and instrumental music was given by the musical amateurs in the Statehouse grove, which was tastefully ornamented and illuminated for the occasion, and the evening being very calm and pleasant, there was a very large assembly of ladies and gentlemen present, ‘and this entertainment,’ says the Register, ‘proved a most agreeable conclusion to the festivities of the day.’ No doubt of it — and we should be glad to see the example instated, wherever it can be, on future like occasions” (“Fourth of July,” National Intelligencer, 14 July 1819, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At the Vauxhall Pavillion Theatre, “Mr. Hewitt” gave a grand concert in honor of the Fourth and “Mr. Lamb” of Boston premiered a new song, “Washington; or, when Freedom on the Hostile Main” (Aurora General Advertiser, 3 July 1819, 3). Westchester: The Washington Society celebrated on July 5 with a parade, “accompanied by the excellent band of music attached to the Society,” that ended at the Court House, “where the exercises opened by sacred music.” Later at the Washington Inn, the Society had dinner, followed with toasts, “accompanied by songs, the band in the mean time playing patriotic airs”: Dead March — Hail Columbia — President’s March — Money in Both Pockets — America, Commerce and Freedom — Galley Slave — Life Let Us Cherish — Guardian Angels Protect Me, &c.— Tars of Columbia — Jackson’s Victory — Roslin Castle (“Independence,” Village Record, or Chester and Delaware Federalist, 14 July 1819, 3).

Rhode Island Providence: On Monday, July 5, at the Second Baptist Meeting-House, there was a “performance

of appropriate music by the Harmonic Society” that began the exercises. Another newspaper reported the audience included the governor and that the Harmonick Society was “directed by Mr. Chester Pratt,394 their president” (Rhode-Island American and General Advertiser, 2 and 3 July 1819, 2 and 2, respectively; “National Birth-Day,” Providence Gazette, 10 July 1819, 2).

1820 Publications “The Fourth of July (A Volunteer song),”395 words by William B. Tappan,396 to the tune “Air, Auld Lang Syne.” Sung on the 44th Anniversary of American Independence, at the dinner of the First Company Washington Guards of Philadelphia. In Songs of Judah and Other Melodies (p.163), words by William B. Tappan. (Philadelphia: S. Potter & Co., 1820). “The 4th of July. Grand Chorus: Dedicated to the Choristers of the Churches in the United States.” New York: Firth & Hall (Franklin Square), [1820s?].397 First line: “Exalted day! Exalted day! We greet with music thy return.” Copy in Johns Hopkins University. “Independence.” First line: “Freemen! arise, and salute the glad morning.” Note: “We cannot better usher in the natal day of our nation, than with the following stanzas from a new Ode to ‘Independence,’ published in the last Ladies Literary Cabinet” (Columbian Centinel, 4 July 1820, 2). “Ode for Independence.” First line: “The deathshot of tyrants had sprinkled with gore” (Newburyport Herald, 4 July 1820, 3). “An Ode for the 4th of July. To be sung in the tune of ‘Bay of Biscay O.’”398 First line: “The brazen note of battle is hush’d along the tide.” (Boston Patriot & Daily Mercantile Advertiser, 4 July 1820, 2; American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, 1 August 1820, 2.) “Ode, Sung at the Celebration of American Independence, 4th July, 1820.” First line: “Sound-sound the trumpets, strike the bells.” Broadside. [Boston]: True & Weston, printers, [1820]. Copy in New York Historical Society. “Ode written by a member and sung at the celebration of American Independence, in Boston, by the Washington Society, July 4, 1820. Tune — Scots wha hae wi’ Wallace bled.” First line: “Hark! Again her clarion rings” (Hillsboro’ Telegraph, 15 July 1820, 4; City of Washington Gazette, 18 July 1820, 3; American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, 20 July 1820, 2).

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Performances

1820 Maine

Arkansas Arkansas Post: After a reading of the Declaration of Independence and “an excellent dinner prepared by Col. James Scull,” toasts “were drank, during which many patriotic songs were sung, which added much to the conviviality of the occasion” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” Arkansas Gazette, 8 July 1820, 3).

Connecticut Hartford: At a dinner at the City Hotel: American Eagle — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Governor’s March — Grand March — Hail Columbia — Jefferson and Liberty—March to Glory—Nothing True but Heaven399— President’s March — See the Conquering Hero Come400— Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (“Fourth of July,” The Times and Weekly Advertiser, 11 July 1820, 3).

District of Columbia On the banks of the Eastern Branch, “many officers of the Marine Corps and Navy” and citizens had a dinner celebration afterwhich the following music accompanied the toasts: tune, President’s March—tune, Yankee Doodle — tune, Rights of Man — tune, Rural Felicity — tune, Jefferson’s March — tune, America, Commerce and Freedom — tune, The Battle — tune, Jefferson and Liberty — tune, Dead March — tune, Jackson’s March — tune, Academic Bowers — tune, Star-Spangled Banner — tune, Lassie with the lint white locks (“Eastern Branch Dinner,” City of Washington Gazette, 7 July 1820, 3). Georgetown: The Georgetown Harmonic Society “assembled at daybreak and saluted with several national airs the U.S. Flag raised in the town, and then adjourned to the appointed place of rendezvous.” The Declaration was read by William Thompson, Jr., President of the Society and oration by Henry Ould. Music was provided for the toasts: Song, Freedom’s Jubilee401— Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — America, Commerce and Freedom — Unblemished We’ll Remain — Equal Liberty — Come Haste to the Wedding — Overture to Lodioiska — Major Stull’s March and Rondo — Blue Eyed Mary402— Life Let Us Cherish — Liberty Tree — Societies Chorus—Overture Henry the 4th—Funeral dirge — Why What’s That to You — Down Below — Union March — Hail to the Chief— Societies March and Quick Step (Metropolitan, 6 July 1820, 2).

Louisiana Alexandria: Following a ceremony held at the Court House, “an elegant dinner at the Alexandria Coffee House” included toasts “interspersed with appropriate songs and cheers” (“4th of July,” Louisiana Herald, 8 July 1820, 3).

Belfast: At 11 A.M. a procession marched to the Meeting House for the exercises. “The musical performances were excellent, an Ode was written by Dr. Hermon Abbott, and sung on the occasion” (“The Fourth of July, 1820,” Hanco*ck Gazette, 6 July 1820, 2). Portland: Union Hall. Celebration of Independence. The publc are respectfully informed that there will be a concert of vocal & instrumental music, this evening, 4th of July. When will be performed (gratis) a celebrated play, in three acts, (between the parts of the concert) called the Point of Honor, or School for Soldiers. After which will be exhibited, in honor of the day, two grand transparent columns, on the right and left of the Hall — The one supporting the emblems of agriculture, arts and sciences — The other, commerce, honor and glory. To conclude with Shakespeare’s admired farce, in three acts, (gratis) called Catharine & Petruchio, or Taming the Shrew.... Tickets to the concert-box. 75, pit. 50 cents to be had of Mrs. Cutter, at the Hall.... [Eastern Argus, 4 July 1820, 3].

Maryland Baltimore: At a “patriotic festivity” at Howard’s Park, “the performances were commenced with national music from the Bands,” including two “national airs” and were conducted in the presence of Charles Carroll, signer of the Declaration of Independence. Some 20,000 persons were present (“Baltimore Celebration,” National Messenger, 3 July 1820, 3; “Independence,” American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1820, 2; “Fourth of July at Baltimore,” National Intelligencer, 8 July 1820, 3; Observer, 18 July 1820, 3; Pittsfield Sun, 19 July 1820, 2); at Mr. Coleman’s Pavilion Garden, on the evening of July 4, “a divertissem*nt, in three parts, called Laugh When You Can, consisting of comic and serious songs, tales, &c” was presented.” Part I. A prelude from Raising the Wind,403 called How to Live Cheap. Diddler, Mr. Willis; Sam, Mr. Crampton; Fainwood, Mrs. Anness; Miss Plainway, Mrs. Anness; Miss Durable, Mrs. Crampton; Scots Song, “Tuilochgorum,” Mr. Crampton; Comic song, “Giles Scroggins Ghost,”404 Mr. Willis. Part II. Recitation, “Somebody against Nobody,” Mr. Anness; Comic song, “Barney leave the girls alone,” by Mr. Willis; Irish Song, “Billy O Rourk,” by Mr. Crampton; Comic Song, “London Fashions,” Mr. Annes. Part III Comic Tale, “Poach’d Eggs, or the Winter’s Mistake,” Mr. Willis; Irish Song, “Larry O’Gaff,” Mr. Crampton; The Origin of Gunpowder, Mr. Willis.

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1820

Howard’s Park (now known as Mount Vernon Place), the site for the cornerstone laying ceremony for the Washington Monument (shown) on July 4, 1815. The park was named after Col. John Eager Howard, a Revolutionary War hero from Baltimore and was one of the popular locations for musical performances. One of the earliest was a Patriotic Festivity on July 4, 1820, when 20,000 spectators, including Charles Carroll, signer of the Declaration of Independence, heard a number of bands perform patriotic music (author’s photograph). To conclude with a petite piece from “Review,” called The Rival Servants. Deputy Bull, Mr. Annes; John Lump, Mr. Willis; Looney M’Twolter (with the song of “Patrick’s day in the morning”), Mr. Crampton; Grace Gaylove, Mrs. Crampton; Lucy, Mrs. Annes. Tickets 50 cents each, to be had at the bar. The doors will be open at 7 o’clock, and the curtain rise at 8 [Baltimore Patriot, 1 July 1820, 3].

Massachusetts Boston: The governor, citizens, dignitaries and others celebrated at the Old South Meeting House. “The sublime ode [by John Pierpont], written for the day, and given in the last Centinel, and an Anthem, were sung by a select choir, in a style of unusual excellence.” First line of the ode: “Day of Glory! welcome day!”405 Later, at Faneuil Hall, “a band from Fort Independence” played “martial and other airs.” After the ceremonies and afternoon celebrations, an eve-

ning concert was presented at the amphitheatre at Washington Gardens (“Celebration of Indepedence [sic],” Boston Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1820, 2; Columbian Centinel, 4 and 8 July, 2 and 2, respectively). See also, Publications above; the Washington Society celebrated “by a public dinner at the Marlborough Hotel,” and was presided by Elbridge Gerry. “After the removal of the cloth, the following sentiments were announced, which were accompanied by the music of an excellent band, and by several patriotic and humerous songs”: Ode, Freedom’s Jubilee — President’s March — Washington’s March — Waltz — Gov. Brooks’ March — Fusiliers’ March — Hull’s Victory — Pleyel’s Hymn — Adams and Liberty — America, Commerce and Freedom — O Dear What Can the Matter Be406— Billing’s Jargon (“From the Boston Patriot,” Baltimore Patriot, 12 July 1820, 2). Bradford: A “band and choir of singers” provided an “excellent performance” at the Meeting House whose audience included “a large procession of citizens, without distinction of party” (“Celebration of Inde-

105 pendence at Bradford,” New-England Palladium, 21 July 1820, 2). Brimfield: A procession assembled and marched to the Meeting House, where “the services commenced with a national song selected by Mr. Benjamin Salisbury, Jr. which together with the rest of the music prepared by him for the occasion was performed in his usual style of good singing” (“Fourth of July,” Hampden Federalist & Public Journal, 12 July 1820, 111). Leicester: At the meeting house, military companies and “citizens of that and the neighbouring towns” assembled. After the “eloquent and impressive prayer by the Rev. John Nelson, and the 100th Psalm was sung with powerful effect in the favourite tune of Old Hundred.” Later at a “spacious bower ... nearly two hundred” enjoyed dinner and heard the toasts “accompanied by the discharge of cannon, and interspersed with appropriate musick by the band” (“National Festival,” Massachusetts Spy, or Worcester Gazette, 12 July 1820, 3). Milford: Exercises at “the Rev. Mr. Long’s meeting house” included an oration. “Several select pieces of musick were performed under the direction of Col. Newhall,407 in a style of correctness and excellence that reflected much credit upon him and the able choir of the Rev. Mr. Long’s society.” A dinner provided by Capt. D. Hemenway was accompanied by “musick and some national songs” (“Celebration at Milford,” Massachusetts Spy, 12 July 1820, 3). Scituate: The Hanover Artillery Band “and a band of music from Weymouth” marched with other military units and citizens to the Meeting House. In the exercises, “the Weymouth band, and an excellent choir of singers, alternately performed to the satisfaction of a crowded assembly.” Afterwards there was an “elegant entertainment prepared under a pavilion, decorated with flags and evergreens, where about two hundred gentlemen” ate, drank wine, and listened to toasts “followed with cheers, guns, and airs from the band”: German Hymn — President’s March — Gov. Breck’s March408— Breed’s March — Massachusetts March — Freemason’s March—Washington’s March—Handel’s Clarinet—Pleyel’s Hymn—Dirge—Ipswich Muster— Soldier’s Joy (“Scituate Celebration,” Boston Patriot & Daily Mercantile Advertiser, 14 July 1820, 2; Independent Chronicle, 15 July 1820, 1; “Celebration of Independence,” New-England Palladium, 18 July 1820, 1). Stockbridge: “An excellent band of martial music” participated in the procession. At the meeting house, “the performance of the choir of singers, we believe, gave universal satisfaction — we hardly recollect to have heard a more delightful performance than the singing of Payne’s beautiful Ode — the deep toned chorus of which was absolutely electrifying” (“Celebration of Independence,” Berkshire Star, 13 July 1820, 3). Waltham: “The performances in the meeting-house were commenced by singing the Chorus Anthem ...

1820 after which a psalm was sung to the tune of Old Hundred ... an Ode was then sung.” At the dinner held at Russell Smith’s Hotel, the following tunes were performed: Hail Columbia — Green’s March — Monroe’s March — Gov. Brook’s March — Dead March in Saul—Ye Sons of Columbia—Washington’s March— Rise Columbia — Forget and Forgive — Adams and liberty — Speed the Plough — Yankee Doodle — Gen. Brown’s March — Hull’s Victory — Russian Dance (Celebration of Independence in Waltham,” Boston Patriot and Daily Mercantile Advertiser, 8 July 1820, 2; Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, 8 July 1820, 2). Worcester: At the South Meeting House, “an appropriate Ode, selected for the occasion, was then sung by Capt. [John] Coolidge,409 assisted by Maj. Samuel Graves and Capt. Marshall Flagg” (National Aegis, 12 July 1820, 2; Pittsfield Sun, 19 July 1820, 2).

New Hampshire Mason: “At 10 o’clock a procession was formed at Warren’s Tavern, and proceeded to the MeetingHouse, escorted by four Uniform Companies, and one Company of Infantry, together with an excellent band of Music.” Later “nearly seven hundred persons partook of a sumptuous entertainment” and heard the toasts “with the discharges of Artillery and appropriate Music” (“National Festival,” Hillsboro’ Telegraph, 15 July 1820, 3). Warren: At noon a procession marched, “preceded by instrumental music,” to the Meeting House where, after the seating of a “large and respectable audience which attended, a select piece of music was performed by the singers.” Later, after a prayer there was a “performance of a select piece of sacred music” (“Celebration of National Independence at Warren,” New Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 25 July 1820, 3).

New Jersey Bergen: Various pieces of music and an ode were performed at the ceremony held at the church. At the dinner at Capt. A. Coulter’s, toasts were drank, “accompanied by discharges of cannon and appropriate airs from the band” (Centinel of Freedom, 18 July 1820, 1). Bridgeton: The exercises were scheduled to include a parade to the Presbyterian Church with the following program: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Invocation Music, 133d Psalm Prayer Music-Columbia, an ode Declaration of Independence Music-Hail columbia Oration Music-Ode on Science Benediction

Another report notes the performances by the Bridgeton Harmonic Society, “and the company had the satisfaction of hearing our appropriate national

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1820 odes sung in a style suited to the occasion.... In the afternoon and evening the young ladies and gentlemen amused themselves with a delightful sailing party, accompanied with music, and closed the festivities of the day at an early hour” (“Fourth of July, 1820” and “Anniversary Celebration,” Washington Whig, 3 and 10 July 1820, 3 and 2, respectively). Fairfield: The residents assembled in the Presbyterian Meeting House at 3 P.M. “when the following order of exercises took place: introductory observations by the Rev. Mr. Osborn; singing from Dr. Watts; Prayer by Mr. Osborn; singing from Watts; reading the Constitution of the United States, by Dr. D.C. Pierson; an address suited to the occasion, by Dr. James B. Parvin; singing a national ode; singing Dismission. Mr. Moses Burt being appointed to lead the music, performed that service, as did the other persons designated to special duty, to entire satisfaction” (“Fourth of July in Fairfield,” Washington Whig, 17 July 1820, 3). Newark: “The day was ushered in as usual by the ringing of bells, a national salute, and some national airs by a Band from the steeple of the 1st Presbyterian Church.” At that church, the exercises included “an Ode being then sung” and after the Declaration of Independence was read, “another Ode, and a national air from the band” were performed. After the presentation of the oration, “another Ode was then sung to a beautiful tune, composed by Mr. Moses Lyon of this town” (“Newark Centinel,” The Centinel of Freedom, 11 July 1820, 3). Paterson Landing: A procession from the Academy to the Reformed Dutch Church included various military units, clergy, citizens, and “Mr. Bogart, leader of the vocal music” followed by a “band of music.” The ceremony at the church included three odes and the “Ode on Science” (“Fourth of July Celebrations,” Centinel of Freedom, 18 July 1820, 1). Roadstown: “At day-break one gun was fired and the reveille beaten.” The exercises at the Baptist Church included “sacred music” and a dinner at a bower included toasts “interspersed with patriotic songs” (“Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence, at Roadstown,” Washington Whig, 10 July 1820, 2).

New York Matteawan: After a procession to the church, the exercises included “an appropriate Ode,” “appropriate music, by the band,” a rendering of the “Ode on Science,” and “Song of Liberty.” Following a dinner, toasts were “interspersed with songs and music”: Music, Hail Columbia — Music, German Hymn — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, President’s March — Music, Tompkins’ March—Music, Clinton’s March— Music, The Star-Spangled Banner — Music, Speed the Plough — Music, Spindle and Loom — Music, America, Commerce, and Freedom — Music, Washington’s March — Music, Jefferson’s March — Music Robin Adair. It was reported in a local newspaper that

In returning from church, the procession in the same order as before, proceeded to Matteawan, where an elegant Bower had been erected, covered with evergreens, ornamented on the top with the national standard, and three white flags, on which was handsomely painted, Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce. The Bower (under which the table was spread) was festooned with a variety of fabrics from the Matteawan Factory — the columns were entwined with flags — from the centre were suspended two elegant scrolls, containing the Declaration of Independence, and the facsimiles of the hand writing of its authors [American, 14 July 1820, 3].

Mount Pleasant: The exercises at the church were “conducted in the following order”: 1. Prayer by the Rev. G. Bourne. 2. A Hymn. 3. The reading of the Declaration of Independence by Mr. S. Marshall. 4. Ode on Science. 5. Oration by A. Ward, Esq. 6. An address by the Rev. G. Bourne. 7. Prayer by the Rev. J. Brouner. 8. An Anthem. [“Fourth of July,” Westchester Herald, 27 June 1820, 3].

New York: “The General Committee of Arrangements for the celebration of the 44th Anniversary of American Independence, partook of their annual supper, at St. John’s Hall, on the evening of the 12th instant.... Toasts and sentiments were drunk, accompanied by a well selected band of music, and the most unrestrained harmony, conviviality, and patriotic effusion”: Liberty Tree—Hail Columbia—Washington’s March — Solemn Dirge — Hail Liberty — President’s March—Patriotic Air—Dulce Domum— Anacreon in Heaven411— Pleyel’s Hymn — Patriotic Air—Washington’s March—Yankee Doodle—Paddy Carey — Copenhagen Waltz (The American, 14 July 1820, 2); at the “Tammany Society or Columbian Order” celebration, the following pieces of music accompanied the toasts: Hail Columbia — Patriotic Song — Patriotic Song — Patriotic Song — War Song — Star-Spangled Banner — President’s March — Tompkin’s March — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Et-hah Song — Song — Music — Song (National Advocate, 7 July 1820, 2); at Vauxhall Garden, proprietor Joseph Delacroix presented a “concert of vocal and instrumental music. The Grand Military Band of the 9th Regiment, in full uniform, under the direction of Mr. Meline,412 will entertain the company from 5 in the afternoon. Mr. Lamb and Mr. Banks will, with proper accompaniments sing the following songs:” Act I. Military Overture, Full Band Song, “Scots wha ha Wallace bled,” Mr. Lamb Col. Muier’s quick step, Meline Comic Song, “Captain Mulligan,” Banks

107 Mr. Laus from Europe, will perform a Fantasie on the pedal harp The Star-Spangled Banner, Lamb Song, “The Green Little Man,” Banks Variations on the harp, Laus Song, “The Hunters’ Horn,”413 Lamb Finale, First Act, Grand March, full band Act II. Military Overture, Mr. Meline Tyrolese Song of Liberty, with accompaniment on the harp, by Mr. Laus, Lamb Song, “And has she then fail’d in her truth,”414 Lamb Comic song, “High Down Derry,” Banks Military Rondo, Meline Freedom’s Jubilee, Lamb Finale, Orchestra.

“In addition, Mr. Laus, in the afternoon and evening will perform on the pedal harp. The Concert will be in two acts — the first will be in the afternoon — the second after lighting the Gardens, and the only interval before the fire works” (New-York Columbian, 30 June 1820, 3; New-York Evening Post, 30 June 1820, 2; Mercantile Advertiser, 1 July 1820, 3); at the American Museum, Mr. Scudder has engaged Mr. Plimpton,415 with his celebrated apollino (a rare specimen of self taught American genius) to perform on the 4th. He will be accompanied by Mrs. and Miss Plimpton. The performance on the apollino, in the evening, will be as follows, viz. Part I. 1. Grand Sonata, Perry’s Victory on Lake Erie, composed by Mr. Plimpton, in which the apollino will be accompanied with the violin. 2. Song, The Tars of Columbia, by Mr. Plimpton, composed by Mr. Plimpton. 3. Solo on the bagpipes of the apollino. 4. Ode for the Fourth of July, Hail, America! Hail! by Mr. and Mrs. Plimpton, composed by Mr. Plimpton. 5. Washington’s March, full band of the apollino. 6. The Bonny Bold Soldier, by Mrs. Plimpton. Part II. 1. Song, The Drum, by Mr. Plimpton, accompanied with the drum, fife, trumpet, &c. of the apollino. 2. Hail Columbia and Yankee Doodle, full band apollino. 3. Song, Robin Adair, by Mr. Plimpton, accompanied with octavo flute of the apollino. 4. Song and Chorus, Hail, Liberty,416 by Mr. and Mrs. Plimpton, accompanied with the apollino. 5. Catharine M’Cree, full band of the apollino and snare drum. 6. Comic song, by Mr. Plimpton.

(The American, 29 Jun 1820, 3; “Celebration of the 44th Year of American Independence,” National Advocate, 1 July 1820, 3; New-York Evening Post, 1 July

1820 1820, 3); at Chatham Garden, a “grand instrumental concert” took place at 2 P.M. that included “popular and patriotic airs.” At 9 P.M. “a grand vocal concert” was featured with Mr. Lamb and Mr. Banks, vocalists, accompanied by Mr. Wilson “at the piano forte.” The program consisted of Part 1. Grand Overture, Piano Forte — Mr. Wilson. Son, Heigh Down Derry — Mr. Banks. Song of Liberty — Mr. Lamb. Waltz, Piano Forte — Mr. Wilson. Duet, the Minute Gun at Sea — Lamb & Banks. Song, The Origin of Gunpowder — Mr. Lamb. Part 2. Overture, Piano Forte — Mr. Wilson. Song, Captain Mulligan — Mr. Banks. Song, the Star-Spangled Banner — Mr. Lamb. Song, Paddy Cary’s Fortune — Mr. Banks. Song, Freedom’s Jubilee — Mr. Lamb. Duet, All is Well — Lamb & Banks.

(“Chatham Garden,” National Advocate, 4 July 1820, 3); at the Theatre on Anthony Street,” “the play of the Glory of Columbia — Her Yeomanry or, What We Have Done We Can Do was presented. Included were the songs “A Yankee Boy is Tall and Thin,” “In Ireland so Frisky,” and “I was the Boy for Bewitching Them,” followed by an interlude titled The Launch; or, The Pride of America — Her Navy, that included “songs of ‘The Army and Navy for Ever’ and ‘the Yankee Girls’” (National Advocate, 4 July 1820, 3). Poughkeepsie: “At 12 o’clock the procession was formed at Mr. Leonard B. Van Kleeck’s Inn, preceded by the Band of Music and the National and State Colors.” Citizens and military companies marched to the Dutch Reformed Church for the exercises followed by dinner back at the Inn. The toasts “were drank, each of which was saluted by the discharge of cannon, and appropriate airs from the Band of Music” (“Republican Celebration,” National Advocate, 27 July 1820, 2; New-York Evening Post, 3 July 1820, 3). Salina: Opening of the Great Western Canal, amidst “the discharge of cannon, with strains of music, and the cheering shouts of thousands,” boats entered the basin while “8 to 10 thousand people cheered” and “music was heard from the different boats” to the delight of Governor De Witt Clinton who “had been expressly invited to visit the Great Western Canal on this occasion, and had accordingly proceeded from Utica to Salina in the new and beautiful bark called the Oneida Chief ” (Observer, 18 July 1820, 3).

Pennsylvania Liverpool: “The citizens of Liverpool, Perry County, and its vicinity convened under a beautiful shade, on the bank of the Susquehanna River, adjacent to the town,” and heard the following pieces as the toasts were presented: Tune, Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Logan Water — Hail to the Chief—Liberty Tree—President’s March—Roslin Castle — Yankee Doodle — Brown’s March — Speed

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1820 the Plough — Pennsylvania March417— Washer Woman — Rogue’s March — The Girl I Left Behind Me—Perry’s Victory (“Liverpool, 4th July, 1820,” The Carlisle Republican, 18 July 1820, 146). Philadelphia: “About 800 [school children] with their teachers and directors” gathered at the Ebenezer Methodist Meeting House in Southwark “where a hymn prepared by Peter M’Gowing, one of the teachers, was sung in a complete and interesting manner.” To close the exercises, an anthem, “composed by the Rev. Dr. Ely, was sung” (“44th Anniversary of American Independence,” National Advocate, 10 July 1820, 2).

Rhode Island Providence: Residents of the town marched to the First Baptist Meeting-House where the exercises began with “an appropriate ode and anthem ... in fine taste, by the choir” (“Independence,” Rhode-Island American and General Advertiser, 7 July 1820, 2).

South Carolina Charleston: “The Charleston Riflemen celebrated their 14th Anniversary, and the 45th of American Independence on the 4th July, on which occasion the following toasts were drank, accompanied by appropriate music from the elegant band attached to the Corps”: Hail Columbia—Pleyel’s Hymn—Marseilles Hymn — Adams and Liberty — Solemn Dirge — Yankee Doodle — The Star-Spangled Banner — Monroe’s March—South Carolina March—Geddes’s March— Hearts of Oak — Tyrolese Song of Liberty — True Courage — Pillar of Glory — Washington’s March — Plough Boy — Erin Go Bragh — The Lucky Escape — The Centinel — The Light-House — Knight Errant (“Celebration of the 4th July,” City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 13 July 1820, 2).

Virginia Alexandria: A procession of two companies of infantry marched through the streets of Alexandria “enlivened by appropriate and delightful music.” Another newspaper reported that “an elegant band of music, led by Sig. Massi” accompanied “the most martial legion that has graced our streets for several years.” Later the officers and “gentlemen composing the band, and a number of citizens, retired to the locust grove on the south side of Hunting Creek” to enjoy dinner and have toasts “interspersed with songs and appropriate music”: Yankee Doodle—Hail Columbia—Washington’s March — President’s March — Gen. Lynn’s March — Paddy Carey — Tars of Columbia — Col Hipkins’ March — Marseilles Hymn — Congress March—Quick Step—Monroe’s March—The Meeting of the Waters418—Pleyel’s German Hymn—Roslin Castle — Col. Minor’s March419— Bolivar’s March — Waltz — Gen Lynn’s Quick Step — Massachusetts March — Columbian March — Robin Adair — Jackson’s March — Col. Minor’s Quick Step — Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — Spanish Muleteers’

March — Cadet’s March — Perry’s Victory — Trumpet March420 (Alexandria Gazette, 10 July 1820, 2; “Fourth of July Celebrations at Alexandria, DC,” City of Washington Gazette, 10 July 1820, 2). Norfolk: The exercises at the Presbyterian Church attended by 1,000 persons, included music by a band “attached to the Republican Blues.” Later toasts were offered with the following music: Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, Roslin Castle — Washington’s March — Marseilles Hymn — Music, Vive la Constitution.— President’s March — Song, Missouri Question (new music)421— The Star-Spangled Banner — Song, The Battle of New-Orleans — Song, I knew by the smoke, etc.— Song, Hail Columbia (“Freedom’s Jubilee” and “Toasts Drank by the Citizens,”American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1820, 2). Petersburg: “At the Theatre, the citizens, strangers, and their families had been collecting from 7 o’clock in the morning. Every seat, every avenue of the front part was completely occupied, and crowded to excess. The Ladies constituted much the larger portion of the assemblage, and the appearance was brilliant in the extreme. We think there could not have been present less than 1500.” Both the reader of the Declaration of Independence and orator were announced by the sound of a cannon. Then “Mr. Caldwell of the Theatre, at the request of the General Committee, recited the following patriotic ‘Ode,’ composed for the occasion by John McCreery, Esq”; first line: “Oh! that I could with genius strong.” Following that, a “Song, ‘Jubilee of Freedom,’ by Mr. Keene422 of the Theatre” was sung. That afternoon at Bath Springs about 200 sat down to a dinner with toasts “accompanied by songs, music and cheers”: Tune, Ca Ira — Tune, Rise Columbia, Brave and Free423— Tune, Yankee Doodle—Tune, The Pillar of Glory—Tune, Washington’s March — Tune, Yankee Doodle and Dead March — Tune, Monroe’s March — Tune, Jefferson’s March — Tune, Madison’s March — Tune, Go Where Glory Waits Thee424— Tune, Let Fame Sound the Trumpet — Tune, John Bull Caught a Tartar — Tune, Our Rights We Will Cherish — Tune Marseilles Hymn — Tune, Spanish Patriots—Tune, Empire of Freedom— Tune, How Sleep the Brave — Tune, Speed the Plough—Tune, America, Commerce and Freedom— Tune, Row the Keel — Tune, Rogue’s March — Tune, Old Virginia—Tune, Love’s Garland.425 “The Dining Party left Bath Springs about 7 o’clock, P.M. in the greatest glee and good humor with each other” (“44th Anniversary of Independence,” American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, 11 July 1820, 2). Portsmouth: “Jubilee of Freemen” celebration held at Mr. Portlock’s Hotel by the Independents and Junior Volunteers and Calvary, the following music was played or sung: Hail Columbia — Washington’s Dirge — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Eveteen’s Bower — Star-Spangled Banner — Battle of Trenton — Yankee Doodle — Waltz — Duke of York’s March — Marseilles Hymn — Columbus — Sprig of

109 Shilolah (American Beacon and Norfolk & Portsmouth Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1820, 3).

1821 Publications “‘The Birth-Day of Freedom.’ A National Song. By Henry C. Knight. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “All hail to the birth of the happiest land” (Newburyport Herald, 3 July 1821, 2). “A Favorite Ode on Celebration of the Fourth of July. For the voice and piano forte.426 Composed by Dr. G.K. Jackson. Words by Mrs. Jackson.” Boston: E. W. Jackson, [1821–23]. Voice, piano, and violin accompaniment. “The following pieces were sung at the celebration of Independence in this town [Newport}, on Wednesday last”: “Ode” (first line: “Returns again the hallow’d morn”); “Hymn”427 (first line: “How vast thy gifts, Almighty King”); “Hymn” (first line: “Come, let us join the cheerful song”) (“Poetry,” Rhode-Island Republican, 11 July 1821, 4). “Fourth of July Odes, Original and Selected. For the Essex Register. ‘The Sons of the West.’ A Song for July 4th. Tune —‘Perry’s Victory’—‘O’er the Bosom of Erie,’ &c.” First line: “When the mandate of heaven was heard from afar.”; “‘Independence’ by S. Woodworth.” First line: “Freemen! arise, and salute the glad morning.”; “Fourth of July.” First line: “If the Dead from their dark-rolling halls in the sky” (Essex Register, 4 July 1821, 4). “An Ode, for the celebration by the Washington Society, of the anniversary of American independence, July 4, 1821. By a member of the society.” First line: “Genius of Freedom despondingly stood.” To the tune “Adams and Liberty.” Broadside, [Boston, 1821]. Copy in Brown University. “A Hymn, for the Fourth of July.” First line: “To thee, Most High, we humbly bow” (Carolina Centinel, 7 July 1821, 3). “Mr. Editor — The following Ode was written for the 4th of July. You will confer a favor by inserting it in the Patriot. Z.X.” Tune —“Wreaths for the Chieftain.” First line: “Sons of our heroes who nobly contended” (Essex Patriot, 30 June 1821, 3). “Ode for July 4, 1821. The following Ode, written for the occasion, by Timothy Paige, Jr. Esq. was sung at Southbridge, Worcester County, by a large choir of singers on the late Anniversary.” First line: “Let hymns of triumph rise around” (Columbian Centinel, 18 July 1821, 3; Pittsfield Sun, 1 August 1821, 1; An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1821, in the Baptist Meeting House, in Southbridge, Mass. It Being the Forty-fifth Anniversary of American Independence. ... Subjoined to which is an Account of the Arrangements, with the Ode, Toasts and Proceedings of the Day. Worcester [MA}, Printed by Henry Rogers, 1821).

1821 “Ode. Written by R.T. Paine, Esq. and sung at the Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1811, in Faneuil Hall, Boston. Tune ‘Battle of the Nile.’” First line: “Let patriotic pride our patriot triumph wake!” (Salem Gazette, 3 July 1821, 4). See Publications, 1811. “Odes to be sung at Pequannock [NJ?], July 4th, 1821. Written by S. Graham.” Ode 1: first line, “Illustrious on the rolls of fame”; Ode 2:, first line: “Gone are the pangs of Freedoms birth”; Ode 3: first line, “The wheel of time rolls swiftly on.” Broadside, 1821. Copy in Brown University. “Order of Exercises for July 4th, 1821. “1. Voluntary. 2. 47th Psalm — Belknap’s collection. 3. Prayer. 4. 100th Psalm — Belknap’s Collection. 5. Oration by Mr. C. Cushing, A.M. 6. The following ode written for the occasion.... 7. Benediction.” Broadside. [Newburyport, Mass.: s.n., 1821]. Copy in the New York Historical Society. “The Song of Gratitude. Composed for the Mechanic Association, and to be sung at the Town-Hall, July 4, 1821. Air —‘Soldier’s Gratitude.’” First line: “The day that gave to freedom birth” (Essex Register, 4 July 1821, 2).

Performances Connecticut Hartford: At Bennett’s Hotel, a dinner for the “republican citizens of this and the neighboring towns” was highlighted by toasts, “following with appropriate pieces of music from a band, and the discharge of cannon” (“Celebration of Independence,” American Mercury, 10 July 1821, 3).

District of Columbia Capitol, Hall of House of Representatives, “in the south wing,... “the Marine band played some patriotic airs, as Hail Columbia, &c when Mr. [John Quincy] Adams rose, and pronounced an oration of great compass.” At the dinner celebration held for the party at Strother’s Hotel, “a number of patriotic toasts were drank, accompanied by music from the Marine Band, and announced by the discharge of three guns each” (“National Celebration,” Boston Commercial Gazette, 12 July 1821, 2); the “Club of Liberales” celebrated “at the house of Mr. Clephane in F Street, where Mr. Solomon Drew provided a sumptuous dinner.” Many of the toasts were accompanied by music: Song, Scots wha hae wi Wallace bled — Song, The Independent Man — Original song by W.E. (tune — Fye let us a’ to the Bridal; First line: “Come let us rejoice on the day, sire, so dear to American Freemen”)428— Song, Common Sense One Night—Song, I’ve Oft Been Asked by Prosing Souls429— Song, Surely That Cannot Be Wrong Which Gives to Each His Liking — Song, If Gold Could Lengthen Life, I Swear — Fragment of an Ode by Mr. C — e (First line: “Proud day we would hail thee! Of time the most splendid”)— Song, The Star-Spangled Banner — Song, Come Hoist Ev’ry Sail

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1821 to the Breeze—Song, America, Commerce, and Freedom — Song, A Hunting We Will Go — Song, Away with Melancholy—Song, Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms (“Independence Celebration,” Washington Gazette, 6 July 1821, 2; “The Dinner at Strother’s,” Pittsfield Sun, 18 July 1821, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: “An association of young gentlemen” met. “After the reading of the Declaration of Independence, the following Song, composed for the occasion by one of the company, was sung, accompanied by music”: “Tune — Anacreon in Heaven.” First line: “When the Goddess of Liberty, shrouded in night.” Additional music included pieces that accompanied the toasts: Hail Columbia — Should Auld Acquaintance — Yankee Doodle — German Hymn — In the Downhill of Life430— Is There a Heart — Scots Wha Hae Wi’ Wallace Bled (“The Fourth of July,” Baltimore Patriot, 13 July 1821, 2); members of the Ciceronian Debating Society met at the Maryland Tavern, “four miles from town,” for dinner. The following music accompanied the toasts: Columbia’s Tars — The Star-Spangled Banner — Washington’s March — Hail to the Chief— Hail Columbia — Dead March [repeated three times]— Columbia’s Fair431 (“The Fourth of July,” Baltimore Patriot, 13 July 1821, 2). Manchester: The Manchester Blues and citizens of the town met at 11 A.M. and “marched in procession, accompanied with elegant music, to Capt. Showers’ Spring” and “partook of an elegant cold collation” (“Celebration at Manchester,” Baltimore Patriot, 11 July 1821, 2). Williamsport: “Citizens and farmers” heard the Declaration of Independence read and toasts were “accompanied at intervals with songs and music” (“Fourth of July,” Baltimore Patriot, 11 July 1821, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: The Washington Society celebrated by hosting a public dinner at the Marlboro Hotel. “A band of music was placed in the orchestra early in the day for the amusem*nt of the numerous ladies and gentlemen who visited the hall.... After the cloth was removed, an able and eloquent address was pronounced by Andrew Dunlap, Esq. after which the following sentiments were given accompanied with music. The anniversary ode [see Publications above] by a member, and occasional songs were sung, which gave a very lively effect to the scene”: Anniversary Ode, Adams & Liberty — Hail Columbia — President’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — The Knight Errant — Ode on Science — Quick March — O Dear What Can the Matter Be — The Frog He Would a Woing Go432— Freedom’s Jubilee—No luck about the House—Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself—Rural Felicity (“Washington Society,” Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, 7 July 1821, 1; at the Amphitheater (or Washington Garden Theatre) at 7 P.M., “the celebrated military

comedy, called the Point of Honor; or — A School for Soldiers” was performed by the Amateur Company. Included were “a number of patriotic songs by members of the Company” that included “Awake Ye Dull Mortals” (Mrs. Mills); “‘Freedom’s Jubilee Afterwards’ (music composed expressly for the occasion, by Mr. F.C. Schaffer); an Air on the French Horn (Mr. Campbell), ‘The Host That Fights for Liberty’ (written by the late John H. Mills [sung by] Mrs. Mills; Song (Master Ayling); Air on the Royal Kent Bugle (Mr. Campbell).” “A grand display of fireworks” took place on the Common. The rockets, wheels, windmills, showers, fountains and other pyrotechnics were accompanied by the following music performed by a “full and select band”: President’s March — Masonic March — Waltz — Slow March — March in Don Quixote — Cadets March — Quick March — Governor’s March—Marseilles March—Peruvian March— March in Tekeli — Masonic March — Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia (“Grand National Jubilee,” Boston Commercial Gazette, 2 July 1821, 3; Columbian Centinel, 4 July 1821, 3); at Faneuil Hall a dinner was served, followed by toasts and the following music: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Brooks March433—Adams and Liberty—Speed the Plough— Perry’s Victory — Marseilles Hymn — Gen. Jackson’s March — Wreaths to the Chieftain — Dirge — Washington’s March—Yankee Doodle—Jesse of Dunblane (Pittsfield Sun, 18 July 1821, 3). Charlestown: A parade, ceremony, and dinner for 300 persons at the town hall, where the participants heard the following music: Hail Columbia — Adams and Liberty — Jefferson’s March — President’s March — Brooks’ March — Massachusetts March — Yankee Doodle — Air — Washington’s March — Caravan March434— Grand March in Battle of Prague — Grand March in Blue Beard — Rural Felicity (“Celebration at Charlestown,” Pittsfield Sun, 25 July 1821, 1). Dedham: “At 12 o’clock a large procession was formed at Gay’s hotel” and included “the Dedham Light Infantry, commanded by Capt. Samuel Lewis, with a fine band of music,” as well as participants in the exercises that took place at the Rev. Mr. Lamson’s Meeting House. The services included: A voluntary on the organ, by Mr. Taylor.435 A well adapted Prayer, by the Rev. A. Lamson. Anthem, by the choir and organ. The Declaration of American Independence, preceded by a pertinent introductory Address, by Mr. H. Mann (in the place of Dr. Ames, who was indisposed.... 5. Anthem. 6. A most appropriate, spirited and eloquent Oration, by Jonathan H. Cobb, Esq.... 7. Billings’ Anthem for Independence. Benediction. [“Celebration of Independence,” Village Register and Norfolk County Advertiser, 6 July 1821, 3.] 1. 2. 3. 4.

111 Haverhill: After a parade, the exercises began at 12:30 P.M. at Mr. Dodge’s Meeting House. During the services, “three anthems were sung and we should be wanting in gratitude, did we not acknowledge the pleasure we received in listening to the correctness and melody with which they were executed” (“The Fourth of July,” Essex Patriot, 7 July 1821, 3). Hingham: Citizens and militia enjoyed a parade to the meeting house. “The performances commenced with singing.” Later on the grounds of Mr. Wilder’s, there was a dinner for 250 persons, including toasts with the following music: Swiss Guards — Old Hundred, sung by the company standing — Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — No luck about the house — Yankee Doodle — Green’s March — Serenade—President’s March—Brooks’ March—Lessons by Morelli — Volunteer — O dear what can the matter be — Volunteer by the Band (Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, 14 July 1821, 2). New Bedford: “At eleven o’clock, agreeably to previous arrangements, a procession was formed at Col. Nelson’s Hotel, under the direction of Eli Haskell, Esq. Marshal of the day, which was escorted by the Independent Company of Artillery, Capt. Harrison, and Capt. Swift’s Company of Volunteers (accompanied by the excellent Band of Music from Taunton) to the 2d Congregational Meeting-house, where Prayers were offered in a very impressive manner by the Rev. Mr. Whitaker.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence and oration, “an Ode, selected for the occasion, was skillfully performed by a numerous choir accompanied by the Band.” Among the toasts presented at the dinner held at Col. Nelson’s Hotel, “several appropriate songs were sung, and received with applause” (“Celebration of Independence,” New Bedford Mercury, 6 July 1821, 2). Newburyport: After a procession of citizens, escorted by military companies, to the church436 on “Pleasant Street, where a numerous audience of taste and beauty was already assembled,” the exercises began with “a Voluntary on the organ437 and a Hymn.” After the prayer, another hymn was sung. Also, “the following Ode, written for the occasion, was then sung by a full choir of gentlemen and ladies”: “God Bless the Day.” First line: “Ye, whose fathers, on this day.” Later, at the dinner held at the hotel on State Street, the following works were performed: Adams and Liberty — Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Rogues’ March — Marseilles Hymn — Rise Columbia — Marseilles Hymn — President’s March — Massachusetts March—Gov. Brooks’ March—Hull’s Victory — Yankee Doodle (“Celebration of the 45th Anniversary of the Independence of the United States,” Newburyport Herald, 3 and 6 July 1821, 2 and 3, respectively). See Publications above. Salem: A procession of the Salem Charitable Mechanic Association through city streets to the North Meeting House included “a fine band,” with a bugle and drum. While the group entered the Meeting House, “Mr. Cooper438 performed a voluntary upon

1821 the noble Organ of that House, in his best style, after which an original Ode, composed for the occasion, was sung by Mr. Hubon, with spirit and effect.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “the 100th Psalm was sung by the Choir in the noble tune of Old Hundred.... After the oration, the appropriate and beautiful Anthem, ‘Sound the Loud Timbrel,’439 was sung.” The dinner was held at the town hall. Toasts were presented, “accompanied by discharges of artillery, and interspersed with songs and music by the band”: Song, The Day that Gave to Freedom Birth, &c.— Music, Dirge — Dead March in Saul — Wreaths for the Chieftains — Washington’s March — Roslyn Castle—Hail Columbia—Monroe’s March— Gov. Brooks’ March — Song, Columbia, Land of Liberty — Marseilles March — America, Commerce and Freedom — Waltz. One report noted that members of the orchestra included both women and men (“Fourth of July” and “National Anniversary,” Essex Register, 6 and 7 July 1821, 3 and 2, respectively; Salem Gazette, 3 and 6 July 1821, 3 and 3, respectively). South Deerfield: At the exercises held at B. Jenness’ Hall, there was “music selected for the occasion” (“The Great Festival,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 6 July 1821, 3).

New Hampshire Effingham: “At two o’clock, P.M., a numerous procession formed at the academy, under the direction of Capt. J. Lord, chief marshal, and Lieut. T.P. Drake, assistant marshal, and proceeded from thence to the meeting-house, escorted by the Effingham Artillery Company, and bands of instrumental and martial music, each playing alternately. When the audience was seated and called to order, a piece of music was performed.... The exercises closed with music” (NewHampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 16 July 1821, 3).

New Jersey Newark: “Multitudes of people of both sexes flocked in from the adjacent towns and villages” to watch a procession that marched from the military common to the 1st Presbyterian Church. Included among the military units parading was a “Cadet Band and Martial Music.” The music at the church was apparently well received: “The ‘Harmonic Society’ are entitled to much credit for the delightful airs which they performed between the other exercises. Their vocal and instrumental music contributed much to the gratification of an overflowing audience” (“Anniversary Celebration,” North Star, 26 July 1821, 1).

New York New York: At Vauxhall Garden, the grounds were “brilliantly illuminated with upwards of 4000 lamps, and ornamented with several elegant transparent paintings analogous to the occasion; and to heighten the pleasure of the visitors, a concert [was] given in the evening ... at six o’clock,” in three parts:

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1821 Part 1st. Overturn [sic] Lodoiska, orchestra Song, Freedom’s Jubilee (from the Southern Theater, his first appearance this season), Mr. Lamb Let Patriot Pride your Patriot triumph wake, Singleton Savoyard Boy, Mrs. Stell Yanke Land of Freedom, Mr. Morris Auld Lang Syne, Mr. Lamb On this Cold Flinty Rock, Mr. Singleton Lovers, Mother, I have None,440 Mrs. Stell The Jew Pedlar, Mr. Mores Rondo, Haydn, Orchestre. Part 2d Minuetto, Pleyel, Orchestre. A favorite air, with variations on the Violin, by master Halloway, only nine years old Song, Has She then Failed in Her Truth, Mr. Lamb Let Fame Sound the Trumpet, Mr. Singleton Oh What is the Matter, Mrs. Stell. Recitation, in which is introduced the song of Richard and Betty at Hickleten Fair, Mr. Morris Song, Home, Love, and Liberty, Mr. Lamb Love Has eyes, Mr. Singleton The Love Letter, Mrs. Stell Dashing Tom in Search of a Wife, Mr. Morris Allegro, Orchestre. Part 3d. The Sweet Air of Lulloby arranged for the violin, master Halloway Song, Hit at the Fashions, Mr. Lamb Love and Glory, Mr. Singleton The Young Son of Chivalry, Mrs. Stell Peter Zigzag and Dolly Nignag, Mr. Morris. The Tyrolese Song of Liberty, Mr. Singleton I Have a Heart, Mrs. Stell Manchester, Cries, Mr. Morris Finale, Orchestra. [New York Evening Post, 29 June and 3 July 1821, 3 and 3, respectively].

North Carolina Newbern: The Newbern Guards paraded, “amid the discharge of artillery, musketry and the ringing of bells. During this time, Hail Columbia and other patriotic airs were played by the band attached to the Company.” Following the exercises at the Baptist Church, the group assembled and “proceeded, with music, to Mrs. Emery’s, where a dinner had been provided for the occasion.” Toasts were drank and an “Ode for the Day, written at the request of the Newbern Guards, sung by Mr. Nash. Air —‘Pillar of Glory’” (first line: “Hail to the Day! when Columbia’s glory”). Another “Song, written for the occasion,” was also “sung by Mr. Nash” to the “Air—‘Scots wha hae’” (first line: “Sons of those, who bravely fought”). (Carolina Centinel, 7 July 1821, 3.) See also Publications above.

A newspaper reported “some appropriate odes and anthems sung ... in a manner highly gratifying.”

Pennsylvania Columbia: At the farm of Mr. John Hinkle, “near the borough,” a large number of citizens heard a performance of the “Dead March” (Lancaster Journal, 13 July 1821, 2). New Holland: Citizens and militia marched to a grove “south west to the village,” where food was served and the following music performed: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Dead March — Jefferson & Liberty — Pennsylvania Grand March — Dead March — What a Beau My Granny Was — Yankee Tars442— Rogue’s March — Roslin Castle — Speed the Plough — Rashes O! (Lancaster Journal, 13 July 1821, 2–3).

Rhode Island Bristol: At the Congregational Meeting House, “Sound the Loud Timbrel” was sung and following at the dinner event at Horton’s Hotel, “several patriotic songs” were also sung (“Celebration at Bristol,” Providence Gazette, 11 July 1821, 1). Newport: Preceded by a procession to the Methodist Chapel, the exercises there included “performances ... interspersed with excellent music” (“Independence,” Rhode-Island Republican, 11 July 1821, 2). Providence: At the First Baptist Church, the exercises were begun “after the performance of sacred musick.” Before “a crowded and splendid audience ... the services at the church were closed with ‘Sound the Loud Timbrel,’ which was sung by the choir in a very chaste and correct style.” In the afternoon the Independent Cadets enjoyed “a sumptuous dinner at Mr. Blake’s Hotel” and the toasts given were “interspersed with patriotick songs, and instrumental musick” (“National Jubilee,” The American, 6 July 1821, 2; “Fourth of July,” Providence Gazette, 7 July 1821, 2). South Kingstown: At Little Rest, at the Congregational Meeting House, there was “singing of several very appropriate hymns” (“National Jubilee,” Rhode Island American, and General Advertiser, 17 July 1821, 3).

Tennessee Nashville: “Theatre. In Honor of the Day. This Evening, July 4. Will be presented, an Historical drama, in 3 acts, written by M.M. Noah, Esq. of New-York, called She Would be a Soldier, or the Plains of Chippewa. Between the Play and Farce, an omnium Gatherum, consisting of Songs, Recitations, &c. The whole to conclude with an admired Farce, called ’Tis All a Farce (for particulars see bills.)” (Nashville Whig, 4 July 1821).443

Ohio

Virginia

Cincinnati: Haydn Society performed with the Cincinnati Band at the First Presbyterian Church.441

Petersburg: At a dinner held by “Messrs. Fenn & Cheves,” hundreds of citizens enjoyed the toasts “ac-

113 companied by appropriate music, the firing of cannon, songs, and the cheers of the whole party” (“National Festival,” Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1821, 2). Prince Edward County: At a spring near Miller’s Tavern, toasts at a dinner included the following music: Hail Columbia—Dead March—Washington’s March — Jefferson and Liberty — Life Let Us Cherish — Separation — Wounded Hussar — Yankee Doodle — Sailor Boy — Yankee Doodle — The Troop — Dead March—Rugue’s March—Retreat—Our Chief is Dead — Hail Columbia — Ca Ira — Washington’s Grand March (Richmond Enquirer, 20 July 1821, 3). Richmond: “In the celebration of the late anniversary of independence at Richmond, Va. a Poetical Version of the Declaration of Independence was delivered at the City Hall & some songs in honor of the day were written and sung by Mr. Leroy Anderson” (Hampden Patriot and Liberal Recorder, 25 July 1821, 3).

1822 Publications “The following pieces were sung at the Second Baptist Meeting House, on the 4th of July, 1822”: “Ode, Tune —‘Westbury Leigh’” (first line: “Begin my soul, th’ exalted lay”); “Ode—Tune ‘Cranbrook’” (first line: “Behold enray’d in light”); Ode, Tune —‘Bringeton’” (first line: “Hark, freedom’s silver horn”); “Ode on Science” (first line: “The morning sun shines from the east”) (“Poetry,” Rhode-Island Republican, 10 July 1822, 4). “‘National Song.’ Sung on the Fourth of July, 1822, at a public dinner, given in Natchez. Written by a citizen of Natchez. Tune—‘Kate of Colerain.’” First line: “The Day Star of Liberty faintly was springing” (Baltimore Patriot, 17 August, 1822, 1). “The following beautiful ode, written by O.W.B. Peabody, Esq.444 of Exeter, was sung by Mr. S.T. Gilman, at the late celebration in that town. ‘Ode for the Fourth of July.’ Tune—‘Ye Mariners [of England],’ &c.” First line: “Ye freemen of New-England.” The exercises were held at the Rev. Rowland’s meeting house where the “Ode, composed for the occasion was sung in a style to which we can pay no higher compliment than to say that it was worthy of the ode” (New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 13 and 22 July 1822, 3 and 4, respectively). “‘Hail, glorious day, blest Freedom smiles.’445 The following words were sung (to the above tune) at the celebration of Independence at Charlestown, Mass.” To be sung to the tune of “Rise, Cynthia.” The Musical Cabinet (Charlestown, 1822–[1823]). “An Hymn for Independence. Tune — Blue-Bird.” First line: “Hail fair Columbia! hail ye sons of freedom” (Pittsfield Sun, 3 July 1822, 3). “An Hymn for Independence. Tune—Greenwich.”

1822 First line: “Hail fair Columbia, hail! all hail!” (Pittsfield Sun, 26 June 1822, 3). “National Ode, to be sung at this place [Litchfield, CT] on the Fourth of July.” First line: “Ye sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought” (Litchfield Republican, 3 July 1822, 3). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1822. Tune — Hail to the Chief.” First line: “Bright glows the sun in his firmament splendor” (“The Fount,” American Federalist Columbian Centinel, 17 July 1822, 4, from the Baltimore Morning Chronicle). “Ode to Freedom, for the Fourth of July. By J. Frieze.” First line: “Freedom hail! celestial goddess” (Universalist Magazine, 12 October 1822, 64). “Ode, written for the occasion and sung at the celebration of independence by the Washington Society. By a member of the Society. Tune —‘Wreaths to the Chieftain.’”446 First line: “Honor the statesmen a nation who founded” (“The Recess,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 10 July 1822, 4). “Song, sung at the celebration of Independence, at Topsfield, in Massachusetts. Tune — Auld lang syne.” First line: “Should gallant heroes be forgot” (“The Olio,” Alexandria Herald, 17 July 1822, 4).

Performances Connecticut Norwich: “The celebration of our National Independence was observed in this city, in a manner highly gratifying to the patriotic, and commendable to our citizens. The dawn of the anniversary of that glorious day, which gave independence to millions of the human species, was announced by the discharge of ordnance from the Wharf-Bridge, and the beat of the reveilee [sic] by an excellent band of martial music.” After the exercises that were held at the Presbyterian Meeting House whose “services commenced and concluded with sacred music,” and a dinner “where about one hundred and thirty gentlemen partook of an excellent collation,” the day’s events concluded at “a bower previously erected for the purpose,” where “the pleasures of the company were not a little enhanced by the civility of some of the ladies who executed several excellent tunes on the pianoforte” (“Independence,” Courier, 10 July 1822, 3).

Maine Bristol: A “regimental band” marched in a parade of citizens and military units to the meeting house where “the performances were accompanied by select and appropriate music, which did much credit to the performers” (“Celebration at Bristol,” Lincoln Intelligencer, 18 July 1822, 3).

Maryland Annapolis: In the Senate Room, “a hymn written for the occasion by John Brewer, Esq.447 conspicuous for patriotic sentiments and poetical merit was sung.” Also, “a national air was then played by a military

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1822 band.” The exercises concluded with “an appropriate hymn” (“Annapolis,” Baltimore Patriot, 10 July 1822, 2). Baltimore: “After the dismissal of the troops from the parade, the Baltimore Independent Blues attached to the First Regiment of Artillery, marched to Mr. John A. Mozer’s Hotel one and a half miles from Baltimore, on the York road, where they partook of an elegant dinner prepared by him.” Toasts were drank and included the following performances: Tune, Hail Columbia, full band; Pleyel’s Hymn, full band — Auild Lang Syne, full band — Fayette’s March, full band — Yankee Doodle, full band — Temple of Liberty, full band — Washington’s March, full band — March 5th Infantry, full band — Tune, Neptune’s Pride, full band — Capt. Wilson’s Quick Step, full band — The Star-Spangled Banner, full band — Glee, Here’s a Health to All Good Lasses. Additional volunteer toasts were drank “succeeded by songs, glees, &c. accompanied by the Band of the Baltimore Independent Blues” (“Fourth of July,” Baltimore Patriot, 8 July 1822, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Old South Meeting House, there was a “performance of several pieces of music, executed by a select choir led by Mr. Bayley” (“National Birth Day,” American Federalist Columbian Centinel, 6 July 1822, 2; Salem Gazette, 9 July 1822, 2); at the City Theatre, “in commemoration of the Fourth of July, a variety of entertainments” consisted of songs and dances, including “Comic Song of the Smokers’ Club,” by Mr. Roberts and Mr. Duff singing “for the second time, the new Patriotic Song, written by a gentleman of this city, called ‘Sons of Freedom, Generous Land.’” Also, “‘Barney Leave the Girls Alone,’ by Mr. Roberts.” (Boston Commercial Gazette, 4 July 1822, 3.); at Faneuil Hall, “the Republican and other citizens of Boston” celebrated and two odes were performed. “The following neat and appropriate Odes, written for the occasion, were sung at the celebration of independence by the Republicans and others at Faneuil Hall”—[First ode] first line, “Why did the nations rage?” “Second Ode”448: first line, “Like the bow in Eastern sky” (Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 3 and 10 July 1822, 3 and 4, respectively; American Federalist Columbian Centinel, 6 July 1822, 2). See also Publications above. Fall River: After a flag presentation ceremony and parade, the exercises were held at the meeting house where “the music was performed with taste and skill, and a highly patriotic and appropriate Ode, composed by Miss Eliza Dewey, was sung on the occasion” (Rhode-Island Republican, 17 July 1822, 2; “Celebration at Fall-River, Mass.,” Providence Patriot, 24 July 1822, 2). Newburyport: A large number of citizens escorted by the Light Infantry Company marched “to the church in Pleasant Street where several pieces of suitable music were performed with great skill and effect” (“Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 12 July 1822, 2).

Mississippi Natchez: “National Song. Tune — Kate of Colerain” sung at a public dinner in Natchez [Mississippi?]. “Written by a citizen of Natchez” (Baltimore Patriot, 17 August 1822, 1).

Missouri St. Louis: At a dinner and toasts presented at “a beautiful arbour near the residence of Col. O’Fallon”: Columbia, to Glory Arise — Federal March — Fort Erie — Fourth of March — Gen. Atkinson’s March — Go to the Dead and Shake Yourself— Hail Columbia — Jefferson and Liberty — Madison’s March — March in Blue Beard — Perry’s Victory — Scot’s oer the Border — Soldier’s Joy — Star-Spangled Banner—Vive la Constitution—Volunteer’s March— Washington’s March — Western Waters — Wayne’s March — Yankee Doodle (St. Louis Enquirer, 8 July 1822, 2).

New Hampshire Chester: “The procession formed at the tavern of General Henry Sweetser ... proceeded to the Meeting House under escort of the Chester Light Infantry, accompanied by an excellent band of music.” “Several pieces of music were performed by the choir with taste and correctness.” The dinner hosted by Sweetser included toasts “accompanied by music and firing” (“Celebration at Chester,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 15 July 1822, 2). Portsmouth: A procession from Hassard’s Inn to the “new meeting house,” where the exercises began with “vocal music, of which Mr. Gideon Barker took the lead” (Rhode-Island Republican, 10 July 1822, 2).

New York Ithaca: The “order of the day” consisted of a procession that assembled in front of the hotel and included a music ensemble. After a march to the Presbyterian Church, the exercises there included a prayer, psalm, reading of the Declaration, an “Ode on Science,” oration, followed by music. One newspaper reported that “the intervals of these exercises were filled by select and appropriate music from a volunteer choir, whose performance had a pleasing and solemn effect, and entitled them to the thanks of the audience.” Later at the dinner, the toasts were “accompanied by appropriate music and the discharge of cannon” (“National Anniversary,” Republican Chronicle, 3 July 1822, 2; American Journal, 10 July 1822, 2). New York: At Chatham Garden: “‘Huzza! Here’s Columbia for Ever’ performed by Clifton,449 of Baltimore,” Grand Symphony, “composed by Haydn” (New-York Advertiser, 6 July 1822, 3); “God Save America,” composed “by Mr. G. Geib,450 and dedicated to the People of the United States.” Performed at the City Theatre by “Mr. Lamb.” Also performed was a “Grand Military Overture” by a “full band” (New-York Advertiser, 6 July 1822, 3; New York American, 2 July 1822, 3.)

115 Ohio Cincinnati: The Haydn Society sang several odes, “accompanied by the Cincinnati Band,” conducted by Josiah Warren.451

Vermont Shaftsbury: “A respectable number of citizens of Shaftsbury and the adjacent towns, assembled at the Inn of Jonathan Draper.... Between the hours of 11 and 12, a procession was formed and marched under the direction of Col. Henry Robinson, marshal of the day, to the place appointed for the performance of the solemnities suited to the occasion. The Bennington band of music, with martial music, and Capt. Waters’ company of matross, were the advance of the procession.” Later after the exercises, the assemblage drank toasts “interspersed with songs of liberty, and enlivened by the usual demonstrations of hilarity and gratitude” (Vermont Gazette, 16 July 1822, 2).

1823 Publications “Anniversary Song. Sung by its author at the democratic celebration in Philadelphia, on the 4th of July, 1823. Our Forefathers. By Alderman Barker.452 Air — ‘Hearts of Oak.’” First line: “When our forefathers dared the wild ocean to roam” (“Poetry,” Watch-Tower, 4 August 1823, 4). “Dithyrambic Ode, for the Fourth [of ] July, 1823.” Signed “J.H.” First line: “Hark! to the floating strain” (Carolina Centinel, 5 July 1823, 3). “The following Odes were sung at the Second Baptist Meeting House, in Newport [RI], at the celebration of the 4th July, 1823”: “O praise the Lord, in that blest place”; “Wide o’er the boundless waves”; “Columbia! twice an hundred years”; “Today we sing the glorious toil” (Rhode-Island Republican, 9 July 1823, 4). “The following Odes were sung at the Union Meeting House, in Portsmouth (R.I.) at the celebration of the forty-seventh anniversary of American independence”: “Returns again the hallow’d morn”; “Hark, the sounds of joy are swelling” (Rhode-Island Republican, 9 July 1823, 4). “Hymn for the 4th of July—1823.” First line: “Hail independence, hail.” Note: “The following Ode was sung at the celebration of 4th inst. at Ipswich [Massachusetts]” (“Miscellany,” Salem Gazette, 8 July 1823, 1). “Ode for the Fourth of July. Tune — Scots Wha Hae Wi’ Wallace Bled.” First line: “Jackson, on this glorious day” (Salem Gazette, 15 July 1823, 2). “Ode sung at a celebration in Salem, on the Fourth of July, 1811; composed by Hon. Joseph Story.” First line: “Welcome! Welcolme the day, when assembled as one” (“Miscellany,” Salem Gazette, 4 July 1823, 1). “Ode to Independence.” First line: “O hallow the

1823 day, when from regions of light” (“Selected Poetry,” Essex Register, 3 July 1823, 4). “Song for the Fourth of July. By Caerlayon.” First line: “Unfurd [sic] your banners high” (“Poet’s Corner,” Universalist Magazine, 12 July 1823, 12). “Song for the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Scots wha hae,’ &c.” First line: “Hark! the joyous bells proclaim” (National Advocate, for the Country [New York], 25 July 1823).

Performances District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band453 provided music on the steamboat Washington that carried excursionists from Alexandria, Virginia, to Mount Vernon. “When the boat arrived in sight of that sacred spot, the band struck up the plaintive air of Roslin Castle.” Upon landing a procession was formed led by the band and the assemblage marched to the “pavilion near the sepulcre of Washington.” After appropriate services, “the band were saluting Mrs. [Bushrod] Washington in the piazza of the mansion. The procession formed again; and, opening to the right and left, encircled the tomb. A solemn silence now pervaded the company, which was broken only by the beat of the muffled drum, at the door of the vault, and the sympathizing music of Pleyel’s Hymn poured out by the full band.” The company later returned to Alexandria for an “elegant dinner” where toasts were drunk and a brief address was given by Vice President Daniel D. Tompkins. “The following Ode, composed for the occasion by John L. Gow, Esq. was then sung”: “The Birth Day of Freedom” (first line: “Shall the genius that dawn’d upon tyranny’s night.”) (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1823, 3; Providence Patriot, 19 July 1823, 1; “Celebration of Independence at Mount Vernon,” Richmond Enquirer, 15 July 1823, 2).

Kentucky Frankfort: Performed at a dinner celebration with the Governor present: Bruce’s March — Clay’s March — Jefferson’s March — Madison’s March — President’s March — Shelby’s March — Washington’s March (Argus of Western America, 9 July 1823, 2).

Maine Portland: “The day was ushered in, as usual, with ringing of bells, firing of guns, strains of music, and shouts of joy.” At the exercises, “music suitable for the occasion was well performed by the Beethoven Society.” The order of the services was as follows: 1. Music. 2. Prayer. 3. Hymn. 4. Oration. 5. Music. 6. Benediction. [“Celebration of Independence,” Eastern Argus, 8 July 1823, 2].

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1823 Maryland Baltimore: “The company, attached to the Fifth Regiment” marched to Washington Square for the exercises after which “the company, accompanied by the Fort Band, whose services had been politely tendered by Major Belton, of Fort McHenry, marched on board the steam boat Maryland, Captain Vickers, which conveyed them to Curtis’ Creek.” Later they returned to the city to have dinner, that included the following pieces of music to accompany the toasts: Yankee Doodle — Monroe’s March — Decatur’s Victory—United States March—Jackson’s March—The Legacy—North Point—Vive la Bagatelle—Washington’s March — Auld Lang Syne — Hail Columbia — Stoney Point — I Have Loved Thee454— Gen. McDonal’s March—Gen Stricker’s March—Gen Heath’s March455— Huzza, Here’s Columbia Forever — StarSpangled Banner — Gen Sterrett’s March456— Jefferson’s March. One song was composed for the occasion and “sung by the author.” (Tune —“Auld Lang Syne”). First line: “My fellow soldiers, right and left” (“Fourth of July,” Baltimore Patriot, 9 July 1823, 2; Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1823, 2); the First Baltimore Sharp Shooters had dinner at Carroll’s Woods, with Capt. Deems’s Band providing the following music to accompany the toasts: Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Decatur’s Victory — Star-Spangled Banner — Ye Sons of Columbia — Washington’s March — President’s March — Let Fame Sound the Trumpet — America, Commerce and Freedom — The LibertyTree — Pleyel’s Hymn — Scots Wha Hae Wi’ Wallace — Come Haste to the Wedding (“National Anniversary,” American & Commercial Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1823, 2); the First Battalion Maryland Riflemen had a celebration dinner at Carroll’s Spring. A band provided the following music for the toasts: Hail Columbia — Star-Spangled Banner — Hail to the Chief457— Morgan Volunteer’s March — Monroe’s March — Pleyel’s Hymn — Washington’s March — Spanish Double Quick March — Scots Wah Hae — How Sleep the Brave-Standing and Silent — Round the Flag of Freedom Rally — There’s Nae Luck About the House — Dear Creatures, We Can’t Do Without Them (“National Anniversary,” American & Commercial Daily Advertiser, 8 July 1823, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At “the Rev. Dean’s Meeting House, the new and beautiful Church in Bulfinch Street,” the exercises included a Voluntary (first line: “O praise the Lord with one consent”), an Ode to the “Air —‘Ye Mariners of England’” (first line: “Rise sun of Freedom, glorious!”), another Ode (first line: “Let grateful millions join to raise”), an Anthem (first line, duet: “Come ever smiling liberty come” and first line, chorus: “Glory be to God on high”). “The Odes and Anthems were sung in an excellent manner and gave the greatest satisfaction to a large and brilliant audience.” At Faneuil Hall, the dinner and toasts were accompa-

nied by the following music: Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, Rise Columbia — Dirge — President’s March — Adams and Liberty—Gov. Eustis’ March458—To Liberty’s Enraptur’d Sight459— Dirge — Massachusetts March — Hail Columbia — The Muses — Scots Wa Ha Wa Wallace Bled — Triumph of Reason (American Federalist Columbian Centinel, 4 July 1823, 2; “National Anniversary,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 9 July 1823, 4; “Miscellany,” Providence Patriot, 12 July 1823, 1; Pittsfield Sun, 17 July 1823, 1; An Oration, Delivered before the Republicans of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1823. By Russell Jarvis. Boston: True & Greene, 1823); the order of services at the Old South Meeting House: 1. Voluntary — a military movement adapted to the occasion, and performed by Mr. A.P. Heinrich460 2. Recitative and chorus — Haydn —“The host of Midian prevailed,” &c. 3. Prayer 4. Duet — Handel —“Come ever smiling liberty,” &c 5. Oration by Charles P. Curtis 6. Chorus — Handel —“Let their celestial concerts all unite”

(“Boston, 4th of July, 1823,” American Federalist Columbian Centinel, 4 July 1823, 2); the Washington Society met at Marlboro’ Hall for a public dinner. “The following National Ode, written by a member of the society, was sung after the first sentiment [toast]461 with great effect by Mr. Benjamin Brigham”: “Ode, Air —‘To Liberty’s Enraptur’d Sight.’” First line: “When first with ray divinely bright” (“Washington Society,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 9 July 1823, 4; “Miscellany,” Providence Patriot, 26 July 1823, 1). See also Publications, 1824. Danvers: A parade from Benjamin Goodridge’s Hall to the Rev. Mr. Walker’s Meeting House was “accompanied by an excellent band” and the exercises included “singing by the choir of the society, assisted by the band, under the direction of Capt. Joseph W. Carey.” Later a dinner was served to 170 persons at George Southwick’s Hall where “patriotic sentiments interspersed with excellent songs seemed to raise the whole scene to the highest state of festive enjoyment” (“Celebration at Danvers,” Salem Gazette, 8 July 1823, 2). Marblehead: The Republicans and military units of this town paraded to the new meeting house where the exercises were held. “The music, directed by Mr. William Haskel, was excellent; and an Ode, written for the day, was sung by the whole choir in a style seldom surpassed” (“Celebration at Marblehead,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 9 July 1823, 4). Newburyport: “In this town the day was ushered in by the ringing of bells, and the discharge of cannon. At 11 o’clock a procession was formed in the mall, which proceeded, under escort of the Washington Light Infantry Company, to the church in Pleasant

117 street, which had been neatly and tastefully decorated for the occasion. The religious exercises were performed in a devout and impressive manner by the Rev. Mr. Williams, and the songs of praise & thanksgiving ascended from the united choirs of the several religious societies in town.... After the oration was sung a beautiful and patriotic Ode, written by R. Cross.” The program for the exercises was published on the day of the celebration: 1. Voluntary on the Organ. 2. Anthem —“Blessed Be Thou,” &c. 3. Prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Williams. 4. Psalm, from Dwight’s Col. 5. Declaration of Independence. 6. Psalm, from Dwight’s Col. 7. Oration. 8. Ode, written for the occasion. 9 Benediction.

“The following Ode, written for the celebration this day, will be performed immediately after the delivery of the Oration. Tune —‘Strike the Cymbals.’” First line: “Hush! Contention!” (“National Anniversary” and “Celebration,” Newburyport Herald, 4 and 8 July 1823, 1–2 and 2, respectively). Salem: A procession of militia, “distinguished citizens, and the Mechanic Association, marched to the North Meeting House “where we were first greated by a fine display of Mr. T. Cooper’s talent upon the organ.” After a prayer, “an appropriate Hymn was then sung by a large choir of singers who had volunteered their services on the occasion.” After the Declaration of Independence was read, “ a beautiful Ode [first line: “Again the glorious morn returns”], composed for the occasion, was next sung with thrilling effect, by Mr. Sharpe, of Boston.” The Ode was written by Joseph G. Waters.462 After an oration, “a Psalm was then sung in the appropriate tune of ‘Old Hundred.’” Dinner at the Essex Coffee House followed, with the following music that accompanied the toasts: Tune, Adams & Liberty — Hail Columbia—Washington’s March—Mass. Quick Step — President’s March — Gov. Eustis’ March — Gov. Brooks’ March — Yankee Doodle — Wreaths to the Chieftain — Scots wha ha,’ &c — Marseilles Hymn — German Waltz — My Love Is Like the Red Rose (Salem Gazette, 4 and 8 July 1823, 2 and 2, respectively; “Fourth of July,” Essex Register, 7 July 1823, 2). Springfield: “The Republican celebration in this town, on Friday last, was undoubtedly more splendid than has heretofore been witnessed on a similar occasion, in the old County of Hampshire.” The day began with an artillery salute, “accompanied by peals on all the bells, and at 11 o’clock an unusually numerous procession moved from Chapman’s Hotel to the Rev. Mr. Osgood’s meeting-house” where “more than sixteen hundred persons were assembled.” After an opening prayer, “the Declaration of Independance was read by Mr. Wm. F. Wolcott, in a manner suited to the

1823 solemnity of that venerable and interesting state paper. The oration by Edward D. Bangs, Esq. fully justified the high expectation which had been raised by the reputation of the orator. In noticing the exercises and ceremonies of this occasion, we cannot pass in silence the distinguished liberality of Col. Warriner, and his choir of singers, in the able and judicious selection and performance of several pieces of music, to the great delight and admiration of the crowded auditory.” Following there was a procession, “with escort and music to the ordnance yard, on the hill (whilst a federal salute was firing) where more than three hundred citizens partook of an excellent dinner.” Later toasts were presented, “accompanied by discharge of cannon, and interludes of instrumental music” (Pittsfield Sun, 17 July 1823, 2). Stoneham: At a celebration of “the Republican citizens of Stoneham” held at the meeting house, the event was “accompanied with appropriate music by a select choir of vocal and instrumental musicians.” At the dinner that followed, the toasts were “accompanied with music” (“Republican Celebration in Stoneham,” Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 12 July 1823, 1).

Missouri Franklin: After a parade by the Franklin Guards and exercises held on the banks of the Missouri River, the assemblage proceeded to a “dining arbour contiguous to the residence of Mrs. Peels.” Thirteen toasts were offered accompanied by the following music: Hail Columbia — A Solemn Dirge — Yankee Doodle — Bunker Hill — President’s March — the Harp of Freedom — America, Commerce & Freedom — Friendship, Love & Truth—Scots who ha’ wi’ Wallace bled — Moore’s Martial Hymn — Come Haste to the Wedding (“National Anniversary,” Missouri Intelligencer, 8 July 1823, 2).

New Hampshire Hanover: The Handel Society463 of Dartmouth College performed several pieces at the celebration held in the meeting house: Old Hundred — The Lord Sitteth Above the Flood Waters — Strike the Cymbals — Holy Lord God — Intercession464— Handel’s Grand Hallelujah (“Dartmouth College Celebration,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 14 July 1823, 2).

New Jersey New Germantown (now Oldwick): A procession of “a large and respectable assemblage of citizens and strangers” as well as military companies, including a “band of music” made their way to the church. “National airs were played by the band, and several appropriate Odes sung by the choir with great taste and feeling.” After the exercises, the procession reassembled and marched to the Bowery “where about 400 took dinner.” The toasts that followed were “accom-

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1823

George Frideric Handel’s “Hallelujah Chorus” from the oratorio Messiah was a popular work sung on the Fourth of July in Salem, Massachusetts (1814), Hanover, New Hampshire (1823), Hartford, Connecticut (1826), Newburyport, Massachusetts (1854), New York (1876), and Washington, D.C. (1918 and 1951). Shown are the opening measures of an edition in L.O. Emerson and J.H. Morey, The Sabbath Guest: A Collection of Anthems, Sentences, Chants and Choruses (Boston: Oliver Ditson & Co., 1870) (author’s collection). panied by a discharge of cannon and musquetry and by appropriate airs by the band” (Trenton Federalist, 21 July 1823, 2). Trenton: The exercises were held in the Presbyterian Church. Military companies were instructed to enter the church without music. Invocation. Music. Prayer. Music. Declaration of Independence. Music. Oration. Music. Benediction.

“The music in the Church will be conducted by the Trenton Musical Association” (“Fourth of July, 1823,” Trenton Federalist, 30 June 1823, 3).

New York Union Village: At this town in Washington County, a procession began at 10 am “preceded by

musick moved through the principal streets to the Baptist Church.” The exercises included “an ode prepared for the occasion by J.K. Horton” that was sung by a choir and another ode composed by Solomon Cobb (“Independence,” Saratoga Sentinel, 15 July 1823, 2; Vermont Gazette, 22 July 1823, 3).

Virginia Norfolk: The dawn was announced by some lively and patriotic airs, performed by a band which had been organized for the occasion. At a little before 10 o’clock, a large portion of the 54th Regiment, with their new arms, appeared on the parade ground, were formed into a Battalion by Major Albert Allmand, and marched to the Market Square, preceded by the band. Here they displayed into line, and after the band had performed a number of patriotic and martial airs, in handsome style, the Battalion moved to Christ’s Church, followed by a large concourse of citizens. A very appropriate hymn being sung, the Rev’d Mr. Wicks addressed the throne of grace in a fervent and impressive

119 prayer, acknowledging the bounties of Providence to, and imploring a continued blessing on our favoured land.

Following was a reading of the Declaration of Independence and address (“Fourth of July,” Richmond Enquirer, 8 July 1823, 2). Petersburg: The exercises at the theatre included “Mr. Dunn [who], at the request of the general committee, delivered, in his most happy and forcible manner, the ode, composed for the occasion, by our townsman [John] M’Creery,465 whose effusions, possessing the genuine spirit of poetry, never fail to produce the most happy effect.” Printed under the title: “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1823”: first line, “Man in Egyptian darkness lay” (“Fourth of July,” Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1823, 3–4).

1824 Publications “The following neat and appropriate Hymn, written by a gentleman of this city [Boston?], was sung at the past celebration of American Independence in the Second Universalist Meeting-house.” First line: “O Thou, who from Oppression’s shore.” (Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, 14 July 1824, 4). “The following Ode, written by a member of the Washington Society, in Boston, was sung at the last year’s celebration of independence, by Mr. Benj. Brigham. Ode, air —‘To Liberty’s enraptur’d sight.’” First line: “When first with ray divinely bright” (Essex Register, 5 July 1824, 1). “Ode for Independence.” First line: “Aurora’s blushes gild the orient sky” (Essex Register, 5 July 1824, 1). “Ode for the Fourth of July. Air —‘Hail to the Chief.’” First line: “Hallow’d the day from the eastward advancing” (“Independence!” Essex Register, 1 July 1824, 3; Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, 3 July 1824, 2; from the Baltimore Morning Chronicle as published in Providence Gazette, 7 July 1824, 1; Lancaster Journal, 16 July 1824). “An Ode for the Fourth of July. By Daniel Bryan, Esq.” First line: “While destruction’s dark angel sweeps over the world” (American Monthly Magazine [August 1824]:168). “Ode for the Fourth of July. By the Rev. Hosea Ballou.” First line: “In Freedom’s song let millions join” (Universalist Magazine, 10 July 1824, 12; “Sacred Lyre,” Christian Intelligence, 17 July 1824, 20). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1824. Tune —‘Cranbrook.’” First line: “Hail glorious jubilee.” Broadside. Copy in Brown University. “Ode for the Fourth of July. Written by Mr. J[acob] B. Moore,466 and sung as above. Tune ‘Ye Mariners,’ &c.” First line: “Far o’er the gloomy waters” (NewHampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 12 July 1824, 4;

1824 Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, 17 July 1824, 3). “Ode.” First line: “Like the bow in Eastern sky” (Essex Register, 1 July 1824, 3). “Ode to Free America.” First line: “Oh! happiest land beneath the sun” (Essex Register, 1 July 1824, 3). “Ode. The following Ode was written by Lt. Gov. [Charles] Collins, and sung at the celebration of independence in this town [Newport] on Monday. Music composed by Mr. Searle.” First line: “Hail, glorious jubilee!” (“Poetry,” Rhode-Island Republican, 8 July 1824, 4). “Ode, written for the National Republican Celebration of American Independence, at the Marlboro’ Hotel, July 5, 1824.” First line: “When first Columbia sprang to arms!”; “The following Ode, written by Mrs. Ware (wife of one of the warrant officers attached to the Navy Yard in Charlestown) was sung at the celebration of the late Anniversary of Independence at the Marlboro’ Hotel, by Col. Newhall. We copy it with pleasure, and do not hesitate to pronounce it one of the best productions of the day; and equally honorable to the poetic talents and patriotism of the fair authoress. The last stanza would have done honor to the music of ‘Philenia’” (Columbian Centinel American Federalist, 10 July 1824, 4; Newburyport Herald, 13 July 1824, 1; Village Register, 15 July 1824, 1; Haverhill Gazette, 17 July 1824, 4; Pittsfield Sun, 29 July 1824, 1). “Song for Independence written by George Kent, Esq. and sung at Concord by Maj. J.D. Abbot.” First line: “Hail to our country, in triumph advancing” (New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 12 July 1824, 4). “A Song, written by one of the company for the celebration of the 4th of July at Milton [NH] and sung on that occasion by Maj. P.P. Furber.” First line: “The Light hath broke o’er us, we hail its return” (Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, 17 July 1824, 3).

Performances District of Columbia An “original ode” by S.R. Kramer titled “Blest Be the Day” was sung to the tune “Hail to the Chief ” at the Columbia Typographical Society celebration (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1824, 3); a city parade included “the fine band of the Marine Corps playing patriotic airs, and was followed by the Marine Corps itself, in its beautiful uniform, which we have always admired, as uniting elegance and simplicity” (Pittsfield Sun, 5 August 1824, 1).

Maryland Baltimore: “The performances at Monument Square, as well as the general arrangements of the committee, were chaste and highly appropriate to the occasion, and reflected great credit upon their taste, judgment, and talents.” The exercises included a “fer-

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1824 vent prayer,” reading of the Declaration of Independence and an oration. “At intervals, the occasion was enlivened with national airs from an excellent band of music from Fort McHenry” (“The Celebration,” Baltimore Patriot, 6 July 1824, 2); “The Regiment of ‘National Guards,’ accompanied by a number of invited guests, partook of a very excellent dinner on Monday, 5th July, ist. at Captain Smith’s, on the Washington Road.” Toasts drank were accompanied by the following music: Tune, Wreath the Bowl — Tune, Bright Be Their Dreems [sic]— Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, The President’s March — Tune, StarSpangled Banner — Tune, United We Stand, Divided We Fall — Tune, White co*ckade — Tune, Stephen’s March467— Tune, March to the Battle Field — Tune, Hail to the Chief— Tune, To Ladies, Eyes Around Boys (“National Guards,” Baltimore Patriot, 13 July 1824, 2); The First Baltimore Sharp Shooters “celebrated on the 5th inst. in the woods adjoining the residence of James Carroll, esq.” Dinner included toasts “enlivened by the excellent music of the band attached to the Union Yagers, under the command of Capt. Deems, who politely volunteered their services on the occasion”: Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Ye Sons of Columbia — Washington’s March — Hail to the Chief— Scots Wha Hae Wi Wallace Bled — Pleyel’s Hymn — The Liberty Tree — O Breath Not His Name — Go Where Glory Waits Thee — Dirge to Gen. Wolfe — Let Fame Sound the Trumpet — Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms.468 “The following Song was written for the occasion, and sung by one of the company”: First line: “Again the clarion trump of Fame” (Fourth of July: First Baltimore Sharp Shooters,” Baltimore Patriot, 9 July 1824, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: A procession was formed at Faneuil Hall and marched to the Second Universalist Meeting House where the “following order of exercises took place”: 1st Music. 2d Hymn. 3d Prayer. 4th Ode. 5th Oration. 6th Ode. 7th Benediction.

A local newspaper reported “the performances by the choir were in their usual style of excellence.” The dinner was held at Faneuil Hall and the following pieces of music accompanied the toasts: Yankee Doodle — Dirge — Hail Columbia — President’s March — Adams & Liberty — Gov. Eustis’ March469— Dirge — Wreaths to the Chieftain — To Liberty’s Enraptured Sight — Peace and Plenty — The Muses — Triumph of reason — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself (“Independence,” Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, 7 July 1824, 2).

Natick: After a procession, at the meeting house ceremony “the choir of singers under the direction of Capt. Brett performed several pieces of music well adapted to the occasion, in a style of excellence seldom heard in the country” (Village Register, 8 July 1824, 2). Newburyport: At a celebration the exercises included a “voluntary on the organ,” “vocal music by the choir,” and two original odes: “Forget not the valiant, who have honored our story” (first line), to the air “The Coronach” and “Oh! sublime was the warning America gave” (first line), by Caleb Cushing, to the air “Perry’s Victory” (Broadside. “Order of exercises for the Celebration of the Forty-Eighth Anniversary of American Independence, July —1824” in An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera). Northampton: “O Thou, Who from Oppression’s Shore,” a hymn sung at the Second Universalist Meeting House (Boston Evening Gazette, 10 July 1824, 2). Pittsfield: At the Athenaeum of the Pittsfield Academy, “on the 5th instant ... the choir, under the direction of Mr. Warriner, performed in their more than usual stile of elegance” (“Literary Celebration,” Pittsfield Sun, 15 July 1824, 3). Quincy: At the meeting house, “services of the day were commenced with music by a band and a select choir of singers under the superintendance of Mr. Graupner470 and Mr. Shaw.”471 At the dinner held at the town hall, “sentimental songs were sung by amateurs, assisted by a band of scientific musicians” (“Celebration of Independence at Quincy,” Independent Chronicle and Boston Patriot, 14 July 1824, 2). Salem: “The following will be the order of performances at the North Meeting House: I. II. III. IV. V.

Chant of Psalm 98. Psalm 98. C. Metre. Prayer. Declaration of Independence. Original ode (Composed for the occasion by Mr. Edwin Jocelyn.)472 Tune. Columbia, Land of Liberty. First line: Hail! welcome morn, with rapture fraught! VI. Oration. VII. Hymn. C.M. Tune, Bowe. VII. Benediction.

(Essex Register, 5 July 1824, 2; “Independence,” Salem Gazette, 6 July 1824, 3); “The ancient and patriotic Corps, will celebrate the Day by a public parade, Dinner, &c. A considerable number of their fellow citizens will unite with them in the celebration. They will dine at the Salem Hotel, where an Address will be delivered, and the Declaration of Independence read.... We have been favored with a copy of the following excellent original Ode to be sung at this celebration: Ode, composed by a member of the corps of Independent Cadets, to be sung at the celebration of our National Independence, July 5, 1824. Tune — ‘Adams and Liberty.’” First line: “Assembled to-day—

121 let us join heart and hand” (“Independent Cadets,” Essex Register, 5 July 1824, 2).

1824 (“Celebration at Sandbornton,” New Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 12 July 1824, 2).

Nebraska

New Jersey

Fort Atkinson: Near present-day Fort Calhoun, the 6th Army regiment and its band was stationed here and “the festivities of this gala day at the fort, were general, and conducted by all grades with the same decorum that is observed in less limited circles of the Union. After a reading of the Declaration of Independence and dinner, the following music accompanied the toasts: Hail Columbia—Yankee Doodle— Washington’s March — Vive La Constitution — Scots who ha’ vi’ Wallace bled—Auld Lang Syne—Tyrolese Song of Liberty — Patriotic Diggers473— President’s March—Tompkin’s March—Pillar of Glory—Adams and Liberty — Liberty Tree — Soldiers Joy — America, Commerce & Freedom, Star-Spangled Banner — Cadet’s March—Hail to the Chief—Hearts of Oak— American Star—Death of the Brave474—Hail Liberty, Supreme Delight — Speed the Plough — Love’s Young Dream475 (Missouri Intelligencer, 7 August 1824, 3).

Flemington: “At 11 o’clock the procession formed in front of the Flemington Inn, whence it proceeded under an escort of Light Infantry and the band of martial music attached to Capt. M’Kinstry’s volunteer corps, of New Germantown, to the Presbyterian Church, which had been handsomely decorated for the occasion.” The exercises included no less than four pieces of music. “The band of martial music, conducted by Mr. Hyler, deserve much credit for their tasteful selection of tunes, and excellent performances.” A dinner at the Flemington Inn included toasting, “accompanied by firing of cannon and musquetry, with appropriate music from the band” (“Flemington Celebration,” Trenton Federalist, 2 August 1824, 2).

New Hampshire Amherst: “The hymns of praise and thanksgiving were appropriate, and were sang with animation” at “the proceedings in this town.” The exercises were held at the Meeting House (Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 and 17 July 1824, 2 and 2, respectively). Concord: “The exercises at the meeting house [on July 5] were commenced by the Rev. Dr. M’Farland, by reading a select hymn, adapted to the occasion, which was performed by the Choir.” “After dinner, the following sentiments, announced by Richard Bartlett, Esq. were drank, accompanied by the discharge of cannon, and the music of the band, interspersed with several songs, original and selected, spiritedly and well sung by Maj. J.D. Abbot.” Songs sung included: Hail to the Country — Welcome Fayette476—by Maj. Abbot—Far o’er the Gloomy Waters (“Celebration at Concord,” New Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 5 and 12 July 1824, 2 and 2, respectively). See Publications above. Salisbury: At noon, a procession “proceeded under a military escort to the meeting house” where the exercises included a prayer, reading of the Declaration and an oration. “Several odes, hymns and psalms adapted to the occasion were sung by the Musical Society” (“Celebration at Salisbury, N. Hampshire,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 12 July 1824, 2). Sandbornton: A celebration on July 5 included a parade from Mason’s Hall to the meeting house where “several pieces of select music [were] admirably performed.” A dinner was accompanied “with the discharge of artillery and music from the instrumental band.” Toasts were accompanied by the following music: Washington’s March — United States’ March — Soldier’s Joy — President’s March — Gen. Green’s March — Massachusetts’ March — Scotch Air

New York Ballston Spa: At Sans Souci Hotel, “music from the band” as the toasts were presented: Tune, Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Roslin Castle — Washington’s March — Marseilles Hymn — Dead March in Saul — E’er Around the Huge Oak — United States Grand March — Speed the Plough — The Drum — Brave Yankee Boys [Truxton’s Victory]— Soldier’s Joy — New-York March — President’s March — Governor’s March — All Hail to the Morn477— Rural Felicity — Anacreon in Heaven — Hail Columbia — Money in Both Pockets—Scots Who Hae Wi Wallace Bled — Rogue’s March — Pioneers March — Molly Hang the Kettle On (Ballston Spa Gazette, 13 July 1824, 2; Saratoga Sentinel, 20 July 1824, 2). Ithaca: A procession gathered at the hotel and marched to the Presbyterian Meeting House for the day’s exercises. Back at the hotel a dinner included toasts with the following music: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Portuguese Hymn — President’s March — Star-Spangled Banner — Russian Dance — Yates’ March478— Clinton’s Grand Canal March479— Go to the Devil &c.— Hail to the Chief480— Chippewa — See, the Conquering Hero Comes!— Barney Leave the Girls Alone (“National Anniversary,” Ithaca Journal, 7 July 1824, 2). Mount Upton: Citizens of this town assembled at the church where after the presentation of the oration, “the ‘Ode on Science’481 was sung” (“Celebration at Mount Upton,” Watch-Tower, 12 July 1824, 3). New York: At Chatham Garden, a ballet titled the Patriotic Volunteer was performed at the new theater at Chatham Garden (New York Daily Advertiser, 5 July 1824, 2). Saratoga Springs: At 11 A.M. a procession that included the Philadelphia Band of Musick gathered at the United States Hotel and marched through city streets to the Presbyterian Church where the exercises were as follows: Musick from the Band. Ode by the Choir, accompanied by the Band.

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1825 Reading of the Declaration of Independence. Oration by W.L.F. Warren. Benediction.

Later a dinner was held back at the Hotel for about 250 persons. Toasts were presented, “accompanied by music from the band and discharges of cannon”: Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s Grand March — President’s March — Gate’s Victory — Knight Errant (“Fourth of July” and “American Independence,” Saratoga Sentinel, 29 June and 6 July 1824, 3 and 3, respectively).

and merits the thanks of the audience. The band of music discharged their part of the duties of the day with great credit to themselves, and the gratification of the assemblage” (“Our National Birth-Day,” Vermont Gazette, 13 July 1824, 3).

West Virginia Wheeling: At the Episcopal Church, “several national airs were sung by a select choir, accompanied by the church organ” (“Celebration of American Independence,” Wheeling Gazette, 10 July 1824, 3).

Pennsylvania Columbia: At Cold Spring on Krentz Creek at an “elegant dinner,” the event included a ceremony, toasts and the following music: tune, Hail Columbia — tune, Washington’s March—tune, Auld Lang Syne— tune, Star-Spangled Banner — tune, Prime Bang Up—Tune, America, Commerce & Freedom—tune, Ode on Science — tune, Yankee Doodle — tune, Lady’s Delight (“Celebration at Columbia,” Lancaster Journal, 16 July 1824).

Rhode Island Newport: A procession was scheduled in the morning and the exercises included “select music, by a choir, under direction of Mr. Benjamin Marsh, Jun.” The choir’s seating was in the front gallery of the meeting house (Newport Mercury, 3 July 1824, 3). See Publictions above. Providence: In consequence of the 4th of July falling on Sunday, the Anniversary of American Independence will be celebrated at the Theatre on Monday, 5th inst. on which occasion, the interior will be handsomely and emblematically decorated. Round the Boxes will be displayed a number of transparencies, with the names of the most celebrated Naval and Military Heroes, with the five Presidents of the United States. On Monday evening, July 5, will be performed the extravaganza burletto of fun, frolic, flash and fashion, called Tom and Jerry; or, Life in London. To which will be added, for the only time, a national sketch, in 2 acts, called the Capture of Major Andre, and the preservation of West Point by the Yeomanry of America, taken from Dunlap’s celebrated play of the Glory of Columbus, in course of which, a variety of national songs, airs, dances, &c. The piece concludes with a brilliantly illuminated temple, a “Dance with American Flags,” by Mrs. Bray and Miss Clarke; and the curtain falls to the grand chorus of “Hail Columbia!” by the Company. [“Theatre,” Providence Gazette, 3 July 1824, 3].

Vermont Shaftsbury: The town celebrated on July 3 with a procession and exercises that included “a hymn well chosen for the occasion.... The choir of singers performed in a manner which deserves great applause,

1825 Publications “‘Independence and Adams. An Historical Ode.’ For the forty-ninth anniversary of American independence. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “All hail to the day when our nation was born” (American Mercury, 12 July 1825, 3). “A National Song, for the Fourth of July, 1825. Tune —‘Hail to the Chief.’” First line: “Hail to the morning, so brilliantly beaming.” Signed “N.B.” (“The Rivulet,” Pittsfield Sun, 21 July 1825, 1, from the National Intelligencer). “Ode for the Fourth of July. Springfield, Mass. [“From the Rockingham Gazette.”] First line: “Is there now a stranger” (“Poetry,” Middlesex Gazette, 13 July 1825, 1). “‘Ode.’ Written by John Everett, Esq. and sung at the Washington Society 4th of July Celebration in Boston.” First line: “Hail to the day! When indignant a nation” (“Poetry,” New Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 11 July 1825, 4).

Performances District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band performed at the White House (Virginia Herald, 9 July 1825, 2).

Maine Gorham: As a result of the loss of Dr. Dudley Folsom’s house due to fire, the citizens came together to construct a new house for him on Independence Day. “At half past 7 o’clock, at the ringing and telling of the bell, a large concourse of men, women and children, was collected on the spot of the ruins, and having listened to the order of the day and a short address, united singing and prayer. The workmen then proceeded in their labour” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Connecticut Courant, 19 July 1825, 2). Lincolnville: A procession that began “at the house of John Brooks, Esq.” and marched to the Meeting House were escorted by a company of infantry, under the command of Lieut. John P. Whitney, accompanied by a

123 band of music.... The exercises there commenced with a hymn sung by a select choir, and a fervent and appropriate prayer by the Rev. Thos. M’Kinney; afterwards select music by the choir; then the Declaration of Independence was read by the Hon. Jonas Wheeler, and was succeeded by the old favorite song of “Ye sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought,” sung by the choir in fine style, with a full chorus. An Oration replete with republican sentiments, and written in a neat and classical style, was then delivered by William J. Farley, Esq. and the exercises closed by the band’s striking up the American Tune Yankee Doodle, “the oldest and gayest death song to despotism.”

At the dinner “provided for at the House of Mr. Books,” toasts “were drank, succeeded by the discharge of cannon and appropriate music by the band” (“Celebration,” Eastern Argus, 14 July 1825, 2). New Gloucester: “Democratic Republicans” of New Gloucester and adjoining towns, “preceded by an excellent band of music, marched to the Rev. Moseley’s Meeting House. After a prayer, a hymn, “selected for the occasion,” was sung. After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, another musical work was performed, “with great spirit and animation.” After the oration, there was another “piece of music, performed in a manner, which did much credit to the judgment and taste of the Philo-Harmonic Society” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July at NewGloucester,” Eastern Argus, 12 July 1825, 2).

Maryland Frederick: The “melody of sweet sounds” was heard at the dawn of day from two amateur bands of the town, who alternately played patriotic airs (FrederickTown Herald, 9 July 1825, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: John Everett’s ode, “Hail to the Day,” to the tune “Wreaths to the Chieftain” was performed at a meeting of the Washington Society (Boston Courier, 6 July 1825, 2). See Publications above; at the “Order of Services” held at the Old South Church, the music included a “voluntary on the organ” by S.P. Taylor and various choral works, the program ending with one by Haydn (“Independence,” Columbian Centinel, 6 July 1825, 2; see also 2 July 1825); “A solo and chorus is to be sung this day at the Old South Church in Boston, in the following beautiful and appropriate lines (music by Stephenson)”: first line, “Go forth to the mount—bring the olive branch home” (Essex Register, 4 July 1825, 2). Danvers: The exercises were held in the South Meeting House and the dinner in Liberty Hall. “The following original ode is to be sung at the Danvers celebration. Tune—Adams & Liberty.” First line: “All hail to the day when our forefathers met” (Essex Register, 4 July 1825, 2). Dedham: At a cornerstone laying ceremony for the town’s proposed new court house, music for the serv-

1825 ice at “Mr. Burgess’ Meeting House” was provided by the Dedham Choir. The following were works scheduled for performance: “Hymn for 4th July. Tune, ‘Lyons,’ by Haydn. By J.B. Derby, Esq”482 (first line: “Oh praise ye the Lord, prepare a new song”); “Hymn for Fourth of July, 1825. Tune,’Old Hundred’ by Herman Mann”483 (first line: “When on us pressed the tyrant’s hand”); “Anthem [by] Dr. J. Clarke” (first line: “O give thanks unto the Lord”; “Ode on Science” (Village Register, 7 July 1825, 2–3). Lanesborough: Union Society and local citizens met at the meeting house where “the singing, under the direction of Mr. G.R. Rockwell, was happy and satisfactory” (“Celebration at Lanesborough,” Pittsfield Sun, 14 July 1825, 2). Pittsfield: A “procession for the literary celebration of the young men of Pittsfield Academy” to the meeting house included an escort by the Berkshire Greys and the Brigade Band. Later at Merrick’s Coffee House, a dinner, with toasts, discharges of cannon “and appropriate airs from the band” were provided to the assemblage (Pittsfield Sun, 7 July 1825, 2). Salem: At the Salem Charitable Mechanic Association event, “a band of music” proceeded to the North Meeting House, where Mr. Pratt484opened the exercises by a “Voluntary on the Organ” and “the performance on the Organ, by Mr. Pratt, were creditable to his taste and skill; the anthem and hymns were sung by a powerful and well selected choir, with an effect seldom equaled; and the original Ode, composed by Mr. E.C. Jocelyn, adapted to the noble tune of Bruce’s address to his army, and judiciously arranged for two voices alternately, with a chorus, was sung with admirable taste and execution by Messrs. Oliver and Kimball.485 We never witnessed a more powerful sensation produced by a musical performance.” At the dinner, held at the town hall, “the toasts were interspersed with appropriate music by the band, and many excellent songs, among which were two original Odes, composed for the occasion, one of which was published in our last — the other follows: ‘Ode’ tune —‘Bonny Boat.’” (first line: “Let ev’ry heart, with grateful zest”). The other “original ode” was sung to the “tune —‘Scots wha hae.’” (first line: “Sacred home of freedom still!”); “The following Song, composed for the occasion by a gentleman of this town, is to be sung at the Town Hall this day. Tune —‘Wreaths for the Chieftains’”; first line: “Welcome the day, when our Fathers, undaunted” (Salem Gazette, 28 June 1825, 2; “Celebration in Salem” and “Fourth of July,” Essex Register, 4 and 7 July 1825, 2 and 2, respectively).

New Hampshire Deering: “The day was ushered in by the firing of cannon. Three military companies voluntarily turned out on the occasion, attended with a band of music from Deering and Hillsborough.” After a procession from the house of Russell Tubbs to the Meeting House, the exercises included “pieces of music well

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1826 performed” (“Celebration at Deering,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 18 July 1825, 2).

New York Ballston Spa: After a procession by “a large collection of citizens and strangers” to the meeting house, “the exercises in the church, were very interesting. We were particularly gratified with the performance of the choir, under the direction of Mr. John Smith, of this village, who, in his usual happy style, performed the ‘Pastoral Glee’ to the admiration of all present.” Later at the dinner held at the Sans Souci Hotel, “where about 200 of our citizens, and a number of visitants of the Spa drew around a sumptuous table ... toasts were drank under the discharge of artillery” and the following musical works: Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — President’s March — Governor’s March — Washington’s March — Logan Waters — Grand Canal March — Genius of Liberty — Anacreon in Heaven — Back Side Albany — All Hail to the Morn — Speed the Plough — Giles Scroggin’s Ghost (Ballston Spa Gazette, 12 July 1825, 2). Ithaca: “Between eleven and twelve o’clock, the procession formed at the Hotel, in the order prescribed by the Committee of Arrangements, and preceded by an excellent band of music and escorted by the Ithaca Guards and Capt. Vickery’s Company of Artillery, under the direction of Adjt. W.R. Gregory as Marshal, and Capt. S.B. Munn, Jr. Deputy Marshal, marched to the Presbyterian Meeting-house,” where “the whole exercises were interspersed with appropriate odes, and select Psalms, sung in a most excellent and impressive style by a choir under the direction of Mr. Rollo, aided by the powerful voices of Mrs. and Miss Rollo”486 (“National Anniversary,” Ithaca Journal, 6 July 1825, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: A procession gathered at the State House and among those marching was the Columbian Band. The exercises at the Second Baptist Meeting House included “select music by a choir [that sat in the front gallery] under the direction of Messrs. Benjamin Marsh, Jun487. and James Coggeshall” (“National Anniversary,” Newport Mercury, 2 July 1825, 3).

1826 The anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence was celebrated as a grand festival for the nation’s first 50 years and as an expression of optimism for the future. Composers, poets, and writers utilized their artistic skills to produce new works that brought honor to this jubilee of freedom. Large crowds filled churches, meeting houses and theaters to observe the holiday and to share in the joyful ceremonies. In New York, “a new patriot piece” titled Jubilee, or the Triumph of Freedom was performed at the

city theater. In Providence, Rhode Island, the popular play The Point of Honor, Or, A School for Soldiers was presented with additional patriotic songs to highlight the Fourth. Baltimore composers Christopher Meineke and H.N. Gilles and Norfolk’s C.A. Dacosia wrote new patriotic instrumental works. Poets in other cities wrote new lyrics for odes, hymns, and songs that were premiered. Stephen Foster, an icon of American song writers, was born on this day. Numerous events and naming opportunities were later staged on the Fourth in his honor.

Publications “Adams and Liberty.” First line: “Ye sons of Columbia, who bravely have fought.” Boston Commercial Gazette, 3 July 1826, 2.488 “The following beautiful Hymn, written by a lady, and set to music by Mr. T.B. White, was sung at Newburyport, at the jubilee celebration.” First line: “Who, when darkness gather’d o’er us” (Essex Register, 13 July 1826, 1). “The following beautiful Ode and Hymn, written for the occasion, by a lady489 of this city, will be sung at the celebration this day. ‘Ode for the Fourth of July, 1826.’ Adapted to the music of ‘Scots, wha hae wi’ Wallace bled.’” First line: “Clime! Beneath whose genial sun.” “‘Hymn,’ on the fiftieth Anniversary of American Independence.” First line: “Break forth — break forth in raptur’d song” (American Mercury, 4 July 1826, 3; Connecticut Courant, 10 July 1826, 3). “The following Ode was composed by Mr. Samuel Woodworth, of New-York, a member of the N.Y. Typographical Society,490 and sung before the Society at their late celebration on the 4th inst. Ode [‘Printers’ Jubilee’]. Air —‘Hail to the Chief.’” First line: “Hark! ’twas the trumpet of Freedom that sounded” (Boston Commercial Gazette, 10 July 1826, 2; Essex Register, 13 July 1826, 1; Richmond Enquirer, 14 July 1826, 4; Middlesex Gazette, 19 July 1826, 1; Republican Star and General Advertiser, 21 November 1826, 4; Woodward, Melodies, Duets, Trios, Songs and Ballads, 140–41). “The following Song written by a native of our town [Portland ME], of whom we are all proud, now resident at a distance, was sung with good effect by Major [J.F.] Deering. Tune — Auld lang syne.” First line: “There was a land of Yankees true” (Eastern Argus, 7 July 1826, 2). The Fourth of July. A Grand Parade March491 (Baltimore: John Cole, 1826). Composed for a full military band and arranged for the piano forte by H.N. Gilles. “Fourth of July, 1826. Tune ... Scots Wha’ hae.’” First line: “Hail! glorious day! when freemen stand” (“Poetry,” Norwich Courier, 28 June 1826, 4). “Hymn for Fourth July —1826.” First line: “Thee, we approach, Almighty King.” By the Rev. Samuel Willard (1776–1859). Broadside. Copy in Memorial Hall Museum, Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield, MA.

125 “Hymn for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Arise, and hail the jubilee” (Universalist Magazine, 8 July 1826, 12). “‘Hymn to Liberty.’ In commemoration of the half century celebration of American Independence. Written by Mrs. K.A. Ware,492 and sung at the Lechmere Point [Massachusetts] celebration.— Tune, ‘Rise Columbia.’” First line: “When o’er the somber face of night” (“Anniversary Exercises,” Boston Commercial Gazette, 6 July 1826, 2; “Poetry,” Essex Register, 10 July 1826, 1). “Hymn, written by Mrs. H.L. Sigourney, of Hartford, and recommended to be sung in churches where collections were taken up in aid of the American Colonization Society, on the late jubilee.” First line: “Stretch forth thine hand, thou lov’d of heaven” (“Poetry,” Essex Register, 10 July 1826, 1). “Hymn, written by the Rev. Dr. Holmes, and sung at the Cambridge celebration.” First line: “With thankful heart and holy song.” (Boston Commercial Gazette, 10 July 1826, 4.) The Jubilee March, and Quick Step. Composed for the celebration of the Fourth of July, 1826, by C. Meineke. Baltimore: John Cole, 1826. “[The following Ode, written for the occasion, by J.G. Percival,493 was sung at the celebration in Berlin, on the 4th inst.] Ode for the Fourth of July, 1826.” First line: “Bright day! when first the song.” [Berlin, CT] (American Mercury, 11 July 1826, 3; New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 24 July 1826, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1826. By a lady of Hartford, (Conn.).” First line: “Clime! beneath whose genial sun” (Village Register, 13 July 1826, 1). “Ode for the Fourth of July. The following ode is from the gifted pen of Hon. Caleb Cushing, one of the senators from this county.494 It merits a distinguished place among our national odes. We re-publish it from the Newburyport Herald of 1822.” First line: “Hail, freemen of America” (“Selected Poetry,” Essex Register, 3 July 1826, 1). “Ode, in commemoration of the half-century of American independence, written by Thomas Wells.” Broadside, [Boston, 1826]. “Ode — written for the Jubilee Celebration, and sung at the Exchange Coffee House. ‘Fifty Years Ago!’” First line: “Fifty years have rolled away” (Boston Commercial Gazette, 10 July 1826, 4; Essex Register, 13 July 1826, 1). “Odes to be Sung at Springfield at the Celebration of American Independence, July 4th, 1826.” Ode (first line: “All hail, Columbia’s sons, all hail!”; Ode (first line: “High tow’ring through the skies.” Broadside, Springfield, NH, 1826. Copy in Brown University. “Patriotic ode, written by himself, for the 4th of July, 1826, being the fiftieth or ‘jubilee’ anniversary of the Declaration of our National Independence.495 By Samuel B. Beach. Tune ‘Bruce’s Address.’” First line: “Joyfully we wake the lay” (National Intelligencer, 9 July 1858, 2). “Song — Fourth of July 1826. Tune —‘Exile of

1826 Erin.’” First line: “When the champions of freedom first o’er the rude billow” (Daily National Journal, 4 July 1826).

Performances Connecticut Berlin: After a procession at 11 A.M. from Mr. Wilcox’s Inn to the Meeting House, “the singing of the 18th Psalm by the united choirs of the town, and an appropriate Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Goodrich, opened the services of the day.” Included also was “an Ode, composed for the occasion, by Dr. Percival” (“Celebration at Berlin,” Connecticut Courant, 17 July 1826, 3; American Mercury, 18 July 1826, 3). Hartford: At the Central Church, the exercises included a song titled “Sound an Alarm” (first line: “Sound an alarm, your silver trumpets sound”), an Ode and Hymn (see Publications above), and the “Grand Hallelujah Chorus” (Handel). (Connecticut Courant, 10 July 1826, 3.); the American Mercury reported that “the following song was composed for the occasion by a gentleman of this city”: “Qui Transtulit Sustinet” (first line: “The warriour may twine round his temples the leaves”; the Essex Register identified the author as “Mr. Brainard, editor of the Connecticut Mirror”) (“National Jubilee,” American Mercury, 11 July 1826, 3; Essex Register, 13 July 1826, 1; “In Hartford,” Richmond Enquirer, 21 July 1826, 2). Lebanon: “A large procession, civil and military” included “a band of music which proceeded to the brick meeting house” where the ceremony was held. “The singing, led by Mr. Chandler of East Hartford, was in a superior style of excellence” (Norwich Courier, 12 July 1826, 2). Lisbon: “At 10’clock P.M. a very large and respectable party of ladies and gentlemen assembled at the house of John Brown, and under the direction of Elijah Rose as marshal, proceeded to Mr. Nelson’s meeting-house. The choir having raised their voices in a song of praise, the Rev. minister of the parish addressed the author of life, love, and liberty in an appropriate prayer.” After an oration, an anthem was performed and music from a band ended the exercises. Later at a dinner held at the Assembly Room, “the melody of instruments” accompanied the toasts (“July Fourth at Lisbon,” Norwich Courier, 12 July 1826, 3). Norfolk: At the exercises held at the Meeting House, “sacred music was performed by the choir.... To the directors of the music and those engaged in its performance, the attentive regard of a gratified audience, must afford the most satisfactory commendation” (“Celebration at Norfolk,” Connecticut Courant, 24 July 1826, 3). Windham: A procession of “citizens, without distinction of party, and a number from the adjacent towns,” gathered at the Bildad Curtiss Inn and marched “under an escort of martial music to the Meeting House” where the exercises were held. Later back at the inn a dinner was served and “toasts were

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1826 drank and the company regaled with appropriate music”: Tune, Hail Columbia — Serenade — Washington’s Grand March — Alps March — The New Rigged Ship — Fresh and Strong — Civean March — Yankee Doodle — No Luck — Virginia Reel — Auld Lang Syne — American Eagle — Patty Carey (“National Jubilee,” Norwich Courier, 12 July 1826, 2); “The fiftieth anniversary of American independence was celebrated in Scotland, Second Society, in Windham, by gentlemen and ladies.” At 9 A.M. 400 persons gathered at the bower and marched escorted to the church by Capt. Hez. M. Baker’s Company of Infantry, completely equipped in uniform, with good martial music, and while the procession was passing into the church, music by the band.

Included in the services was an Oratorio given by Mr. E. Tucker’s School: 1st Tune, “O Come Let Us Sing Unto the Lord.” 2d, Old Hundred. 3d, Walworth. 4th Braintree, 5th, to conclude, “Strike the Cymbal.”496 Then the procession was formed to march from the church to the table, as follows: Infantry, Gentlemen, Mr. Tucker’s School, Ladies, President and Vice Presidents, Clergy, Band of Music. When opposite of the table, the procession opened to the right and left, and the band then played them to the table, where upwards of 400 partook of a sumptuous dinner, provided by Mr. R. Webb. [“Fourth of July, 1826,” Norwich Courier, 12 July 1826, 3].

District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band performed in the U.S. Capitol ceremony, standing on the “interior spiral staircase” in the “Eastern Gallery” (National Intelligencer, 4 July 1826, 3).

Maine Freeport: A parade proceeded to the Congregational Meeting House where the exercises took place. “An Ode composed by R [obert] R. Kendall,497 Esq. for the occasion, and adapted to the tune of ‘Auld Lang Syne,’ was sung by the Freeport Musical Society,’ whose performances would stand in competition with those of vastly superior advantages” (“Celebration at Freeport,” Eastern Argus, 11 July 1826, 2). Portland: After a parade, the exercises scheduled at “Mr. Jenkins’ Meeting House in Congress Street” included the performance of two anthems and a hymn (Eastern Argus, 30 June 1826, 2).

Maryland Baltimore: “The fiftieth anniversary of American independence was celebrated by a large number of the citizens of Pennsylvania ... at the Washington Hotel in Gay Street.... They partook of an excellent dinner [and] toasts were drunk, accompanied by an excellent band of music”: Tune, Hail Columbia—Air, Star-Spangled Banner — Yankee Doodle — Washing-

ton’s March — Jefferson’s March — Auld Lang Syne — President’s March — Governor’s March — Jackson’s March—Hail to the Chief—Hearts of Oak—[America] Commerce and Freedom — Come Haste to the Wedding (“Pennsylvania Celebration in the City of Baltimore,” Baltimore Patriot, 6 July 1826, 2).

Massachusetts Adams: A procession to the meeting house was accompanied by “martial music under the direction of Col. Isaac Howland and Capt. Daniel Jenks, marshals of the day.” “During the performances in the church, several anthems were sung with great credit to the chorister, Mr. Wells, and all those that participated in the science of music — the performance was never surpassed in this town, and perhaps was equal to any similar performance in this country” (“Celebration at Adams,” Pittsfield Sun, 20 July 1826, 2). Boston: The “grand jubilee celebration” held by the Republican citizens at the Central Universalist Church where “several original odes and hymns, prepared for the occasion [were] sung by the choir of the church.” One of the odes was written by Mrs. K.A. Ware and set to the tune “Anacreon in Heaven” (first line: “When through the dark clouds of political night”) and a hymn was written by Mrs. A.M. Wells498 and set to the tune “Old Hundred” (first line: “When, spurning Power’s despotic yoke”). The Brigade Band provided music for the day (Boston Commercial Gazette, 29 June and 6 July 1826, 2 and 2, respectively; Salem Gazette, 7 July 1826, 2; Essex Register, 10 July 1826, 1.); at Faneuil Hall, toasts were drunk “interspersed with patriotic songs”: Music, Sound the loud timbrel — Dirge — Auld Lang Syne (“Celebration at Boston,” Richmond Enquirer, 21 July 1826, 2); at the Old South Meeting House, the exercises included “several pieces of music from a large and select choir of amateurs” (Boston Commercial Gazette, 3 July 1826, 2). See Publications above. Franklin: The Franklin Artillery and the Franklin Cadets, “together with a large concourse of citizens of that and the neighboring towns” attended the exercises which included a “choir of singers, under the direction of Mr. William Metcalf ” (“National Jubilee,” Village Register, 6 July 1826, 3). Manchester: After a collation at the town hall at 10 A.M., the town citizens marched, accompanied by military units and “a handsome band of music to the meeting house.” During the exercises, “several select pieces of choice music were performed under the direction of Mr. J[ohn] C. Long, in a style which would have done credit to any choir in one of our populous towns.” Later at the dinner a toast was offered by Long, who was also a member of the committee of arrangements, to Gov. Troup499 (“Celebration at Manchester,” Essex Register, 10 July 1826, 3). Newburyport: “A hymn and ode, both original, were sung” at a dinner with 500 persons present (“In Newburyport,” Richmond Enquirer, 21 July 1826, 2). Pittsfield: A procession that included “surviving

127 patriots of the revolution” marched to the church, where “the singing, led by Mr. Lyman Warriner, was in a style of unusual excellence” (“National Jubilee!” Pittsfield Sun, 13 July 1826, 2). Quincy: After a parade and flag presentation, the exercises at the meeting house “were opened by the Jubilee Anthem.” The following “Ode” by George Washington Adams,500 set to the tune “Adams and Liberty” was sung “with great point” and “closed the interesting services”: first line, “Long ages of darkness man’s soul had opprest” (Columbian Sentinel, 22 July 1826, 1; Essex Register, 24 July 1826, 2; ); “Lord Byron’s Hebrew Melody” (anthem): first line, “Go forth to the Mount, bring the olive-branch home.” Salem: A procession of military companies, “distinguished public characters,” citizens, and veterans of the Revolution assembled at Washington Square and “a rich band of music gave a charm to the scene.” At the Meeting House, the services commenced by music on the Organ, performed in a superior style by Mr. Wilson. An animated anthem was then performed by the Mozart Society,501 in the following words: Lead on! Lead on! Judah disdains The galling load of hostile chains.502 A fervent and impressive Prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. [James] Flint, after which another Anthem, by Haydn, was performed, as follow: Sing his praises, th’ Almighty Conqueror’s praises, He the tyrant foe overthrew, Eternal praises are his due. The Hon. John Pickering then read the Declaration of Independence, accompanying it by an Address of considerable length. The following excellent Ode, written for the occasion by the Rev. Dr. Flint, was then sung by two gentlemen of the Mozart Society, accompanied by the whole choir in the chorus. [First line]: “When God his image stamp’d divine.” The Oration, by the Rev. Henry Colman, followed. A beautiful solo and chorus, by Stevenson, was then performed, in the following words. [First line]: “Go forth to the Mount, bring the olivebranch home.”503

The local newspaper also commented “the music was appropriate, and executed in a style of superior excellence. The ode was sung admirably, and the bass solos in the closing anthem were given with entire effect.” The dinner at Washington Square was attended by 700 persons and included toasts “accompanied by discharges of artillery, appropriate music, and cheerings.” The music performed included: Sweet Home — Hail Columbia — President Adams’s March — Massachusetts Quick Step — Trirolian Dirge—Lafayette’s March504—Wreaths for the Chieftain — Yankee Doodle — Speed the Plough — Bonny Boat — Shuttle Hornpipe — Canal March — Here’s a health to All Good Lasses. That evening, during the exhibition [of the fireworks], the excellent band

1826 enlivened the hours with many appropriate pieces of music” (“National Jubilee” and “Town Celebration,” Essex Register, 26 June and 3 and 6 July 1826, 1, 2 and 2, respectively; Salem Gazette, 7 July 1826, 2); a “Religious Celebration” was held at the Tabernacle Church with the following “order of exercises” that began at 4 o’clock: I. Prayer, and reading of scriptures, by the Rev. Dr. Bolles. II. Anthem. III. Prayer, by the Rev. Brown Emerson. IV. Hymn. V. Address, by the Rev. S.P. Williams, of Newburyport. VI. Collection, to aid the funds of the American Colonization Society. VII. Anthem. VIII. Concluding prayer. IX. Doxology. X. Benediction. [Essex Register, 3 July 1826, 2].

Worcester: The Harmonic Society under the direction of Mr. Perry performed an anthem and several other works at the South Meeting House (Massachusetts Yeoman, 8 July 1826, 2). Worthington: At the meeting house, “a national Ode and other appropriate music was sung by the choir” (“Celebration at Worthington,” Pittsfield Sun, 27 July 1826, 2).

New Hampshire Andover: A procession through city streets included “a band of music who voluntarily turned out on the occasion.” At the meeting house, among the exercises were “several pieces of music [that] were performed by the choir.” After the oration, “the exercises were closed by an appropriate Anthem by the choir whose performances merited the applause of the audience.” At the dinner, toasts were accompanied “with excellent musick” (“Celebration at Andover,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 24 July 1826, 2). Boscawen: At “a house of divine worship,” the ceremony ended with the following song, “composed for the occasion, by J.C. jun.”: “A Song of Deliverance. For the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Emmanuel.’” First line: “When first in Columb’a our fathers did land” (“Birth Day of Freedom,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 24 July 1826, 3). Hinsdale: The exercises included “sacred music by the Hinsdale Choir” (New-Hampshire Sentinel, 4 August 1826, 4). Keene: At the Meeting House, the exercises began with a “Voluntary by the Musical Society, led by Mr. E. Briggs, Jr.,505 ‘Sing, O Heavens, and Be Joyful O Earth,’ &c,” a Hymn, “music, ‘Sound the Loud Timbrel.’” The dinner at a bower included “music by the band” (“Celebration of Independence,” New-Hampshire Sentinel, 7 July 1826, 3). New Ipswich: At a flag presentation at the meeting house, “the exercises were accompanied with appro-

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1826 priate music, which was indeed of a high order” (“Fourth of July,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 22 July 1826, 3). Portsmouth: At the meeting house, “some appropriate odes were sung” and “other music.” Some music that day was provided by “Mr. Papanti506 on the French Horn, and to the exquisite singing of his wife ... Mr. P. played on the Horn with surpassing skill, drawing forth every note of which that difficult instrument is capable with the utmost sweetness and delicacy. Of the exquisite singing of Mrs. Papanti we express the universal opinion of her audience that, in this town, nothing to compare with it has ever been heard. Her voice unites uncommon power with unrivalled sweetness, to these rare qualifications she adds a high degree of science, and these high powers are put forth with an unconsciousness and entire simplicity which give an admirable effect to her performances.” According to another report, at the meeting house, “several suitable Odes were sung at intervals by a full choir, accompanied by the new organ, under the direction of Mr. Elliot.” Yet another newspaper reported that “the music at the meeting house will be under the direction of Mr. Lewis Elliot”507 (“National Jubilee 50th Anniversary of American Independence” and “The Jubilee Celebration,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 1 and 8 July 1826, 2–3, and 3, respectively; “National Jubilee,” New-Hampshire Gazette, 11 July 1826, 2). Weare: A reporter wrote that at the ceremony held at the East Meeting House, “the closing scene was finished as began with some of the sweetest tones from the female tongue, accompanied by the band, that the writer has ever heard.” Following the exercises, the residents marched accompanied by music to the place where a collation was served (“Celebration at Weare,” New Hampshire Patriot, 24 July 1826, 2).

New York Cooperstown: The procession formed on Main Street and included various military companies, music, and “citizens and strangers.” The group then marched to the Presbyterian Meeting House where the exercises included music, an “original ode” and “national air” (“Freedom’s Jubilee,” Watch-Tower, 3 July 1826, 2). Fishkill: A parade “headed by a body of cavalry” marched through town, ending at the Old Dutch Church. The assemblage entered the church. “A band of music occupied the whole front of the gallery, playing “Hail to the Chief.”508 Lisbon: At “Mr. Nelson’s Meeting House ... the choir ... raised their voices in a song of praise ... followed by an anthem, and closed by music from the band” (“July Fourth at Lisbon,” Norwich Courier, 12 July 1826, 3, from the New York Journal).

Pennsylvania Carlisle: “In front of the meeting house a handsome arch in honor of the day had been constructed by our ingenious mechanics, and was tastefully dec-

orated with laurel and flowers, over which waived the flag of the United States, and that of Pennsylvania.” A band processed under the arch playing “Hail Columbia” (Democratic Republican and Agricultural Register, 5 July 1826, 2–3). Philadelphia: “Is There a Heart” performed by a band at a dinner celebration by “friends of Andrew Jackson” held in the Masonic Hall (Richmond Enquirer, 14 July 1826, 4). Pittsburgh: The Democratic Republicans celebrated at Elliot’s Spring and toasts accompanied by music were drank after the dinner: Tune, Yankee Doodle—Hail Columbia—Washington’s March—All the Way to Boston — Star-Spangled Banner — Hail to the Chief— Auld Lang Syne — Bruce’s Address — Penn, March — The Tempest — Duncan Davy — Jesse the Flower of Dunblane; another group of Democratic Republicans celebrated at Foster’s Grove about two miles outside of Pittsburgh. After dinner toasts were drank “accompanied by appropriate music”; the Pittsburgh Light Artillery celebrated “on the west side of the Allegheny River, opposite the city.” At the dinner that was served by E.G. Nelson “in his garden in very handsome style,” the following music was performed: Tune, Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Vive La Convention — Yankee Doodle — President’s March — Governor’s March — Auld Lang Syne—The Star-Spangled Banner—Columbia, Land of Liberty — Scots Wha’ hae wi’ Wallace Bled — Rejoice Columbia—Haste to the Wedding—Remember Thee! yes while There’s Life in This Heart — Decator’s Victory — Life Let Us Cherish — Thou of an Independent Mind — Hail to the Chief— Forget Not the Field Where They Perished — Sublime Was the Warning which Liberty Spoke — Wae to My Heart — Paddy Was Up to the Gauger — Dundlady of France—The Dead March in Saul (“The Jubilee” and “The Fourth of July,” Pittsburgh Mercury, 12 July 1826).

Rhode Island Newport: A procession from the Parade took place to the State House “which on this occasion was brilliantly decorated.” Included in the exercises was a reading of the Declaration of Independence by Major John Handy, “who read the same Declaration, on that identical spot 50 years before, previous to again reading it.... Immediately after Major H. had concluded, an excellent Ode, composed by G. Wanton, Esq. was sung to the tune of ‘Old Hundred,’ in a masterly style, to a concourse of some thousands.” A newspaper reported that “the odes were sung in the first style of excellence. The Columbian Band performed in their best manner.... In the evening, the State House was illuminated in a most brilliant manner, and the music by the Newport Band, was superior to any we have heard in this town, for years.” Another report stated that the “select music by the choir [was] under the direction of B. Marsh, Jr. and J.B. Newton.” That evening the “State House [was] brilliant illuminated, and

129 the Columbian Band [performed] on the occasion, a new and appropriate selection of music. Yet another report stated that “two Odes, by Geo. W. Patten,509 [were] finely executed by the choir, under the superintendence of Mr. Benj. Marsh, Jr.” (“National Jubilee,” Rhode Island Republican, 29 June 1826, 2; “Fiftieth Anniversary,” Newport Mercury, 8 July 1826, 2; Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 15 July 1826, 2). Providence: At the Theatre, “a pathetic play, called The Point of Honor, Or, A School for Soldiers” to include “the celebrated ‘Gun Hornpipe,’ by Mrs. Spooner; a patriotic recitation, called ‘The Standard of Liberty, by Miss Powell’; a patriotic song, called ‘Columbia’s Glory,’ by Mr. Williamson; a ‘National Hornpipe,’ in character of a young American midshipman, by Miss C. McBride. To conclude with a laughable farce, called The Spoil’d Child” (Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 4 July 1826, 3); militia, town citizens, and residents from Pawtucket paraded510 to the meeting house that was “filled to excess.” The Psallonian Society, with Mr. [Oliver] Shaw’s accompaniment on the organ sang an ode (first line: “When Freedom moved to war”) written by Joseph L. Tillinghast and set to an “original tune” by Shaw. The piece was reported as performed “in a very spirited manner.” The Psallonian Society closed the exercises with singing an Ode (first line: “Joy, joy! for free millions now welcome the morn”) by Albert G. Greene511 and sung to the tune “Song of Miriam” (Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 8 July 1826, 1–2; “Poetry,” Essex Register, 10 July 1826, 1).

Tennessee

1827 priate music from an excellent band, added a zest to the literary feast at the theatre.” “At half past three o’clock, about two hundred citizens sat down to a plentiful and excellent dinner at Poplar Spring.” The following pieces of music accompanied the toasts: tune, Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Marseilles Hymn — Reville du Peuple — Ca Ira — Wash. March — Jefferson’s March — Hail to the Chief— Dirge — Star-Spangled Banner — Hull’s Victory — America, Commerce and Freedom — Madison’s March — The Watchful Centinel — Scots wha hae — Tyrolese Song of Liberty—March in Bluebeard—Pillar of Glory — Come Haste to the Wedding (“The Jubilee,” Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1826, 1). Staunton: At a dinner held at the Eagle Tavern, toasts were drank “amid the sweet breathings of appropriate music, and repeated discharges from a piece of artillery” (“Celebration at Staunton,” Richmond Enquirer, 18 July 1826, 4). Winchester: The early hours in Winchester had crowded streets and the sounds of “exhilarating fife and martial drum” music. At the Lutheran Church, “the services were opened by a select choir, who sung the Jubilee hymn with fine effect.” Later at a dinner, “Jefferson and Liberty” was performed (Richmond Enquirer, 18 July 1826, 4).

West Virginia Martinsburg: A group of “from eighty to an hundred individuals, of all parties, partook in harmony of the festivities” at a “pleasant grove on the farm of Capt. Matthew Ranson.” After the dinner “toasts were drank, and discharges of Musquetry and soul-stirring music” (Richmond Enquirer, 18 July 1826, 4).

Knoxville: A song “All hail to the day when a people indignant” (first line), composed for the occasion, was sung (Knoxville Register, 12 July 1826, 2).

1827

Virginia Hampden Sydney College: The students met in the College Chapel for the exercises followed by “a dinner richly prepared by Col. Burwell, the College Steward.” Toasts were offered accompanied by the following music: Music, Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief 512— Music, Stamp the Devil’s Eyes Out (Richmond Enquirer, 18 July 1826, 2). Norfolk: After a procession of the Independent Volunteers and other military companies, as well as participants in the ensuing ceremonies, the group entered Christ Church for the exercises. “The Mozart Band performed a soft and beautiful air,” followed by a prayer by the Rev. Bishop Moore. “After the prayer, the ‘thrilling thunders of the organ resounded through the aisles’; a grand military overture, composed for the occasion, by Mr. C.A. Dacosia, organist of the church, was performed by him in his best style, and gave full effect to the various powers of that fine instrument” (Richmond Enquirer, 14 July 1826, 1). Petersburg: At the Petersburg Theatre after the Declaration was read and oration presented, “appro-

The notable event this year was the emancipation of slaves in the state of New York that went into effect on July 4. Musical celebrations took place in New York City, New Haven, Connecticut, and likely other towns whose celebrations were not reported.

Publications “Fourth of July” to the tune “Scots wha hae wi’ Wallace bled.” First line: “Day, by freemen hardly won” (From the National Journal as printed in NewHampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 16 July 1827, 4). “Hymn.513 The following was sung at a meeting of colored people, on the 4th of July last, in New York.” First line: “Afric’s sons, awake, rejoice!” “Independence Ode514 sung at the celebration of our national independence, in Danville, Kentucky.” By “Velasco.” Tune, “Ode to Science.” First line: “When Freedom, in the Eastern world.” “Ode.” First line: “This day is freedom’s jubilee” (Essex Register, 4 July 1827, 1).

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1827 “Ode.” By R.S. Coffin. First line: “When freedom midst the battle storm” (Essex Register, 4 July 1827, 1). “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1827. Sung at the Boston Exchange Coffee House on Wednesday last.” First line: “To the sages who spoke — to the Heroes who bled”515 (Essex Register, 9 July 1827, 1). “Ode, written for the late national anniversary, and sung at Morristown, N.J. The Starry Banner. By Wm. P.M. Wood.” First line: “Oh! loudly raise your grateful strains” (Essex Register, 12 July 1827, 1). “Odes, sung at the celebration in this town [Newport, RI] on the 4th of July. ‘Ode’— by G. Wanton, tune —‘Charing.’” (First line: “Stand in unconquer’d might.”); “‘Ode’— by G.W. Patten, air —‘Auld Lang Syne.’” (First line: “What sound is that, that wildly swells.”); “‘Ode’— by Alvan Barnaby, air —‘Knight Errant.’” (First line: “When o’er the sable cloud of War.”); “‘Anthem — Strike the Cymbal.’ Suited to the occasion, by G. Wanton.” (First line: “Strike the cymbal”) (Rhode Island Republican, 12 July 1827, 4.) “The ‘Roll of the Brave.’ Tune —‘Fie, let us a’ to the Bridal,’ &c. Washington, July 5, 1825. Gentlemen-Enclosed are a few lines intended as an Essay towards making a National Song. It was composed and sung some time since at a celebration of the national festival in this city. By giving it a place, in fair legible type, (such as Revolutionary officers can read) among your other articles of national intelligence, you will much oblige your old friend. Lycurgus the Younger.” First line: “Come let us rejoice on this day, sirs” (“From the National Intelligencer,” and republished in “Poetry,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 16 July 1827, 4).

Performances Connecticut New Haven: “The African population of this city celebrated the 5th inst. in concordance with their brethren of New York on account of the abolition of slavery in that State.” At the African Church, the exercises including “the singing of hymns.” Following that the assemblage marched “to well-timed music” to “the foot of East Rock” for a repast (Essex Gazette, 14 July 1827, 3). Norwich Falls: At daybreak reveille was played “by a band of martial music under Major Manning.” At Morse’s Hotel, a procession with “an excellent band of martial music” proceeded through city streets to the “3d District School House where they were joined by about 30 scholars, under their teacher, Miss Rodgers, and also a large choir of female singers, who were richly dressed in white.” They marched to the Methodist Chapel where “the public services then commenced with an hymn sung by the choir, which was followed by singing another, given out by the Rev. Mr. Arnold.” Later “after the exercises had been closed by the singing of some set pieces by the choir under the direction of Mr. C. Sharpe, the procession was formed as before, and after escorting to the school-

house, Miss R., her juvenile scholars, and the fair female choir of singers, the procession returned to Mr. Otis Morse’s Hotel” where a band played the following pieces of music in accompaniment to the toasts: Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, The March of Mind — Tune, Washington’s Grand March — Tune, Who Would Fill a Coward’s Grave — Tune, Jefferson and Liberty — Tune, Stoney Point — Tune, President’s March — Tune, Perry’s Victory — Tune, Rogue’s March — Tune, Liberty Tree — Tune, I’ll Try — Tune, American Eagle (“Celebration at Norwich Falls,” Norwich Courier, 11 July 1827, 3).

District of Columbia An amateur choir conducted by “Mr. McDuell” sang for President John Quincy Adams at “the church of Dr. Laurie” and “excellent music” was provided by the Marine Band (National Intelligencer, 6 July 1827, 3; Republican Star and General Advertiser, 17 July 1827, 2).

Maine Hallowell: Old Hundred sung (Hallowell Gazette, 11 July 1827).516 New Gloucester: The Second Social Library celebrated with a procession to the Meeting House “of the 1st parish,” where the exercises began with an anthem that was “sung in superior style by the Philharmonic Society.” Also performed was an Ode by Andrew R. Giddinge. First line: “Sons of Freedom now assembled” (“Fourth of July,” Eastern Argus SemiWeekly, 13 and 17 July 1827, 2 and 1, respectively). Portland: A procession was formed at 11:30 A.M. in front of the town hall and marched to the “Church of the Second Parish.” The exercises there included an “appropriate Ode, composed for the occasion by Mr. Frederick Mellen,” and “sung with great éclat: Air ‘Ye Mariners of England.’” (First line: “Spirits of our Forefathers.”). Afterwards the assemblage enjoyed dinner at Phoenix Hall to the sounds of the following musical works: Air, Hail Columbia — Home, Sweet Home517—John Q. Adams March—Let Patriot Pride — Perry’s Victory — Governor Lincoln’s March518— O Here No Fellers Cramp the Mind — When Sailing oe’r the Midnight Deep — Old Hundred — Speed the Plough — Cease Rude Boress — Columbia, Land of Liberty—Oh! Those Were Moments Dear and Height — O What a Rose, What a Rumpus, What a Rioting — Auld Lang Syne — I That Once Was a Plough Boy — Tyriolese Song of Liberty — Grecian Air — Song of the Spanish Patriots — O When I Left thy Shores O Naxos — Marseilles Hymn — Yankee Doodle — How Sleep the Brave — Ye White Cliffs of Dover. “The music was truly excellent and commanded the listening attention of the audience and showed our amateurs to be equal in talent and taste to any of our age” (“Fifty-First Anniversary of American Independence,” Eastern Argus, 10 July 1827, 1).

131 Maryland Easton: Officers and soldiers of the Forsyth Volunteers of Baltimore519 joined the citizens of Easton at the Court House for the celebration. Toasts presented included “airs from a fine band of music attached to the Volunteers”: air, Hail Columbia — air, Yankee Doodle — Sweet Home — air, Washington’s March — air, Star-Spangled Banner — air, Lafayette’s Welcome — air, Hail to the Chief— air, Soldier’s Glory — air, Lafayette’s March — air, Yankee Doodle — air, Auld Lang Syne — air, The Jubilee — air, O’ ’Tis Love (“Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Republican Star and General Advertiser, 10 July 1827, 3). Baltimore: About 200 persons and military units celebrated at a dinner served by Mr. Christian Duncan followed by toasts accompanied with these musical works: Jefferson’s March — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief—The Star-Spangled Banner—Baltimore Quick Step — Washington’s March — Sweet Home — President’s March—Lafayette’s March—Yankee Doodle — Auld Lang Syne — Ladies Eye — Yankee Doodle — Pulaski’s March (“Fifty-First Anniversary of American Independence,” American & Commercial Daily Advertiser, 7 July 1827, 2).

Massachusetts Haverhill: At the meeting house, “the singing by the choirs in this town, assisted by several individuals from towns in the vicinity, was performed with taste and spirit, and much to the gratification of the audience.” Later at the Golden Ball Hotel, the dinner had “appropriate music and salutes” provided (Essex Gazette, 7 July 1827, 2). Salem: Billed as a “Religious Celebration of American Independence,” the following is the “order of exercises at the First Presbyterian Church (Branch Street)”: I. Prayer and reading of scriptures, by the Rev. Brown Emerson. II. Anthem. [First line]: “Go forth to the mount, bring the olive branch home.” III. Prayer, by the Rev. Charles W. Upham. IV. Hymn. [First line]: “How rich thy gifts, Almighty King!”520 V. Address by the Rev. Rufus Babco*ck, Jun. VI. Collection to aid the funds of the American Colonization Society. VII. Anthem. [First line]: “Oh praise God in his holiness.” VIII. Concluding Prayer, by the Rev. Geo. Leonard. IX. Doxology. X. Benediction. [Essex Register, 2 July 1827, 3; Salem Gazette, 3 July 1827, 2].

New Hampshire Portsmouth: The Democratic Republicans gathered at the Court House for a march, “accompanied

1827 by a band,” through city streets to the Universalist Meeting House where the exercises consisted of: 1st Instrumental music 2d Prayer by the venerable Revolutionary patriot, Joseph Litchfield, of Kettery, Me. 3d. Hymn by the choir. 4th Declaration of Independence, read by Daniel P. Drown, Esq. 5th Prayer by the Rev. Hosea Ballou, of Boston. 6th Hymn. 7th. Oration by Honorable Levi Woodbury. 8th Anthem, “O Praise God in His Holiness.” 9th Benediction.

(New-Hampshire Gazette, 3 July 1827, 3; “Democratic Celebration of National Independence, July 4, 1827,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 16 July 1827, 2); a procession from the Athenaeum to Franklin Hall included military, clergy, members of the state legislature and others. The program advertised was: music — prayer — ode — Declaration of Independence — ode — oration — ode — Benediction. Music accompanying toasts included Adams & Liberty — President’s March — Yankee Doodle — Come Haste to the Wedding. “The following original song we sung after the delivery of the 6th regular toast521: Song — Brave Old Soldiers. Tune Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “Shall brave old soldiers be forgot” (Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 30 June and 7 July 1827, 1 and 3, respectively).

New York New York: Emancipation of African-Americans in New York State occurred on this day and at the Zion Church, orations were delivered by William Hamilton and John Mitchell before “the various societies of colored persons, in their uniform dresses and various badges.” A parade through the public streets included “music [that] was unusually good; there were four or five bands, comprising a great variety of instruments, played with much skill, as will readily be believed, from the acknowledged talent for music of the African race.” “A violent shower” forced the participants to end the parade. (Salem Gazette, 13 July 1827, 2). See also Publications above.

North Carolina Raleigh: Odes were sung in the Methodist Church where exercises were held and later at a dinner at Goneke’s Concert Room, with Governor Hutchins Gordon Burton present, toasts were offered “interspersed with a number of patriotic and convivial songs.” That evening at the State House Grove, “a concert was given to the ladies, which concluded with a dance” (Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette, 6 July 1827, 3).

Pennsylvania Pittsburgh: In a locust grove at the south end of the First Presbyterian Church, the Pittsburgh Sabbath School Union met. Three hymns were sung, one

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1828 of which was written by W.B. Tappan: first line, “Our fathers rose in peril’s day” (“The Fourth of July,” American Sunday School Magazine 64 (September 1827): 276.

Rhode Island Newport: After a parade through city streets, the exercises at Trinity Church “were commenced by vocal and instrumental music from a select choir, under the direction of Mr. Wm. R. Atkinson,522 accompanied by the sweet and harmonious tones of the organ, delicately and inspiringly touched by the skilful hand of Miss Eliza Davis, the organist of that church” (“Fourth of July,” Rhode Island Republican, 12 July 1827, 2). See also Publications above. Providence: A procession made up of military units, veterans of the Revolutionary War, the governor of Rhode Island, and others marched from the bridge to the Universalist Chapel. “The Rev. Mr. Pickering introduced the services by a fervent prayer, and two pieces of musick, one an original ode for the occasion by Mr. Shaw, were executed with fine effect.” Another newspaper reported that the pieces were “two original patriotic odes performed by the choir of the chapel.” Further, regarding Oliver Shaw, “It was what might have been expected from his well known talents, as a composer, both in this country and in Europe” (“Fourth of July,” Rhode-Island American and Providence Gazette, 6 July 1827, 2; Providence Patriot, 7 July 1827, 2).

Vermont Sandgate: A town parade was “preceeded by a part of Capt. Harry Hurd’s band of music,” and escorted by a detachment from Capt. Smith’s company of militia (Vermont Gazette, 17 July 1827, 3).

Virginia Fleet’s Springs: Performed following a toast at a dinner: America, Commerce, and Freedom — Come Haste to the Wedding — The Devil Awa’ Wi the Excisem*n—Ere Around the Hugh Oak—Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Scots Wha Hae — Should Auld Acquaintance Be Forgot [Auld Lang Syne]—Tyrolese Song of Liberty — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1827, 2). Petersburg: Performed at a dinner celebration held at Bath Spring: Around the Hugh Oak — Auld Lang Syne — The Cambells [sp?] are Coming — Jefferson’s March—Madison’s March—Marseilles Hymn—Pillar of Glory — Scots Wha Ha — Tyrolese Air — Washington’s March (Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1827, 2).

1828 Publications “Fourth of July. Tune, ‘Scots wha hae.’” First line:

“Now, we view the joyful day!” (Portsmouth Journal and Rockingham Gazette, 5 July 1828, 4). The Carrollton March523 (Baltimore: John Cole, 1828), “performed at the ceremony of commencing the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad on the Fourth of July 1828.” “Musick, Carrollton March, by a full band” (“Orders of the Grand Marshal to be Observed on the Fourth, 1828,” Baltimore Patriot, 3 July 1828, 2). “The following Ode was sung at the North Meeting House [in Portsmouth].” First line: “Hail, thou bright returning day” (Portsmouth Journal and Rockingham Gazette, 5 July 1828, 3). “Fourth of July Ode, by James G. Brooks, Esq. of New York.” First line: “Up with our star flag — let it stream in the wind” (Portsmouth Journal and Rockingham Gazette, 19 July 1828, 3). “Morn of the Fourth of July.” Written by R.S. Coffin. Composed by C. Meineke. Piano and voice. First line: “Behold from the brow of the mountain advancing.” Baltimore: T. Carr’s Music Store, n.d. “Ode, prepared by the Chief Marshal for the celebration of the 4th July at the Factory Village in Wilton, N.H.” First line: “When our great sires this land explored”524 (“Poetry, New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 11 August 1828, 4). “Odes. To be sung at New-Providence, N.J. July 4th, 1828.” First line: “To God, our never-failing strength”; first line: “Say, should we search the globe around.” Broadside. Copy in Brown University. Rail Road March for the Fourth of July. Composed & arranged for the piano forte by C. Meineke. Dedicated to the Directors of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail Road. Baltimore: Geo. Willig, 1828. “‘Song’525— for the 4th of July, 1828. Tune —‘Auld Lang Syne.’” First line: “Though Adams now misrules the land.” [“From the Lancaster Journal.”] (“Poetry,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 7 July 1828, 4.)

Performances Connecticut Norwich: “Agreeable to arrangements made by the Mechanics’ Society, a procession, consisting of that body, the City Authorities, Officers of the Town and State, and a large number of Citizens, formed at half past 10 o’clock, and proceeded, amid firing and the ringing of bells and the more harmonious music of the Chelsea Band,526 to the Congregational meetinghouse.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “prayers and singing gave solemnity and interest to the exercises of the morning.” The order of the exercises were as follows: I. II. III. IV. V. VI.

Hymn. Prayer Hymn. Declaration of Independence. Oration Prayer

133 VII. Hymn VIII. Benediction.

That evening “invited a dance, and never was there a merrier set than assembled to enjoy that exhilarating exercise” (“Order of Exercises” and “Fourth of July,” Norwich Courier, 7 and 9 July 1828, 3 and 3, respectively).

District of Columbia At a celebration for printers, music by “an excellent Band of Music” at a dinner celebration of the various printing offices of Washington: America, Commerce, and Freedom — Auld Lang Syne — Dead March in Saul — The Drum — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Lafayette’s March — Let Us Haste to Kelvin Grove — Liberty’s Birth-Day — Oh! Tis Love—President’s March—Roslin Castle—Rural Felicity — Soldier’s Glory — Star-Spangled Banner — Welcome Lafayette — Yankee Doodle (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1828, 3).

Maryland Baltimore: On the occasion of “the ceremony of laying the first stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,” the Association of Blacksmiths gathered at the Vauxhall Gardens for dinner and toasts accompanied by the following music: President’s March—Carrollton March — Washington’s March — Auld Lang Syne — Lafayette’s March — Music by the Band — Music by the Band — Music, full band — Hail Columbia—Yankee Doodle—Music, full band—Music (“Celebration of the Fourth of July, by the Association of Blacksmiths,” Baltimore Patriot, 16 July 1828, 2). See Publications above.

Massachusetts Boston: At Faneuil Hall, accompanying the dinner was the following music: Gen. Greene’s March — God Save the King — Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Oh Come to the Bower — Oh Dear What Can the Matter Be — The Retreat — The Trumpet Sounds — U.S. March — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (Boston Statesman, 8 July 1828). Newburyport: The “order of exercises at the Federal-Street Church” (First Presbyterian Church) began with an anthem, and later included an original hymn to the tune “Old Hundred,”an original ode to the tune “Pillar of Glory,” and voluntary by the band. Broadside, [Newburyport, MA]: Printed at the Herald office, [1828]. Salem: “Religious Celebration. At the Tabernacle Church, July 4, 1828. Order of Exercises”: I. Prayer and Reading of the Scriptures, by the Rev. T.W. Coit. II. Original Hymn. III. Prayer by the Rev. A. Drinkwater. IV. Original Hymn. V. Address — by the Rev. J. P. Cleaveland. VI. Collection to aid the fund of the American Colonization Society.

1828 VII. Anthem. VIII. Concluding Prayer — By the Rev. Brown Emerson. IX. Doxology. X. Benediction.

(Salem Gazette, 1 July 1828, 2.); exercises at the North Church consisted of a “Voluntary on the organ by Miss Mallet,527 performed with great taste and execution. Stevenson’s sublime anthem, ‘Go forth to the mount,’ was then sung.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “the following hymn was then sung by the whole choir, to the tune of ‘Old Hundred’”: first line, “Great God! beneath whose piercing eye.” Following the oration, “the following Ode, written by Mr. Edwin Jocelyn, was sung with great effect”: first line, “Awake, awake the song.” Prior to the benediction, the “beautiful” anthem, ‘Sing his praises,’ was then performed. (Salem Gazette, 1, 4, and 8 July 1828, 2, 1, and 2, respectively.) Southbridge: At “Rev’d Mr. Parks’ Meeting House, two original odes” were sung in addition to a “highly applauded” oration (“Anniversary Celebrations,” Rhode-Island American and Providence Gazette, 15 July 1828, 2).

New Hampshire Epping: At 2 P.M. a procession marched to the meeting house “when the exercise commenced by singing an appropriate hymn, accompanied by excellent instrumental musick” (New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 21 July 1828, 1). Goffstown: At the meeting house, “the Declaration of Independence was read, and an address delivered by Charles F. Gove, Esq. accompanied by some select pieces of music by the choir.” Later a dinner was served and toasts were offered, “accompanied by the discharge of cannon and music from the band” (NewHampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 21 July 1828, 2). Plymouth: A celebration of Jacksonians assembled “at Woodbury’s at 10 o’clock, A.M.” and processed to the “chapel which is computed to hold more than five hundred was filled to over-flowing.” The exercises begun with a “Hymn, music, Old Hundred.” After the oration another “Hymn, musick, ‘Harvest’” was sung (“Jacksonian Celebration of the 4th July 1828, at Plymouth, N.H.,” New Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 14 July 1828, 1). Portsmouth: The “Democratic Republicans friendly to the election of Gen. Andrew Jackson” met at the Universalian Meeting House where the exercises included “appropriate music by a volunteer choir” and instrumental music by a band. The choir sang an anthem titled “O Give Thanks Upon the Lord” (“Anniversary of American Independence at Portsmouth,” New-Hampshire Patriot & State Gazette, 30 June 1828, 3, and 14 July 1828, 2). See also Publications above. York County: “Invited guests, strangers, subscribers to the dinner, and citizens generally, formed a procession at noon, and proceeded under an escort to the Rev. Mr. Dow’s Meeting-House.” The exercises there

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1828 included: “Voluntary-Prayer by the Rev. Mr. DowHymn written for the occasion—Reading of the Declaration of Independence by Mr. Henry Simpson, Jr.— oration by Dr. J.S. Putnam-Ode.” The newspaper reported that “the performances of the choir were highly satisfactory and pleasing” (“Celebration at York,” Portsmouth Journal and Rockingham Gazette, 12 July 1828, 2).

Pennsylvania Allentown: The Allentown Band528 performed this day and is the earliest recorded report of this band active in this town. Jackson: A band played from “a stage erected for the purpose” at a dinner celebration. The following music was performed: Tune, Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle — Hail to the Chief— Let the Brazen Trumpet Sound — President’s March — Blue Beard — Gov. Shulze’s March529— Jackson’s March — La Fayette’s March — Liberty Mine — Pennsylvania March — Pennsylvania Quick Step — Life Let Us Cherish — Hail to the Morning — Jefferson’s March — Grand March — Soldier’s Return — The Battle of N. Orleans — Hurrah, Hurrah — Auld Lang Syne — Bruce’s Address — Blue Ey’d Mary (“Jackson Celebration of the 4th of July,” Lancaster Journal, 11 July 1828, 2).

Rhode Island Bristol: Regarding the ceremony held in the church, a newspaper reported: “the music in the church is highly spoken of ” (“Anniversary Celebrations,” RhodeIsland American and Providence Gazette, 8 July 1828, 2). Pawtucket: “There was an unusually spirited celebration of the Fourth by the citizens of that Village, Valley and Central Falls.... At the meeting house, which was thronged,” following the reading of the Declaration, was “the singing by the Mozart Society of an original Ode by Albert G. Greene, Esq.”530 (“Anniversary Celebrations,” Rhode-Island American and Providence Gazette, 8 July 1828, 2). Providence: After a parade to the Universalist Chapel, “the performances at the Chapel were generally received with lively approbation by a numerous audience.... After the performances at the Chapel, during which two original odes were sung with excellent effect, the procession returned to the Bridge.”531 Included was a “Voluntary on the organ, by Mr. Shaw” (Providence Patriot & Columbia Phenix, 4 July 1828, 2; Rhode Island American and Providence Gazette, 8 July 1828, 2); at the Providence Museum, “on the evening anniversary of our national independence, the Museum will be fitted up in the best style for the reception of visitors, and during the day and evening the whole will be enlivened by a band of good music. In addition to other novelties, a distinguished musician has been engaged for the occasion to play on the Scotch bag-pipe, which will be an additional attraction to lovers of musical variety” (“Providence Mu-

seum,” Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 2 July 1828, 3); at the Providence Theatre, “this evening, July 4, will be performed Mrs. Inchbald’s celebrated, in 3 acts, Love and Honor or The Midnight Hour. General, Mr. Faulkner. Nicholas, J.M. Brown. Julia, Mrs. Young. After the Comedy, a Double Hornpipe, by Mr. Chipp, and Mrs. Spooner. Comic Song, ‘St. Patrick was a Gentleman’ by Mr. Faulkner. Recitations by Mrs. Young. Comic Song, ‘John Hobbs,’ Mr. J.M. Brown. The entertainments to conclude, for the last time, with the 2d act of the celebrated romantic Opera of Der Freyschutz. Caspar, Mr. Archer. Other Characters, see hand bills. Box Office open at the Theatre, on days of performance, from 3 o’clock until the close of the performance when places and tickets may be had. Boxes 75 cents, Pit 37 1⁄ 2, Gallery 25 cents. Performance to commence at quarter before 8 o’clock [Rhode-Island American and Providence Gazette, 4 July 1828, 3].

Westerly: In Pawcatuck Village, at the “Union Meeting House, where a numerous audience were gratified by appropriate music, a prayer by the Rev. Mr. Swan, the reading of the Declaration of Independence by Mr. Rouse Babco*ck, Jr., and an oration by Mr. Samuel Hassard” were given. “In the evening the village band of music, assisted by vocal amateurs, gave a concert, which was numerously attended and afforded great satisfaction” (“Anniversary Celebrations,” Rhode-Island American and Providence Gazette, 15 July 1828, 2).

South Carolina Charleston: Sung or played at a celebration of the “Charleston Riflemen”: America, Commerce and Freedom — Barney Leave the Girls Alone — Ere Around the Hugh Oak — Hail Columbia — Hail Liberty — Hearts of Oak — Is There a Heart that Never Loved532— Jackson’s Morning Brush533— Let Patriot Pride — Marseilles Hymn — Solemn Dirge — South Carolina Hymn — The Vicar of Bray (Charleston Courier, 7 July 1828, 2); in Charleston at a celebration of the “Irish Volunteers”: Dirge — Erin Go Bragh — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Jackson’s Morning Brush — Life Let Us Cherish — Marseilles Hymn — Oh! ’Tis Love, ’Tis Love — President’s March — Star-Spangled Banner — Yankee Doodle (Charleston Courier, 7 July 1828, 2).

Virginia Mount Vernon: The U.S. Marine Band played Pleyel’s Hymn at the tomb of George Washington with citizens from Washington in attendance (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1828, 3).

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1829 Publications “The following Ode, written for the occasion, was sung at the celebration of our national independence at Worcester”: first line, “While joyous hearts exulting swell.” The last line indicates the name of the tune used: “Our country’s Auld Lang Syne” (“Poet’s Corner,” Pittsfield Sun, 23 July 1829, 4). The following odes were sung in Portsmouth: first line: “We owe to no scepter’d power”; first line: “We who dwell in freedom’s land”; “When the oppressor’s arm is broken,” tune “Dismission” (Portsmouth Journal and Rockingham Gazette, 11 July 1829, 2). “Hymn sung at Hartford, July 4, 1829.”534 First line: “Awake! O Afric! desolate, forlorn.” “Hymn sung in the public meeting in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 4th of July, to aid the American Colonization Society.” By Lydia H. Sigourney. First line: “When injured Afric’s captive Claim.”535 “Hymns for the anniversary of the Hartford Sunday Schools, Saturday, July 4, 1829.” Includes three poems of hymns with tune name designated, and doxology. One hymn poem by Lydia Sigourney, first line: “There seems a voice of murmur’s praise.” Broadside. “Military Song for the Fourth. Tune —‘Auld Lang Syne.’” From the Albany Argus. First line: “Is there a heart forgets the day” (Pittsfield Sun, 2 July 1829, 3). “The Nation’s Birth Day. Air —‘Scots Wha Ha.” First line: “Arise! Columbia’s sons, arise!” Note: “We would recommend to those who are disposed to celebrate this day, the following ode from the New England Palladium” (Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 4 July 1829, 2; Village Register and Norfolk County Advertiser, 16 July 1829, 1). “Ode, composed by the Rev. S.M. Phelps,536 for the celebration of the fifty-third anniversary of American Independence, at Ridgfield, Conn.” First line: “All hail to the day that gave Freedom its birth.” Broadside. Ridgefield, CT, [1829]. Copy in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University. “Ode for the Fourth of July. By N.P. Willis, sung in Boston. Air —‘I See Them on Their Wending Way.’” First line: “Our country’s iron age is gone” (Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 8 July 1829, 1; “Poetry,” Vermont Gazette, 11 August 1829, 4). “Odes, to be Sung at the Celebration of American Independence in Springfield, July 4, 1829.” Ode (first line: “To thee, almighty king above”; Ode: (first line: “All hail the day, when freemen dear.” Broadside, [Springfield, NH, 1829]. “With Thy Pure Dews and Rains,”537 words by John Pierpont, and music by Lowell Mason. Boston: Mason Bros., 1829. This was sung at the Park Street Church in Boston.

1829

Performances Connecticut Hartford: “The late anniversary of our national Independence was celebrated in an interesting manner by the Sunday Schools in this city.... The Centre Church was opened for their reception, and at ten o’clock nearly all the schools in the city, with their teachers, together with the schools from West Hartford, Wethersfield and Newington, were assembled for religious exercises. A Hymn written for the occasion by one of the teachers was first sung; Prayers were next offered by the Rev. Mr. Hawes; another Hymn, also written for the occasion, was then sung; after which an appropriate address was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Brace, of Newington. The exercises were concluded by singing another Hymn.” Close to 1500 persons attended this event. (“Fourth of July,” Connecticut Courant, 7 July 1829, 3). See Publications above. Norwich: Members of the Norwich Lyceum and Mechanics’ Institute marched to the town hall, where the exercises were held. “The music under the direction of Mr. Phelps, was admirably fine, far superior, we think, to that of any former occasion” (Norwich Courier, 8 July 1829, 3).

District of Columbia “At one o’clock the President [Andrew Jackson] received the visits of his fellow citizens in the oval apartment of the Presidential mansion.... The fine military band attached to the Marine Corps attended in the outer hall, and gratified the company during the day by the performance of many national and other inspiring airs” (“Fourth of July,” from the Washington Telegraph and published in Farmer’s Cabinet, 18 July 1829, 2; National Intelligencer, 4 and 7 July 1829, 3 and 3, respectively); President Jackson along with the Marine Band were supposed to attend a cornerstone laying ceremony for lock of the C & O Canal but the event was canceled due to severe rain (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1829, 3; “Fourth of July, 1829,” Richmond Enquirer, 7 July 1829, 2; Pittsfield Sun, 16 July 1829, 2).

Maine Alfred: A band of music, under the direction of Moses Witham of Sanford, performed at the exercises held at the meeting house. Other musicians of the band included George Chadbourn, Robert Tripp, of Sanford, and James Garey of Alfred. The band also played tunes in front of the Adams’ Hotel as a procession marched by. A dispute arose when William B. Holmes, chairman of the committee of arrangements, asked the band to play the “Rogues’ March” as Republicans approached the hotel. The musicians refused but after several orders from Holmes they complied. The affair created a scandal that was printed in various newspapers (“Mr. Holmes and the Rogue’s March” and “Mr. Holmes and His March,” Eastern

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1829 Argus Semi-Weekly, 31 July and 18 August 1829, 2 and 2, respectively).

Maryland Baltimore: At five o’clock, on the morning of the fourth, agreeably to previous arrangement, the company was formed in Holliday St. and thence marched on board the steamboat Independence, Captain Robinson, for the purpose of celebrating the anniversary of the enfranchisem*nt of their country. On leaving the wharf, the band attached to the corps, under the command of Captain Walter, struck up “Auld Lang Syne,” the company then being on the upper deck, presenting to the numerous spectators an imposing and gratifying spectacle. At 10 o’clock the company with the invited guests and passengers were assembled on deck, for the purpose of hearing read the Declaration of Independence. Mr. Edward J. Mosher appeared upon the stand, whilst the band played “Hail Columbia,” and after having made some pertinent remarks, relative to the cause which led to its adoption, proceeded to read the Declaration in a distinct and audible voice; on the conclusion of which the band struck up “Washington’s March.” The company were then dismissed, and enjoyed themselves in various amusem*nts until about 2 o’clock, when they sat down to a sumptuous and splendid dinner.

According to the newspaper report, a song “composed by a member, was sung on the occasion”: first line, “Come join in mirth and glee.” In addition, toasts were drank with the following tunes performed: Tune, Freedom’s Jubilee—President’s March—Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Marion’s March538— Carroll’s March — Hail Columbia — Funeral Dirge — Lafayette’s March — Home! Sweet Home! (“Celebration of the Fourth of July by the Marion Corps,” Baltimore Patriot, 6 July 1829, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the municipal celebration at the Old South Church, “in the course of the exercises, were sung three excellent Odes, appropriate to the occasion, and written, one, by Mr. N.P. Willis,539 another by Mr. Wm. Hayden, and a third by Mr. Stephen Bates. They were sung with great effect by the choir” (see Publications above). A Colonization Society event held at the Palladium on Broomfield Street, “the following hymn sung on this occasion, speaks for itself; it was composed for the occasion, by Mr. [G.V.B.] Forbes; and for harmony of numbers and chasteness of sentiment, it is rarely surpassed”: first line, “On mount, and tower, and fortress height” (Columbian Sentinel, 4 and 8 July 1829, 4 and 2, respectively; “At Boston,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1829, 3); at a celebration of the Sunday Schools of the Baptist societies at Federal Street Meeting House, “the meeting was introduced by singing the following hymn — sung by the children”: first line, “Our Father,

from thy throne above.” After a reading from the Scriptures, the following hymn was sung by the congregation: first line, “Oh, sweet is Freedom’s lovely ray.” After an address, “the following hymn was sung by the children”: first line, “Our Father, on this joyful day” (“Religious Celebration 4th July,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 18 July 1829, 1). Hanson: Choirs made up of singers from Congregational, Methodist, and Universal societies spent the afternoon in singing (An Address Delivered at Hanson, Mass. On the Fourth of July, 1829. By Gad Hitchco*ck (Higham, [MA]: Farmer and Brown, 1829). Copy in Massachusetts Historical Society. Salem: The “Order of Exercises” at the Tabernacle Church was: I. Anthem. II. Prayer. III. Reading of the Scriptures. IV. Hymn. V. Prayer. VI. Hymn. VII. An Address by the Rev. Professor Worcester. VIII. Collection in behalf of the American Colonization Society. IX. Anthem. XI. Doxology. XII. Benediction.

Both hymns were noted as originally composed: first lines, “Come, lift to God a rapt’rous song” and “Lo! in His temple we appear” (Salem Gazette, 3 and 7 July 1829, 3 and 2, respectively).

North Carolina Salem: Moravians performed Haydn’s oratorio The Creation with a “full corps of instrumental and vocal musicians of Salem” in the Church there “to the pleasure of the congregation.”540

Pennsylvania Lancaster: Friends of Andrew Jackson dined at Mr. Wien’s, after the exercises at the Court House. Musical selections performed included: Music, Hail Columbia — Music, Washington’s March — Music, Hail to the Chief— Long Life and Success to the Farmer—Governor’s March541— Music, The Soldier’s Return — Jefferson’s March — Music, Auld Lang Syne — Dead March in Saul542— Yankee Doodle — The Star-Spangled Banner — Oh! ’Tis a Wonderful Alteration — Granuale — Liberty Tree — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourselves — Home, Sweet Home — The Rogues March — The Vicar of Bray — Love’s Young Dream (“The Fourth of July,” Lancaster Journal, 10 July 1829, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: After a procession from the “Parade” through city streets to the Meeting House, the exercises included prayers, reading of the Declaration and an oration. “The music will be under the direction of Messrs. B. Marsh, Jun, Wm. R. Atkinson and T.

137 Stacey, Jun.” (“Fifty-third Anniversary of Independence,” Newport Mercury, 4 July 1829, 2). Providence: At the Providence Theatre, the play Castle Spectre was presented and included the “comic song of the beautiful boy” sung by Mr. Phillips. Also performed was “the new musical drama of the Invicibles, including the song “Fall Not in Love” (Providence Patriot & Columbian Phenix, 4 July 1829, 3).

South Carolina Charleston: “The various patriotic associations, the purpose of whose institution is to honor the occasion, assembled at their usual places of meeting, and walked in procession, accompanied with bands of music, and attended by their respective orators, to the churches appropriated to receive them” (“Celebration of National Independence,” Richmond Enquirer, 24 July 1829, 1).

Tennessee Maryville: A hickory tree, “70 feet in height”was raised to the sound of a band of music “which slowly approached, and having taken their stand in front, were occasionally interrupted by the roar of the cannon.” A procession to the church followed, where “an appropriate hymn was then sung, accompanied by the band of music.” (Knoxville Register as reprinted in Salem Gazette, 1 September 1829, 2.)

Virginia Petersburg: At the town’s exercises held at the Theatre, there was “music from the band, and a patriotic song, ‘Hail to the Morn,’ sung with much force.” At the “sumptuous dinner, prepared by Messrs. Blick and Rawlings” that followed, there was also “music from the band”: Marseilles Hymn — Scots Wha Ha — Washington’s March — Hail Columbia — Tyrolese Air — Ere Around the Huge Oak — Auld Lang Syne — Jefferson’s March — Jackson’s March — Star-Spangled Banner543— Minute Gun at Sea544— Pillar of Glory — Oh Say Not Woman’s Heart is Bought545 (“53rd Anniversary,” Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1829, 2).

1830 Publications “The following-arranged from an Ode by William Hayden, Jr. was sung at the celebration in this town, July 5th, 1830. Tune ‘Eaton.’” First line: “Again the glorious day dawns on” (“Poetry,” Berkshire Journal, 15 July 1830, 1). “The following Hymn, composed for the occasion by Park Benjamin, Esq.546 was sung at the celebration of the 54th anniversary of American Independence, in this city [Norwich, CT].” First line: “No cloud sailed through the bright, blue sky” (“Poetry,” Norwich Courier, 7 July 1830, 4). “‘Freedom’s Jubilee.’ An Anti-Slavery Song.” New-

1830 Britain, CT. Broadside. Copy in Connecticut Historical Society. “‘Hymn for Fourth of July.’ By the Rev. J.D. Knowles.” First line: “Hail, day of Freedom! let the beam” (Westfield Register, 21 July 1830, 4; “Poet’s Corner,” Pittsfield Sun, 22 July 1830, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July. Air —‘Hail to the Chief.’” First line: “Hallow’d the day from the eastward advancing” (Portsmouth Journal and Rockingham Gazette, 3 July 1830, 2).

Performances Connecticut Springfield: At the “festival in commemoration of our Independence ... near the village ... about 300 Gentlemen and Ladies” heard “a fine band of music [that] sent up its joyous notes to heaven, mingled with the rustling of the leaves as the evening breeze reveled among them” (“Springfield,” Connecticut Courant, 13 July 1830, 3).

District of Columbia At a dinner celebration held at Williamson’s Hotel, music accompanying toasts included: America, Commerce and Freedom—Come Haste to the Wedding— Hail Columbia — Jackson’s March — Lake Champlain — March (3)— Pleyel’s Hymn — President’s March — Roslin Castle — Star-Spangled Banner — Yankee Doodle (National Intelligencer, 12 July 1830, 2).

Maine Portland: A Republican procession ended at the Baptist Meeting House where “a spirited choir of Music, whose performances were excellent, added to the animation of the scene.” Following, 568 persons joined in a dinner at the Bower, after which toasts were drank accompanied by the following pieces: Air, Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief Who in Triumph Advances, &c547— Jefferson’s March — Yankee Doodle — Speed the Plough — Columbia Land of Liberty — Jefferson and Liberty — Perry’s Victory — Scots wha hae wi’ Wallace Bled — O, Here No Fetters Cramp the Mind548— Jackson’s March — O, Dear, What Can the Matter Be — Funeral Dirge — Here’s a Health to All Good Lasses (“Splendid Celebration!” Eastern Argus Semi-Weekly, 9 and 13 July 1830, 2, and 1, respectively).

Maryland Baltimore: At 5 A.M. on July 5, “the company was formed in Holliday Street, and under the command of Capt. Wm. C. Cook, marched thence on board the steam boat Philadelphia” whose destination was Chestertown. “On leaving the wharf, the Band, under the command of Capt. Roundtree, struck up several appropriate airs. At 11 o’clock, the company, with the invited guests, were assembled on the deck for the purpose of hearing read the Declaration of Independence. The band played ‘Hail Columbia.’” After the

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1830 Declaration was read, “the band struck up ‘Washington’s March.’” After visiting Chestertown, the group returned to the vessel “and at 2 o’clock sat down to a splendid and sumptuous dinner” followed by toasts and the following music: Hail Liberty — President’s March — Yankey [sic] Doodle — Washington’s March — Jefferson’s March — Carrollton’s March — Hail Columbia — All Hail to the Brave and Free — Funeral Dirge — Star-Spangled Banner — Lafayette’s March — Auld Lang Syne — Home, Sweet Home (“Celebration of the Fourth of July by the Marion Corps,” Baltimore Patriot, 8 July 1830, 2); at White Hall Gardens, a “series of entertainments” attended by “a full and sufficient orchestra,” included “a grand dramatic olio: The Happy Days of Robin Roughhead and Sylvester Daggerwood, with the comic song “Melos Cos Maotis, or, Four and Twenty Fiddlers All in a Row,” followed by “Jerry go Nimble, or, Honey and Mustard,” by Mr. Durang. The production ended with the comic ballet the Cobbler’s Frolic, or the Devil among the Tailors (Baltimore Patriot, 3 July 1830, 3).

Massachusetts Dorchester: At the morning service, psalm 90 “from the version used by the Puritan settlers” was sung “as by them, line by line being read.” First line: “Lord, thou hast been our sure defence.” In the afternoon, three psalms 44 (“C.M., from the version of Tate & Brady, introduced into use here on the first Lord’s day in July, 1762”) 145 (“C.M., from Dr. Watt’s version, introduced on the first Lord’s day in July, 1793”), and 90 (“L.M., from the Collection of Psalms and Hymns by Dr. Belknap,549 introduced on Thanksgiving-day, November 6th, 1801”) were sung. “The day, being that on which the Lord’s Supper was celebrated, the following Hymn was sung after the Communion”: first line, “Give us, O Lord, the living bread” (Memorials of the First Church in Dorchester, from Its Settlement in New England, to the End of the Seconde Century, En tivo Discouses, Delivered July 4, 1830. By the Pastor, Thaddeus Mason Harris. Boston: W. L. Lewis, 1830). Salem: At the Tabernacle Church in the afternoon, exercises included the singing of an “original hymn by the Rev. [James] Flint, of this town.” First line: “Freemen, we our charter’d rights.” Also, “the following original hymn, which also made a part of the services, was written for the occasion by Mr. J.F. Worcester,550 of this town”: first line, “Ah, from whence these notes of sadness” (“Independence,” Salem Gazette, 6 July 1830, 2).

New Hampshire Atkinson: “A very large and respectable number (about 500) of the citizens of Atkinson and its vicinity assembled at the Academy” and proceeded, “accompanied with a band of Musick from Plaistow,” to the meeting house. “The exercises were attended with appropriate music under the superintendance of Mr. B.F. Carter.” When the services ended, the group

“marched back to the Academy, accompanied with music and the discharge of Artillery” (“Celebration of Independence at Atkinson,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 26 July 1830, 3). Deerfield: The Deerfield Temperance Society met on July 5 at the Congregational Meeting House, with more than 1000 persons assembled there. The day began with a parade, “escorted by a band of excellent musick,” from the “school room” to the meeting house. After an address, “the attention of the audience was then diverted by the ingenious performance of several pieces of musick” (“A New Mode of Celebration,” New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 26 July 1830, 3). New Boston: At the meeting house, “several pieces of appropriate Music were performed by the Choir, and a select piece by Mr. Milton Carter, much to the satisfaction of the assembly.” Following at the town’s “common,” a dinner was served and toasts were drank, “accompanied by the ... cheers of a fine band of music” (“American Independence,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 July 1830, 3; “American Independence,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 19 July 1830, 2).

New York Ithaca: The following program took place at the Methodist Chapel: 1. Prayer 2. Musick 3. Declaration of Independence by J.N. Perkins, esq. 4. Musick 5. Oration by B.G. Ferris, esq. 6. Prayer 7. Musick 8. Benediction

(“National Anniversary,” Ithaca Journal and General Advertiser, 30 June 1830, 3); “The day was ushered in by a salute of thirteen guns, the ringing of bells, and the playing of the national tune by the Ithaca Band”; at the Clinton House, dinner and toasts took place and the following tunes were performed: Tune, Yankee Doodle — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief (“Anniversary Celebration” and “At the Clinton House,” Ithaca Journal and General Advertiser, 7 July 1830, 2). Libertyville: A parade included “an excellent band of musick” and “lady singers.” At a grove near town, songs were sung and music by the band: Tune, Yankee Doodle — American March — Genesee March — New Constitution — Delanas Grand March551— Bennington’s Assembly — Hail Columbia — Honey Moon—La Fayette’s March—Jefferson and Liberty— York Fugelier [sic]552— Freedom’s March (“Anniversary Celebrations,” Ithaca Journal and General Advertiser, 14 July 1830, 2). West Point: The celebration took place on July 3. “At 11 o’clock the cadets marched from their encampment to the Chapel, preceded by their excellent band,

139 and displaying their banners.” Following a reading of the Declaration, “the Choir next sang the Marseilles Hymn” (National Intelligencer, 12 July 1830, 2; Rhode Island American, Statesman and Providence Gazette, 13 July 1830, 1).

North Carolina Tarborough: These three songs were noted in a Virginia newspaper as sung on Independence Day with selected toasts: Song, Hail Columbia — Song, Bruce’s Address — Song, America, Commerce and Freedom (“Toasts Drank at Tarborough, N.C.,” Richmond Enquirer, 16 July 1830, 2).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: Democratic citizens gathered for the exercises held at the Masonic Hall and heard the following pieces of music: Auld Lang Syne — Dirge — President’s March — Roslin Castle — Grand March — Star-Spangled Banner — America, Commerce and Freedom — Over the Hills and Far Away — Dead March (“At the Masonic Hall,” Richmond Enquirer, 16 July 1830, 2).

1831 the younger part were ‘tripping it on the light fantastic toe,’ to the sound of excellent music procured from Richmond.” At dinner, “through the politeness of the commanding officer at Bellons arsenal, the military music was procured from that post, and played during dinner appropriate and patriotic tunes”: Music, Hail Columbia—Music, Death March, Logan Water—Music, Death March in Saul—Music, Death March, Roslin’s Castle — Music, Yankee Doodle — Music, America, Commerce, and Freedom—The Girl I Left Behind Me — Music, The Star-Spangled Banner—Music, Marseilles Hymn—Music, Soldier Sleep Thy Warfare O’er — Music, Believe Me, If All those Endearing Young Charms554 (Richmond Enquirer, 16 July 1830, 1). Lynchburg: Invited guests and militia numbering “about 130 or 140” heard the following two pieces that accompanied toasts: Jackson’s March — March to the Battle Field (“Toasts Selected,” Richmond Enquirer, 16 July 1830, 2).

1831

Rhode Island Bristol: The Bristol Temperance Society met at the Congregational Meeting House for services which included a prayer, reading of the Declaration of Independence, and an address to the Temperance Society by John Howe. “The services were interspersed and enlivened by the singing of several anthems, which were performed in a very superior manner, by the choir under the direction of Col. Bourn” (“Celebrations of the Fourth,” Rhode Island American, Statesman and Providence Gazette, 13 July 1830, 4). Newport: The day included a parade through city streets to Trinity Church where the exercises featured music “under the direction of Mr. Wm. R. Atkinson” (“Anniversary of Independence,” Newport Mercury, 3 July 1830, 2). Providence: A parade took place to the First Baptist Meeting House where there was an “overflowing audience.” “The performances were relieved at proper intervals by the singing of three odes. The manly and powerful voice of Mr. Coburn,553 who sang solos, gave to this part of the services unusual attraction. Two of the odes were original, the first (first line: “Shout for the day which gave birth to a nation!”) by Mr. A.C. Ainsworth, and the last a happy parody upon the ‘Pilgrim Fathers’ (first line: “Old England’s flag wav’d high”), by Mr. S.M. Fowler” (Rhode-Island American, Statesman and Providence Gazette, 7 July 1830, 2). Warren: At the exercises held at the First Baptist Meeting House, “the singing, under the direction of Capt. John Harte, was chaste and appropriate” (“Celebrations of the Fourth,” Rhode Island American, Statesman and Providence Gazette, 13 July 1830, 4).

Virginia Hallsboro: Celebrated on July 5. “The company began to assemble about half past ten, and by twelve,

Among the many musical works sung and published across America this Fourth of July, the highlight was the premiere of Samuel F. Smith’s “America,”555 performed in Boston at the Congregation Church on Park Street by a children’s choir led by renowned music educator Lowell Mason.

Publications “Anthem to the Fourth of July.” First line: “Oh God, in the midst of thy temple we stand.” “From the Charleston Courier” (The Orchestra,” New-Hampshire Sentinel, 22 July 1831, 4). “The following Ode was written by Edwin Jocelyn, Esq. and sung at the late anniversary celebration of American Independence, at Salem, Mass. Ode — Tune—Marseilles Hymn.” First line: “Wake, freemen, the song of glory” (Rhode-Island Republican, 16 August 1831, 4). “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hark! Hark! from the mountains, a merry song” (Genius of Universal Emancipation [August 1831]: 63). “Ode for the Fourth of July. By Richard Emmons.” First line: “Let deaf ’ning cannon peal to heaven” (Workingman’s Advocate, 2 July 1831). “Odes for the Fourth of July, 1831, at Hanover [NJ?].” Broadside, Hanover, 1831. Ode (first line: “Conven’d once more to celebrate”)/Ode (first line: “O God, Supreme o’er earth and skies”)/Ode (first line: “Hail, natal day, that gav’st our Nation birth”). Copy in Brown University. “Odes Written for the Celebration of the FiftyFifth Anniversary of American Independence, in Warwick, Orange Co.,” by Benjamin Burt.556 Three untitled songs: Tune — Star of the East (first line: “All

1831

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“America” (“My Country, ’tis of thee),” words by Samuel Francis Smith, to the tune “God Save the King,” was first performed on July 4, 1831, by a children’s chorus at the Park Street Church in Boston. Noted music educator Lowell Mason led the performance. “America” quickly became an important piece in the musical repertoire of the Sabbath school movement at that time, as well as a national patriotic icon having numerous performances on the Fourth. Shown is a print edition of “America,” cited as a “National Hymn,” in Lowell Mason’s Carmina Sacra: or Boston Collection of Church Music (Boston: Wilkins, Carter & Co., 1844 (author’s collection). hail! ye sons of our blest independence”); Tune — Bruce’s Address (first line: “Hail ye sons of liberty”); Tune — Columbia (first line: “Columbia! within thee a standard is found”). Broadside, [Goshen, NY?, 1831). “Original ode. Written for the young men’s celebration of American independence in Taunton —1831.” First line: “God of universal nature.” Broadside, [Taunton, MA, 1831]. Copy in Brown University. “Song for the Fourth of July.”557 First line: “The Trumpet of liberty sounds thro’ the world” (Workingman’s Advocate, 25 June 1831; “Poetry,” Norwich Courier, 29 June 1831, 4; Atkinson’s Saturday Evening Post, 2 July 1831; Vermont Gazette, 5 July 1831, 4; Liberator, 9 July 1831558). “The subjoined patriotic and beautiful Ode, written by William G. Simms, Esq., editor of the Charleston City Gazette, was sung with great effect at Charleston (S.C.), on the occasion of the celebration of the recent National Anniversary, by the ‘Union and States’ Rights Party,’ previous to the oration by Col. Drayton. Air —‘Bruce’s Address.’” First line: “Hail, our country’s natal morn” (Connecticut Mirror, 30 July 1831, 1; Eastern Argus Semi-Weekly, 29 July 1831, 1).

Performances Connecticut Hartford: A parade of military companies included “five or six excellent and full bands of music, whose superior performances added not a little to the spiritstirring interest of the scene.” After the exercises at the South Church, the procession reformed and marched to the City Hall, “where a dinner had been prepared by Mr. Bennett, of the Franklin House.” Following the dinner, “toasts were then drunk, accompanied, at intervals, by the performances of an excellent band of music, and the firing of cannon” (“Hartford Celebration,” Connecticut Mirror, 9 July 1831, 2).

District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band559 performed the “StarSpangled Banner” in the Rotunda of the Capitol immediately prior to an oration presented by Francis Scott Key560 (Globe, 6 July 1831, 2); Gaetano Carusi and family hold a dinner for “Heads of Departments” and “foreign Diplomatic Corps”in their Washington assembly rooms for the participants of the ceremony that was held in the U.S. Capitol that day: Auld Lang

141 Syne — Come Haste to the Wedding — Franklin’s March — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Jackson’s March—Jefferson’s March—Marseilles Hymn— The Meeting of the Waters561— Roslin Castle — StarSpangled Banner — Washington’s March (National Intelligencer, 4 and 9 July 1831, 3 and 3, respectively; Globe, 7 July 1831, 2).

Maine Portland: A procession “under the escort of the Truckmen in Uniform, who kindly volunteered and the Mechanic Blues, commanded by Lieut. Stoddard” marched through city streets to the Union Meeting House on Casco Street. “An overture was here performed by the Portland Band and a voluntary upon the Organ, accompanied by the choir” (“Celebration of Independence,” Eastern Argus Semi Weekly, 8 July 1831, 2).

Maryland Chestertown: The Chester Republican Blues military company “marched to the wharf to meet the Marion Corps of Baltimore” which arrived in the steamboat Maryland. The Marions’ band performed “inspiring” music from the deck and marched with “animating notes” to the Fountain Inn for refreshment. Later at the Protestant Church, “after the conclusion of each of the exercises, the Band animated the audience by the sweet strains of sacred or sprightly music” (“Fourth of July Celebration,” Baltimore Patriot, 15 July 1831, 2). Frederick: The day began with “some patriotic tunes from a band of intinerating musicians” (Frederick-Town Herald, 9 July 1831, 3). Rockville: In the Protestant Episcopal Church, the exercises included the singing of “an ode composed for the occasion” (“Fourth of July,” Maryland Journal and True American, 6 July 1831, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Sunday School celebration at the Park Street Church, “several original hymns were beaufifully sung by the Juvenile Choir under the direction of Mr. Lowell Mason” Samuel F. Smith’s “America”562 is fifth on the “Order of Exercises” and was premiered that day (“Celebrations,” Boston Recorder, 6 July 1831, 107; Broadside). Marblehead: Citizens escorted by militia paraded to the Rev. Bartlett’s meeting house, where after an oration by Nathaniel P. Knapp,563 an Ode written by Knapp was presented: first line, “All hail! again, the day of glory!” (“Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 8 July 1831, 4). New Bedford: The “Young Men” of Bedford organized a procession at the town hall that included Washington Artillery and New Bedford Light Infantry, “accompanied by the Bridgewater Band of Martial Music to the First Congregational Church.” George W. Warren composed an Ode which “was sung in a truly masterly style and with the happiest ef-

1831 fect” (“Celebration of Independence,” New Bedford Mercury, 8 July 1831, 2). Quincy: “The following Psalm, written for the occasion by the Hon. J.Q. Adams,564 was sung at the celebration in Quincy, July 4th, 1831.” First line: “Sing to the Lord, a song of Praise” [Adams wrote in his diary, “my own version of the 149th Psalm”]; “The Pilgrim Fathers”565 (first line: “The Breaking waves dashed high”). Sung by Col. Newhall, with the chorus “Glory to God in the highest, peace on earth, and good will towards men”; anthem, “Lord Byron’s Hebrew melody, ‘Go forth to the Mount, bring the Olive-branch Home’”; a song, “Trumpet of Liberty” (Website: An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera.) Adams cites “Mrs. Hemans”566 as the author of the song (Newport Mercury, 16 July 1831, 1; “Poetry for the Fourth of July,” Niles’ Register, 16 July 1831, 345–46; Norwich Courier, 20 July 1831, 4; New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 1 August 1831, 4). Salem: The exercises at the North Church: I. Voluntary on the Organ. II. Anthem. [First line: “O God! from the house where thou dwellest, we raise”] III. Prayer by the Rev. Lemuel Willis. IV. Hymn. [First line: “Begin the high celestial strain”] V. Oration by the Hon. Stephen C. Phillips. VI. Ode — Written by Edwin Jocelyn, Esq. Tune —‘Marseilles Hymn.’ [First line: “Wake, Freemen, wake the song of glory”] VII. Prayer by the Rev. John P. Cleaveland. VIII. Anthem. [First line: “Lift your voices!”] IX. Benediction.

(Salem Gazette, 1 and 5 July 1831, 3 and 2, respectively; An Oration, Delivered at the Request of the Young Men of Salem, July 4, 1831. By S.C. Phillips. Salem: Printed by Warwick Palfray, Jun., 1831; “American Independence: Order of Exercises at the North Church, July 4, 1831.” Broadside. Salem, MA: Foote and Brown, 1831. Copy in Brown University.

New Hampshire Effingham: After a procession the celebration took place at “the new and elegant meeting house, where the exercises were introduced by singing an ode composed by Mr. E.C. Mason.” Following an oration, “at the close of which a psalm, adapted to the occasion, was sung by the choir of singers, and the exercises were closed by benediction from the chaplain. The procession then moved with martial music to the bower, where an excellent dinner was furnished by Capt. Towle” (“Celebration at North Effingham,” NewHampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 25 July 1831, 2). Newport: A parade from the Newport Hotel to the meeting house included “a superb band of music, which was collected and prepared for the occasion by Major David Harris.” A dinner followed with toasts “interspersed with appropriate patriotic songs” and “accompanied by music by the band, and the discharge

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1832 of artillery” (“Celebration at Newport,” from the New Hampshire Spectator as printed in New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 18 July 1831, 2).

music, including an ode, “under the direction of Mr. Marcus Coburn” (“National Festival,” Rhode Island American and Gazette, 1 July 1831, 2).

New York

South Carolina

Ithaca: The Ithaca Youths’ Temperance Society met at the Baptist Meeting House at 11 A.M. The exercises included singing several works (Ithaca Journal and General Advertiser, 29 June 1831, 3). New York: At a celebration that included members of the Common Council, associations and guests, numbering about 204 persons and performed following toasts: Bruce’s Address—Come Haste to the Wedding — Grand Canal March — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Home, Sweet Home — Marseillois Hymn — Oh Breathe Not His Name — La Parisienne — President’s March — Star-Spangled Banner — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (Globe, 9 July 1831, 3).

Charleston: At a celebration of the “Union Party,” accompanied the toasts: America, Commerce and Freedom — As a Beam O’er the Face of the Waters — Black Joke568— The Breeze Was Hush’d — Carry One — The Day is Departed — Governor’s March — Hail Columbia — Home, Sweet Home — Jefferson’s March — Keen Blows the Blast — The Last Rose of Summer — The Legacy — Let Every Pagan Muse Begone — The Light-House — Meeting of the Waters — President’s March—Set from Ocean Rising—Solemn Dirge — Solemn Dirge — Tis All But a Dream — Yankee Doodle (Globe, 15 July 1831, 3); “About 4 o’clock in the afternoon, a dinner party of 1400 persons assembled at the ‘Union Bower,’ to partake of the good things of the occasion.” Toasts were accompanied by the following pieces of music: Ye Sons of Columbia who Bravely Have Fought — The President’s March — Let Every Pagan Muse Begone — Home, Sweet Home — Meeting of the Waters —’Tis All but a Dream — Carry One — The Light House — Ye Mortals Whom Fancy and Troubles Perplex — America, Commerce and Freedom — The Day is Departed — Black Joke (“Fourth of July in Charleston,” Rhode-Island Republican, 19 July 1831, 2); at the First Presbyterian Church, a four-voice choir sang: Ode (“Hail, our country’s natal morn”) to the tune “Scots wha hae wi’ Wallace bled”— Ode569 (“We will gather in pride to the glorious rite”), to the tune of “StarSpangled Banner,” and accompanied on organ by Jacob Eckhard570 and a “Second Original Ode, sung by the Choir in like manner as the first (air — Scots wha hae we’ Wallace bled; [first line]: ‘Hail, our country’s natal morn!’”) (Charleston Courier, 6 July 1831, 2; “Union and States Rights Celebration,” National Intelligencer 14 July 1831, 2; Globe, 15 July 1831, 3; “Poetry for the Fourth of July,” Niles’ Register, 16 July 1831, 345; Eastern Argus, 2 August 1831, 1). See also Publications above.

North Carolina Salem: Moravian bandmaster Johann Heinrich Leinbach leads the Salem Light Infantry Band in its first parade there.567

Ohio Zanesville: Performed by the Zanesville Band at a friends of Andrew Jackson dinner celebration at the “new Market House,” before 500 persons: American National March — Come Haste to the Wedding — Euterpian Air — Grand Canal March — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Hurrah for the Bonnets of Blue — Jefferson’s March — Life Let Us Cherish — March in Memory of Washington — Miss Musgrave’s March — Swiss Guards March — Yankee Doodle (Globe, 16 July 1831, 3).

Pennsylvania Pittsburgh: On Stewards Island, on the Allegheny River, opposite Pittsburgh for friends of “the National Administration” by a German Band and played following a toast: Hail Columbia — Jackson’s March — The Last Rose of Summer — Little Wot Ye Wha’s Coming — Yankee Doodle (Globe, 14 July 1831, 3). Philadelphia: At a Fourth of July dinner, “Hon. John Sergeant” introduced a toast to Henry Clay which followed by a rendition of “Hail to the Chief ” (“The 4th of July Dinner at Philadelphia,” Baltimore Patriot, 8 July 1831, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: The celebration included a parade and exercises at the Second Baptist Meeting House. “The music on the occasion was under the direction of Col. Benj. Marsh, and gave much satisfaction to a numerous audience” (Rhode-Island Republican, 12 July 1831, 3). Providence: At the First Baptist Meeting House, citizens, members of the military, various dignitaries, including the Governor, heard selected pieces of

Virginia Mathews: A celebration held at the Mathews Court House and performed for the Volunteer Corps of Light Infantry: Auld Lang Syne — Come Haste to the Wedding — Hail Columbia — Jackson’s March — Marsellois Hymn — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (Globe, 12 July 1831, 3).

1832 Publications “Celebration of Independence at Hingham, July 4, 1832.” Includes Hymn by the Rev. Dr. Willard. First line: “Let freeborn empires offer prayer.” Broad-

143 side. [Hingham, MA, 1832]. Copy in Brown University. Grand Chorus for the Fourth of July. “Just received at J M Ives’s [book store] (“New Piano Music,” Salem Gazette, 29 June 1832, 4). “An Ode for the 4th July 1832.” Music composed by George Webb. For solo voices, chorus (SATB), and piano. Manuscript copy in New York Public Library. “Ode for the Fourth of July.571 Written for the NewEngland Anti-Slavery Society.” By “J.E.” Tune, “Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “Shall Afric’s children be forgot.” “Ode for the Fourth of July.572 Written for the New-England Anti-Slavery Society.” By “J.E.” Tune, “Scots Wha Hae.” “Ode written for the 4th of July, 1832.” First line: “Fearful and dark the clouds that hung” (“Poetry,” New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 9 July 1832, 4).

Performances Maine Gorham: In the parade to the “Meeting House of the first Parish” were two military companies of infantry with “a Band of Music.” At the meeting house, “with the other services, a number of pieces of music were performed by the choir, accompanied by the Organ and Band” (“Celebration at Gorham,” Eastern Argus, 24 July 1832, 4). Portland: Democratic Republicans gathered at Union Hall and marched, led by the Portland Band, to the “Church of the first Baptist Society.... The services were enlivened by music from a select choir, with taste, effect and excellence” (“Republican Celebration,” Eastern Argus, 6 July 1832, 2). York’s Corner: Citizens of York’s Corner, in Standish, Hollis, and Buxton met at the Methodist Church, in which after an address and prayer, “the hymn beginning with ‘Before Jehovah’s Awful Throne’ was then sung” (“Celebration at York’s Corner, in Standish,” Eastern Argus Semi-Weekly, 3 August 1832, 3).

Massachusetts Hingham: “It may not be amiss to notice, as something rare, that besides other novelties produced on the occasion, an Ode sung, written by the Rev. Mr. Pierpont of Boston” (Salem Gazette, 13 July 1832, 2). See Publications above. Ipswich: After a parade, the exercises at the Rev. Kimball’s Meeting House included a “voluntary by the band”; an anthem “Strike the Cymbal”; anthem “Great is the Lord.” A newspaper reported that those in the parade “were accompanied by an excellent martial band, from Salem, whose beautiful tones echoed sweetly over ‘the land of hills and streams,’ and gave a striking brilliancy to the whole scene. The music at the church was under the direction of Mr. Josiah Caldwell, and the several anthems were performed

1832 with much spirit and effect” (Salem Gazette, 6 July 1832, 2). Methuen: After military parades, a flag presentation, and procession to the Baptist Meeting House, “religious services” included a reading of the Declaration of Independence, and an oration. “The performances by the band and choir of singers were highly acceptable and gratifying to a crowded audience (“Celebration of the 4th in Methen [sic],” Essex Gazette, 14 July 1832, 3). Salem: “Religious celebration of American Independence, at the Tabernacle Church, July 4, 1832. Order of Exercises”: I. Voluntary on the organ. II. Invocation, and reading select Scriptures, by the Rev. Brown Emerson. III. Anthem. IV. Prayer, by the Rev. Rufus Babco*ck. V. Hymn. VI. Address, by the Rev. Charles G. Porter, of Gloucester. VII. Collection in aid of the American Colonization Society. VIII. Anthem. IX. Prayer by the Rev. Wm. Williams. X. Doxology. XI. Benediction. [Salem Gazette, 3 July 1832, 2].

Ohio Darby Creek: “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1832” by Otway Curry “sung at the celebration at Darby-Creek, O.” First line: “God of the high and boundless heaven!” (Cincinnati Mirror, and Western Gazette of Literature, Science, and the Arts, 21 July 1832, 175).

Rhode Island Greenville: “The fifth-sixth [sic] anniversary of American Independence, will be celebrated at the house of Mr. Harvey Perry in Greenville. A procession will be formed, attended by a band of music, at Mr. Perry’s at 11 o’clock, A.M. and move to the Meetinghouse, where an oration will be pronounced by the Rev. Mr. Pickering of Providence, and other appropriate exercises at the meeting house...” (Rhode Island American and Gazette, 29 June 1832, 1). Newport: The committee of arrangements for the exercises at the meeting house named Col. B. Marsh, Jr. as director of the music (“Anniversary of Independence,” Rhode-Island Republican, 3 July 1832, 2).

Virginia Powhatan: After the ceremony at the Court House, members of the military and citizens “sat down to a splendid dinner, furnished by Mr. Bellow.” Music was provided as the toasts were drunk: Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune Jackson’s March — Washington’s March — Jefferson and Liberty — Tyrolese Song of Liberty—Marseillois Hymn—Hail Columbia—Yankee Doodle — Star-Spangled Banner — The Campbells are Coming — Tune, Earl Moira — Tune, The

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1833 American Star573— Tune — Haste to the Wedding (“Fourth of July Celebrations,” Richmond Enquirer, 13 July 1832, 4). Richmond: An assemblage of military and citizens gathered at the Theatre and heard “Hail Columbia” and “Yankee Doodle” and other martial music performed during the exercises. Following that the group went to Howard’s Grove where after a collation and dinner, the toasts included the following music: Washington’s March — Tune, Home Sweet Home — Yankee Doodle — Marseillois Hymn — Auld Robin Gray574— Governor’s March — Jefferson’s March — The Glasses Sparkle on the Board575— Oh! say Not Woman’s Heart is Bought (“Fourth of July Celebration,” Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1832, 3).

1833 Publications “Anthem for the Fourth of July, 1833.” First line: “On this auspicious day” (National Intelligencer, 4 July 1833, 3). “The following hymn, composed for the occasion, was sung as a part of the services, to the tune of Old Hundred”: first line, “Let grateful nations join to raise” (An Oration Delivered before the Gloucester [Massachusetts] Mechanic Association, on the Fourth of July, 1833. By Robert Rantoul, Jr. Published by request. Salem: Printed by Foote & Chisholm, 1833). “Odes to be Sung at the Celebration of the Fourth of July, 1833, in the Third Presbyterian Church.” Broadside, [Newark, NJ: Newark Young Men’s Society, 1833]. Ode (First line: “Raise-raise the shout victorious”/Ode (First line: “Oer mountain, hill, and dale”). Copy in Brown University. “The Triumph of Union,” to the tune “The StarSpangled Banner” (Globe, 6 July 1833, 2).

Glory — Roslin Castle — America is Free — My Own Fire Side — Silent Honor — Thimble’s Scolding Wife Lay Dead — Dirge — New York March (“Celebration of the 4th of July at Macon,” Georgia Telegraph, 10 July 1833, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: The exercises577 at the Old South Church included: I. Voluntary on the organ, by G. J. Webb. II. Ode. [first line: “Come up, and praise Him, all the throngs”]. III. Prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Fairchild. IV. Reading of the Scriptures, by the Rev. Mr. Barrett. V. Original Ode. Tune, Benecento [first line: “Many a year has rolled away”]. VI. Oration, by Edward C. Prescott, Esq VII. Hymn. Tune, “Old Hundred” [first line: “Great God! beneath whose piercing eye”] VIII. Benediction [“Order of Services at the Celebration of American Independence, in the Old South Church, July 4, 1833.” Broadside. Website, An American Time Capsule].

New York Poughkeepsie: “At 11 o’clock the steamboats Providence, of Newburgh and the Norfolk, of New Windosr, arrived both crowded with passengers, among whom were a great number of ladies, and each boat with a band of music on board.” At the service held at the Presbyterian Church, military units and citizens from these towns enjoyed “excellent” music by the choir. “A hymn and two odes appropriate to the occasion were sung to the good old tones of Old Hundred, Hail Columbia, and Bruce’s Address. The Newburgh band also played Hail Columbia in fine style.” Later the group enjoyed a dinner on the hill at the back of Mr. Jarvis’ Hotel. Toasts were accompanied by music from the bands (Independence, 10 July 1833, 2).

South Carolina

Performances Georgia Macon: Republicans of Macon celebrated with erecting “a splendid pole of great height,” a procession from Washington Hall to the Baptist Church where the exercises were held. Later a public barbecue was attended by the assemblage at the warehouse of Mr. Goddards where toasts were presented with the following music: Tune, U.S. March — Hail Columbia — Presidents March — Yankee Doodle — Star-Spangled Banner — Auld Lang Syne — Washington’s March — Ye Sons of Freedom Awake—The Trumpet Sounds— Governor’s March — Dead March — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— O love, ’Tis Love — Star-Spangled Banner—Van Burens Grand March576—The Retreat — Fidelity, or Genius of Liberty — Aloft Columbia’s Banner Waves — Stand Out of the Way Little Boys — Pleyels Hymn — Hail Columbia — Pillar of

Charleston: A number of military units and members of the Washington Society “with their invited guests” marched “with banners flying and spirit-stirring music” from the market to the 2nd Presbyterian Church. “At the commencement and close of the ceremonies in the church, were sung by a tuneful choir, the favorite anthems of the Union Party, composed by Wm. G. Simms, Esq. and the Rev. Mr. [Samuel Foster] Gilman, which so beautifully blend the spirit of poetry with the spirit of patriotism.” The Washington Society dined at Hauschildt’s on Charleston Neck at three o’clock P.M.” A local newspaper reported that “a band of music was in attendance, and a spirit of social and patriotic hilarity animated the company.” The following tunes were performed: Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — The Legacy — The Meeting of the Waters—The Star-Spangled Banner— Dear Native Home — Jefferson’s March — Hail to the

145 Chief— The Light House — Welcome to the Feast — The Last Rose of Summer — Old Virginia Never Tire — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— God Save the United States — Union and Liberty; at the dinner held by the Revolution Society and ’76 Association, the following works were performed: Tune, Hail Liberty — Star-Spangled Banner — Dear Native Land — The Minstrel Boy — Governor’s March — Sound the Loud Timbrel — Remember the Glories of Brian the Brave — Dirge — Hail to the Chief— America, Commerce, and Freedom — South Carolina Hymn — Scots wha hae — Is There a Heart That Never Loved; “A large number of the Volunteers dined together at the City Hall” where toasts were drank and the following works performed: Nullification March — Tyrolese Air — Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Go to the Devil and Shake Yourself— Home, Sweet Home — Hail to the Chief (“Fourth of July,” Charleston Courier, 19 July 1833, 4; “Fourth of July,” Richmond Enquirer, 19 July 1833, 4).

Virginia Leesburg: “The Volunteer Company of Light Infantry, commanded by Capt. W.C. Selden, accompanied by the band, and attended by many citizens, proceeded to the Methodist Episcopal Church, about 12 o’clock, where the ceremonies were commenced by the Rev. Mr. Hargrave, of the Presbyterian Church” (Richmond Enquirer, 23 July 1833, 2). Norfolk: After a large parade of military units and a flag ceremony, there were exercises at the Presbyterian Church where “the prayer was followed by the 21st Psalm, sung in admirable taste by the choir.” An anthem followed a reading of the Declaration of Independence (Richmond Enquirer, 12 July 1833, 4). Oakley (Charlotte County): “At 1 o’clock the company sat down to a good and plentiful dinner, well prepared by James Lawson.” Toasts were accompanied by the following music: Hail Columbia — Tune, Washington’s March — Tune, Star-Spangled Banner — Tune, Bruce’s Address — Tune, Lafayette’s March — Tune, Auld Lang Syne — Tune, Jefferson’s March — Tune, Madison’s March — Tune, Rousseau’s Dream — Tune, Home, Sweet Home — Tune, Jackson’s March — Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, Come, Haste to the Wedding (Richmond Enquirer, 30 July 1833, 3). Petersburg: In the evening of July 4, five military companies, three of which were from Richmond, marched to Bath Spring “where a dinner had been prepared for the occasion.” Toasts were drank to the sound of artillery and “accompanied by the grand and sweet music of the Richmond Bands, which are an honor to their city and an ornament to their companies”: Hail Columbia — Scots, wha hae578— Washington’s March—Jefferson’s March—Auld Lang Syne — Pillar of Glory — Jolly Fellows, Fill Your Glasses — Jackson’s March — Minute Gun at Sea579— Ere around the huge oak — Tyrolese Air — Marseilles Hymn — Oh Say Not Woman’s Love is Bought

1834 (“The Anniversary,” Richmond Enquirer, 16 July 1833, 1). Richmond: “Our Volunteer Companies having accepted the invitation of their brethren of Petersburg, our own celebration was stript [sic] of much of the ‘pomp and circ*mstance’ of military exhibition.” At the First Presbyterian Church, the various Sabbath schools gathered to hear several addresses and “hymns suitable to the occasion were sung by an excellent Choir.” At the dinner held at Buchanan’s Spring, “from 70 to 80 citizens and guests” heard the toasts presented “interspersed with animating cheers and some fine songs” (“Fourth of July,” Richmond Enquirer, 9 July 1833, 3). Scottville: At the Washington Tavern, the men celebrated with toasts accompanied by the following music: Tune, Yankee Doodle — Tune, Hail Columbia—Washington’s March—Tune, Jefferson and Liberty — Madison’s March — Monroe’s March — Marseillois Hymn — Tune, What signifies the life o’ man, if ’twere not for the lasses o (Richmond Enquirer, 16 July 1833, 2). Winchester: A parade included the military, mechanics, citizens, officers of the railroad company, and a band of music. The parade had floats, including a car of printers at work with a printing press all “drawn by four white hourses.” During the parade, “the press was busily employed in striking off an ode, written by A.W. Settle, Esq. of Farquier County, of which about one thousand copies were worked off, and scattered through the crowd during the procession.” Later, services were held at the Lutheran Church. “The choir, led by Peter Hardt and Wm H. Grove, poured forth rich music” (“Domestic,” Richmond Enquirer, 12 July 1833, 2).

1834 Publications “Air, Adams, and Liberty. Ode, 4th July, 1834.”580 Sung at a Whig celebration in Boston. Broadside, in An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera (Library of Congress Website). For solo voice, chorus, and organ. Copy in Newbury Library, Chicago. “The following lines are written preparatory for the 59th anniversary of American Independence. Air — ‘The Star-Spangled Banner.’” First line: “Republicans hark! Hear the cannon’s deep sound.” Piece signed “Y.B.” (“Poetry for the N.H. Patriot,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 14 July 1834, 4). “Ode for a Jackson Celebration, July 4th 1834.” Sung to the tune “Hail to the Chief.” First line: “Ninety-nine cheers for the hot-headed hero!” (Frederick-Town Herald, 16 August 1834, 2, as a reprint from the Boston Mercantile Journal). “Ode for Fourth of July.”581 First line: “Again the

1834 glorious morn returns” (Farmer’s Gazette, 4 July 1834, 2). “Ode, written for the Whig celebration, in Worcester, July 4th, 1834.” By Charles Thurber. First line: “Where golden Phoebus shed his rays.” Broadside, [Worcester, MA, 1834]. Copy in the American Antiquarian Society. “Original Hymn582 sung [twice, to different tunes] on the 4th of July, at the Chatham Street Chapel [New York City?].” By “John G. Whittier. Tune, “Old Hundred and Wells.” First line: “Oh, Thou, whose presence went before.” “Original ode composed for the celebration of the 58th anniversary of American independence, by the Trades’ Union of Boston and vicinity. Of which, several thousand copies were printed and distributed by the Printers Association as the procession marched through the streets.” First line: “Hark! Hark! with a lengthened, exultant paean” (“Poetry,” Lancaster Journal, 8 August 1834, 4); broadside, [Boston, 1834] is printed “By D.J.N.” Copy in Brown University. “Original ode, sung at the Whig celebration in this town [Portsmouth], 4th inst. Tune Adams and Liberty.”583 First line: “Come strike the bold paean, let the organ’s soft note” (Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 8 July 1834, 1). “Song. Written by C. Stark, Jr. and sung by Maj. J.E. Estabrook. Tune — Star-Spangled Banner. ‘The American Star.’” First line: “All hail to the star, that so brightly is beaming” (New-Hampshire Patriot, 14 July 1834, 1). “Song, written by John W. Moore, and sung by Maj. J.E. Estabrook,584 at the Democratic celebration in Concord, July 4, 1834. Tune —‘Knight Errant.’” First line: “Most glorious day — most happy hour” (“Poetry,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 21 July 1834, 4). Songs for the Whig Celebration: July 4, 1834 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1834). Includes “Ode, for the celebration of the 4th July, 1834,” at Boston, by Grenville Mellen; “Ode,” by I.[saac] McLellan: first line, “Praise to the warlike whigs of old,” to the “Air — Auld Lang Syne”; “The Lyre and Sword” (first line: “The Freeman’s glittering sword be blest”) by George Lunt.585 A newspaper reported that “several hymns, odes, and songs were produced for this celebration. We have room only for the following, Ode by Grenville Mellen”: first line, “I see them on their winding way”; “Song”: first line, “Come listen my friends, while to preface a toast” (Salem Gazette, 8 July 1834, 1); another report cited “the following Ode, written by William Hayden, Esz. For the Whig Celebration, we copy from the Boston Atlas”: “The Constitution”: first line, “The Constitution! Let it stand” (Salem Gazette, 8 July 1834, 2). “Whig Celebration. 4th July. 1834. Order of exercises.” No place of publication indicated. First lines: “Arise ye people clap your hands”; “When stern oppression’s iron rod”; “My country! ’tis of thee”; “Clime!

146 beneath whose genial sun.” Copy in New York Historical Society.

Performances Maine Gardiner: The Gardiner Union Temperance Society celebrated with a parade and exercises at the church. A band participated in the procession and a “hymn, L.M.”586 was sung during the services: first line, “Salvation doth to God belong” (“Fourth of July,” Christian Intelligencer and Eastern Chronicle, 4 July 1834).

Maryland Annapolis: The Theta Delta Phi Association of St. John’s College celebrated in the State House. The Baltimore City Guards Band performed several “national airs” (Baltimore Patriot, 7 July 1834, 2).

Massachusetts Barre: A procession formed at Hathaway’s Hotel began with music and marched to “the Rev. Mr. Thompson’s Meeting House” where the exercises began with a “Voluntary by Mr. Mandell,”587 and included a Hymn and Ode, the latter’s first line: “When stern oppression’s iron rod” (“Fourth of July” and “Celebration of the Fourth of July at Barre,” Farmer’s Gazette, 4 and 11 July 1834, 2 and 2 respectively). Boston: A Sabbath School Union celebration at the Baptist Church on Federal Street included two original hymns “sung by a choir of children under the direction of Mr. Lowell Mason.... At the close of the exercises, the 117th psalm was sung by the whole congregation to the tune of Old Hundred” (“Fourth of July,” Liberator, 12 July 1834, 112). See Publications above. Salem: There were two celebrations that day. At the “religious exercises at the South Church, commencing at 10 o’clock, A.M.,” among the exercises was “excellent Music, by a select Choir.” These three hymns and a doxology were sung: first lines: “Hark the song of jubilee”; “My country! ’tis of thee”; “Great God of nations, now to thee”; “From all that dwell below the skies.” At the North Church, an “apprentices’ celebration” took place. “Amongst the musical performances, was the singing of an Original Ode, composed for the occasion by Miss M.C. Ruce588— a very creditable production. After the services at the Church, the Escort, the Committee, the Marshals, and the Choir, partook of a bountiful Collation at the Town Hall.” Present at the latter affair were over 200 apprentices of theYouthful Mechanics of Salem. First line for the ode: “Ye sons of America, weep o’er the dead” (“Apprentices’ Celebration” and “Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 4 and 8 July 1834, 2 and 1, respectively).

New Hampshire Concord: At the Baptist Meeting House, in the ceremony there “several anthems were performed by the

147 Mozart Society, led by H.E. Moore”589 (“Democratic Republican Celebration at Concord,” New-Hampshire Patriot, 14 July 1834, 1). New Ipswich: “A procession was formed preceded by a band of musick” and marched to the “new Meeting House “where prayers were offered by the Rev. Mr. Bates, a spirited oration was delivered by Mr. Silas Foster, singing of the first order by a choir of volunteers.” At the dinner, toasts were drank “accompanied by musick and firing of canon” (“Celebration at NewIpswich,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1834, 2). Portsmouth: Public school procession beginning at the Methodist Episcopal Meeting-House in State Street to the North Meeting House where the following exercises were held: March by Band. Voluntary. Prayer. Hymn. Declaration of Independence. Ode —“Hark! The Song of Jubilee.” Address. Ode —“My Country ’Tis of Thee.” Benediction.

(“Fourth of July School Celebration,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 4 July 1834, 2.); a “Whig Celebration” in Portsmouth included a procession and at the North Church, it was noted that “the highly satisfactory performance of the musical choir at the church was more interesting from the fact, that ladies and gentlemen from the choirs of almost every society in town had voluntarily united in the interesting services of this occasion” (“Whig Celebration of Independence,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 8 July 1834, 2). See Publications above.

North Carolina Charlotte: The Salem Light Infantry Band, led by Johann Heinrich Leinbach, performed tunes for officials and citizens.590

Pennsylvania Adamstown: A stage eight feet high was erected in a grove “for the use of the ‘Adamstown Band of music’ consisting of twenty four members [who] did infinite honor to themselves and to the day.” A procession to the spring was preceded by the Band. Toasts included the following music: Hail Columbia—Capt. Warner’s March — Garryown for Glory — Auld Lang Syne — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Roslin Castle — Adeste Fidel.— Scot’s wha hae — Washing Day591— Oh Let Us In This Ae Night (“Fourth of July,” Lancaster Journal, 18 July 1834, 1).

Rhode Island Newport: The music for the parade and exercises at the Second Baptist Meeting House were “under the direction” of Mr. Benjamin Marsh, Jr. (“Anniversary

1835 of Independence,” Rhode-Island Republican, 2 July 1834, 2).

Virginia Cartersville: “A brilliant assemblage of ladies and gentlemen from Cumberland and the adjacent counties, were conducted into a ballroom, prepared for the purpose, at Thomas McCoy’s Tavern, enlivened by the finest performers on the violin that the State affords” (“Celebration at Cartersville,” Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1834, 3). Columbia: Performed at Mrs. Lee’s Tavern following a toast: Auld Lang Syne — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Home! Sweet Home — The Star-Spangled Banner — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (Richmond Enquirer, 15 July 1834, 3). Nottoway: The day began with an “animated parade,” in which the Nottoway Cadets “marched to the field, to the tune of ‘Hail Columbia! happy land!’” At the grove, the musicians played “Yankee Doodle.” Later the dinner was concluded with toasts and the following music: Tune, Hail Columbia — Tune, Washington’s March — Star-Spangled Banner — Jackson’s March — Tune, Gilderoy — The Campbells Are Coming — Tune, Yankee Doodle — O Say Not Woman’s Love is Bought (“Nottoway Celebration at Jennings’ Ordinary,” Richmond Enquirer, 18 July 1834, 1). Petersburg: At Poplar Springs, a dinner was available for the militia and citizens, and the mayor of Petersburg, George Harrison, presided. Toasts were accompanied by the following music: Washington’s March — Scots Wha Hae — Ere around the Huge Oak — Jeffrson and Liberty — Roslin Castle — Jackson’s March — Pillar of Glory — Tweed Side592— The Campbell’s Are Coming — Tyrolese Air — Marseilles Hymn — Oh! Say No Woman’s Love is Bought (Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1834, 2). Richmond: At a dinner celebration held by the Volunteers of Richmond, music was supplied after the toasts “by the fine band at the R.L.I. Blues”: Hail Columbia — Auld Lang Syne — Marseilles Hymn (“Fourth of July Celebration,” Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1834, 2).

1835 Publications “The following Hymn, composed for the occasion, by the Rev. W.P. Lunt, was sung by the Choir”: first line, “O Thou! to whom our fathers pour’d.” (An Oration Delivered before the Citizens of the Town of Quincy, on the Fourth of July, 1835, the Fifty-Ninth Anniversary of the Independence of the United States of America. By Solomon Lincoln. Hingham: Jedidiah Farmer, 1835, 31). “Hymn, written for, and sung at the commemoration of American independence in Geneva, July 4,

148

1835 1835. Tune — Hark, the song of Jubilee.” First line: “Hark! the hymn of liberty” (The Zodiac; a Monthly Periodical, Devoted to Science, Literature, and the Art ... (September 1835): 1, 3). “National ode, written for the Fourth of July celebration at Southbridge, Mass ... 1835.” First line: “Awake, arise, ye sons of liberty.” Broadside, [Southbridge, Mass., 1835]. Copy in Brown University. “Ode by Willis Gaylord Clark.593 Celebration of the Athenian Society of Bristol College [Bristol, Pennsylvania]. July 4, 1835. Air —‘Star-Spangled Banner.’” First line: “Hail, hail to the day, when with Memory’s wand.” Library of Congress, An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. “Original Hymn sung at Salem, July 4, 1835.” First line: “Who are the Free? The Sons of God.”594 “Original Hymn sung by the children of the Belknap St. Sabbath School, July 4, 1835, while celebrating the national jubilee.” First line: “Soon shall the trump of freedom.”595 “Original Ode. Written to be sung on the fiftyninth anniversary of American Independence, by Mrs. S.R.A. Barnes.” First line: “The glad green earth beneath our feet” (“Poetry,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 20 July 1835, 4). “Ode to Independence. Supposed to be sung at the celebration by the Ladies.” Signed “M.” First line: “Come from thy temple, Fame” (from the Troy Budget as printed in “Miscellaneous,” Pittsfield Sun, 23 July 1835, 1). “A Patriotic Song. Written for the celebration of independence at Londonderry [NH], by the Yankee Bard.” First line: “The Federal clan has now began” (New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 20 July 1835, 4). “Select Hymn sung at the first annual meeting of the Old Colony, Plymouth County Anti-Slavery Society, July 4, 1835.”596 First line: “Soon Afric’s long enslaved sons.” Sons of Columbia: a national song written for the Fourth of July, and set to music by Theodore Ascherfeld. Broadside, Philadelphia: A.. Auner, [1835?]. First line: “Rejoice, ye sons of Columbia!” “The music to the above with a spirited march, is for sale at G. Andre & Co’s music store, 1104 Chestnut Street.” Copy in Duke University Library.

Performances Alabama Montgomery: “On board the steamer Little Rock, which arrived on Sunday from Mobile,” the Fourth was celebrated with an oration and an Ode composed by John Howard Payne597 “and spoken by himself.” First line: “When erst our sires their sails unfurl’d” (Richmond Enquirer, 24 July 1835, 4; “Poetry,” Salem Gazette, 31 July 1835, 1).

Delaware Wilmington: The Washington Band accompanied a parade of manufacturers and mechanics from Brandywine into the city. At City Hall, they were joined by Johnson’s Band “and an elegant well disciplined company from Philadelphia (“Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Delaware Gazette and American Watchman, 7 July 1835, 2).

Massachusetts Beverly: At the Union celebration held at “the Rev. Mr. Abbott’s Meeting House ... the services were interspersed with suitable music—anthems, hymns, and a spirited original ode, by Mr. Flagg,598 of Beverly” (“Union Celebration of the Fourth of July, at Beverly” and “The Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 3 and 7 July 1835, 3 and 2, respectively). Boston: The celebration at the Old South Church included “musical services ... performed by the Boston Academy with much taste and effect” (Farmers’ Cabinet, 17 July 1835, 2). Lynn: Included a parade of military units with a band of music through the streets to the pavilion where the exercises began with an anthem. Two hymns were also sung, one “written by the Rev. Dr. [James?] Flint”: first line: “In pleasant lands have fallen the lines.” The ceremony also included an “ode written by Hon. Jonathan Shove,599 the music composed by H.K. Oliver, Esq.”600 An anthem and benediction ended the service (“Whig Celebration at Lynn,” Salem Gazette, 7 July 1835, 2). New Bedford: A juvenile sabbath school celebration was scheduled to open with a “voluntary by the Juvenile Choir,” followed by two hymns and a patriotic song. Luke P. Lincoln601 was asked “to take charge of the music on the occasion, and that the music be juvenile” (“Sabbath School Celebration,” New Bedford Mercury, 3 July 1835, 2). Salem: At the Sabbath school celebration held at the South Meeting House the “order of exercises” were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Voluntary and Hymn. Invocation, and selections from Scripture Hymn. Prayer. Hymn. Address, by the Rev. Mr. Worcester. Hymn. Prayer. Doxology.

“Exercises will commence at half past 8, A. M.” (“Fourth of July,” Salem Gazette, 3 July 1835, 3); at an anti-slavery celebration held at the Howard Street Church, the order of exercises were: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Voluntary. Reading the Scriptures. Prayer. Hymn.

149 5. Address, by the Rev. Samuel J. May. 6. Collection for the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. 7. Hymn, “Old Hundred.” 8. Benediction.

“Exercises to commence at three o’clock, in the afternoon” (“Anti-Slavery Celebration,” Salem Gazette, 3 July 1835, 3); at a political party held in a hall, two songs were sung: first line: “We’ve models worthy of all imitation”; “The Battle of Lexington”602 (first line: “When the troops of Britain came”) (Salem Gazette, 31 July 1835, 2). See also Publications above.

1836 (Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 11 July 1835, 2). Whitefield: “The exercises at the Town House were interspersed with music both from the band and choir” (“Whitefield Celebration,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 20 July 1835, 3).

Rhode Island Newport: At the Second Baptist Meeting House, “the music on the occasion, will be under the direction of Mr. W. Nutting”604 (“Anniversary of Independence,” Newport Mercury, 4 July 1835, 2).

Missouri

Vermont

St. Louis: An “ode, written for the occasion, by a lady of this city, was sung at the church by the choir, under the direction of Mr. Huntington.” “Air — StarSpangled Banner.” First line: “Proud day for Columbia, we hail thee with song!”603 (“The Fourth,” Daily Evening Herald, 6 July 1835, 2); at Lucas’s Grove, “about half a mile” from St. Louis, a Corps of Marions celebration had the following music interspersed with toasts: Hail Columbia — Jefferson’s March — Washington’s March—Hail to the Chief—President’s March — Jefferson and Liberty — Star-Spangled Banner — Missouri Belle — Star-Spangled Banner — Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Love’s Young Dream and Auld Lang Syne (Daily Evening Herald, 7 July 1835, 1–2).

Burlington: Ode, by Willis Gaylord Clark, sung to the melody of “Star-Spangled Banner” at the Athenian Society celebration held at Bristol College. First line: “Hail, hail to the day.” Broadside, “Ode by Willis Gaylord Clark,” (Burlington: J. L. Powell, 1835); American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera

New Hampshire Hanco*ck: The Hillsborough Band and a choir at the meeting house —“The music selected for the occasion was well arranged and performed by the choir in a spirited and chaste manner” (“Celebration at Hanco*ck,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 13 July 1835, 2). New Chester: “The day was ushered in by the discharge of cannon and the ringing of bells. At eleven o’clock, the procession was formed under the direction of Col. John S. Bryant, as marshall [sic], assisted by four deputy marshals, and proceeded to the east meeting house, escorted by the Franklin Rifle Company, commanded by Capt. Jeremiah Green, where, after appropriate musick by the choir and prayer by Elder Martin, the following ‘Ode,’ composed for the occasion by G.W. Summer, Esq., was sung.” First line: “Should independence be forgot.” “The services closed with musick, and prayer by the Rev. J. Clement” (“Celebration at New-Chester,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 13 July 1835, 3). Portsmouth: A procession assembled by the Young Men’s Society for Mutual Improvement marched with an escort provided the Rockingham Guards to the “Universalists” Meeting House. The exercises included a “performance by the Juvenile Choir, under Mr. Gordon, [and] was not the least interesting part of the exercises. An hundred sweet voices, swelling the notes of joy on Freedom’s Jubilee, partook in no small degree of a fairy illusion which poets are so prone to revel in”

Virginia Cumberland: The exercises included “the sound of the finest band of music that could be procured — the two Scotts, from Charlottesville, whose fame on the violin it would be superfluous to sound; Mr. Vaughan’s celebrated performer, George; and Blind Bill, unequalled on the octave flute.” At the dinner, “patriotic songs were occasionally interspersed, at the call of the company, which gave life and animation to the scene” (Richmond Enquirer, 14 July 1835, 1). Petersburg: At the dinner prepared by “Mr. Nathaniel Blick, the Proprietor of the Poplar Spring House” at Poplar Lawn, the following music works accompanied the toasts: Tune, Hail Columbia — Washington’s March — Marseilles Hymn — Jefferson’s March — Lafayette’s March — Ere Around the Huge Oak — Ca Ira — The Campbells Are Coming — Yankee Doodle — President’s March — Star-Spangled Banner — The Pillar of Glory — Here’s a Health (“Petersburg Celebration,” Richmond Enquirer, 10 July 1835, 2). Round Hill: Citizens of this town as well as Southampton, assembled near Boykin’s Mill for a dinner with toasts “interspersed with appropriate music, and accompanied by a discharge of cannon”: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s March — Dirge — Home, Sweet Home — Hail Columbia — The Campbells Are Coming — Wife, Children and Friends (“Celebration at Round Hill,” Richmond Enquirer, 31 July 1835, 3).

1836 Publications “Columbia’s Birth-day, Again We Behold.”605 Ode

150

1836 for 4th July, 1836; written by H.F. Gould,606 music by Lowell Mason. Boston: Shepley & Wright, 1836. “The following original ode for independence, was sung on the 4th, during the services at the Old South Church, Boston, with excellent effect: Ode for Independence.” First line: “Columbia’s birthday again we behold” (Farmer’s Cabinet, 15 July 1836, 4). “Hymn for the Fourth of July. By N.P. Willis.” First line: “Joy to the pleasant land we love” (“Poetry,” Youth’s Companion, 1 July 1836, 28). Jackson’s Grand March. By S. Knaebel. Boston: Parker & Ditson, 1836. Performed at the Boston Democratic Celebration by the Boston Brass Band. Copy in Johns Hopkins University. “From the Songs of the Free. ‘Fourth of July.’607 Mary Ann Collier.” First line: “Heard ye the mighty rushing?” (“Poetry,” Essex Gazette, 2 July 1836, 1; Haverhill Gazette, 2 July 1836, 2). “Song for the Fourth of July. Air—‘The Star-Spangled Banner.’” First line: “To the sages who spoke — to the heroes who bled” (Atkinson’s Casket, no. 10 [October 1836]:503).

3. Singing — Anniversary of Independence —“We come with joy and gladness,” &c. 4. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Lathrop. 5. Singing — Freedom’s Star608—“When rolling orbs from chaos sprung.” 6. Oration by the Rev. Mr. Merrick, Principal of the Methodist Episcopal Seminary, Amenia, N.Y. 7. Singing — God Save America —“My country, ’tis of thee, sweet land of liberty,” and a Adieu to Dissipation —“O thou source of ills unnumbered.” 8. Address to the children, by the Rev. Mr. Lathrop. 9. Singing, in succession, the following, viz.: “Daughter of Temperance, arise from thy mourning”; The Star-Spangled Banner, “O say, can you see by the dawn’s early light”; The Jubilee, a parody on Bruce’s Address; “Fourth of July Ode” [first line: “This is the day on which our sires”] for a Juvenile Temperance Society, by Mrs. Sigourney,609 written for the occasion.

Later, “in a delightful and finely shaded grove,” as the youth ate fruits and pastries,

Performances Connecticut Berlin: A procession “escorted by an excellent band of music” from the Universalist Church to the Presbyterian Church at 10 A.M. was followed by a ceremony. “The singing at the church was of the first order—appropriate pieces were selected and well performed. A constant discharge of artillery was kept up while the procession was moving from one church to the other. After the services at the church, the procession was again formed, and — escorted by the band — proceeded to a beautiful grove, where about seven hundred persons partook of an entertainment” (“Fourth of July Celebration at Berlin,” Connecticut Courant, 18 July 1836, 3). Salisbury: “The anniversary of American independence was celebrated in Salisbury, by the Juvenile Temperance Society, under the direction of a committee of gentlemen appointed for that purpose.... At noon, a procession was formed and proceeded to the Congregational Church”: 1. A Juvenile Choir of Singers, consisting of about one hundred children, under fifteen, and several of them not more than four or five years of age. 2. Members of the Juvenile Temperance society, and other children who were present. 3. President of the day, Clergy, Vice Presidents, and Committees for the day. 4. Parents and other citizens.

“Having entered the Church, the audience attended with great delight, to the following order of exercises”: 1. Music, Voluntary, tune Old Hundred. 2. Reading of the Declaration of Independence, by Roger Averill, Esq.

the scene was occasionally enlivened by music from the youthful choir. To this choir, under the instruction and direction of Mr. Abel O. Root, the audience were indebted for a large share of the pleasure which was felt in every heart, and lighted up with the smile of joy, every countenance. This experiment of teaching children to sing, and connecting it with such an occasion, has been entirely successful, proving the practicability of teaching quite young children the art of singing, and also its important practical utility in promoting the cause of Temperance among the youth of our country. [“Celebration of the Fourth of July, at Salisbury, Conn.: Temperance and Independence,” Connecticut Courant, 11 July 1836, 3].

South Glastenbury: In this “Factory Village ... engaged in the cotton manufacture,” a procession “formed in front of their house of worship,” was led by a music ensemble that marched to South Glastenbury and through its principle [sic] streets, with perfect regularity and discipline; having their instrumental music, except at proper intervals, when the singers performed some select pieces that were suitable for the occasion. The appearance of this procession was well calculated to soften the heard; but at the same time, animate the feelings with an unusual degree of American freedom. They then marched back to the bower, by the Factory village, that had been formed for the occasion.

They took their seats “and when all were settled, an appropriate prayer was made, which was followed by singing the ‘Ode on Science.’ Then was read the Declaration of Independence, by Mr. W. Norton, Jun., which was followed by the singing of ‘Hail Colum-

151 bia.’” After the address, “another piece was sung, that had been selected for closing the expressions of joy and gratitude on the occasion, the refreshments were handed round, which consisted of cake, lemonade, wine, and water” (Connecticut Courant, 18 July 1836, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: In the Charles Street Baptist Meeting House, the schools belonging to the Boston Baptist Sabbath School Union had “religious exercises” that included the singing of two hymns. The first line of the second hymn: “When our fathers long ago” (“Celebration Fourth of July for the Sabbath School Children,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 15 July 1836, 4). See Publications above. Palmer: No less than 1500 persons participated in the celebration that included a procession with a female choir of singers, composed of about 30 young ladies dressed in uniform white, with blue sashes, their heads wear of flowers” (Pittsfield Sun, 28 July 1836, 2). Pittsfield: A parade from the “coffee house of Mr. Field” to the Congregational Meeting House was “escorted by the Berkshire Band of music.” The exercises were begun with music from the band, “under the direction of Mr. R. Osborn of Lenox,” and “was executed in a creditable and satisfactory manner.” Three pieces were performed during the ceremony (“Independence” and “Democratic Nominations,” Pittsfield Sun, 30 June and 7 July 1836, 3 and 2, respectively). Roxbury: At Mr. Putnam’s meeting house the following works were performed: “Hymn” (first line: “Wake! the song of Jubilee”); “Original hymn” (first line: “Swell forth the organ’s pealing notes!”); “Original ode, The Sons of the Pilgrims” (first line: “The watery waste they trod”), by Henry F. Harrington.610 (Broadside, “Celebration of Independence, at Roxbury: Order of Exercises....” Boston: Marden & Co., 1836.)

Mississippi Natchez: Performed at a dinner held at “Mr. West’s Mansion House”: Auld Lang Syne — Come Haste to the Wedding — The Fencibles March — Hail Columbia — Lafayette’s March — Marseiles Hymn — Old Grimes is Dead611— Rail Road March — Scots Wha’ Hae — Sprigg of Shillalah — The Square and Compass — The Star-Spangled Banner — Yankee Doodle (Mississippi Free Trader, 1 and 8 July 1836, 1–2 and 2, respectively).

New Hampshire Amherst: An assemblage of the “Sabbath School Union, comprising the Sabbath schools of Amherst, Milford, and Mont Vernon” at the meeting house began with a “prayer by the Rev. Mr. Carpenter of Milford, and singing by the choir.” The end of the services was signaled “by singing and an appropriate

1837 concluding prayer” (“Fourth of July,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 8 July 1836, 3). Rindge: At 11 o’clock, not withstanding the day was intensely wet, the choir of singers, consisting of about 30 ladies dressed in white, with a corresponding number of gentlemen, assembled at the Methodist Chapel, and were escorted thence to the Congregational Meeting House by Rindge Light Infantry, accompanied by a band of music. A prayer was then offered by the Rev. Mr. Burnham, and several pieces of music were performed by the choir [directed by S.B. and J.C. Sherwin and A. Cutler]; after which, an address, suited to the occasion, was delivered by the Rev. Mr. Morgan, followed by an Ode (composed for the occasion by Mr. B. Deane) sung by the choir.

First line: “Hail! Liberty! Celestial Maid!” “Several other pieces of music closed the exercises at the Meeting House” (“Fourth of July at Rindge,” New-Hampshire Sentinel, 11 August 1836, 3).

1837 Publications “Exercises at the Meeting-House.” “Temperance Hymn.”/ First line: “Now let us strike the cheerful strain.” “‘The Life-Boat: A Cold Water Song,’ written for the Temperance Union Celebration, at Concord, Fourth of July, 1837 by George Kent, Esq.”/ First line: “Where through the torn garb the wild tempest was streaming.” “‘An Original Hymn’ by Prof. T.D.P. Stone”612/ First line: “Our fathers’ pledge yet stands unbroken.” Broadside, [Concord, NH], 1837. Copy in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University. “Hymn for the Fourth of July. Air, Duke-Street.” First line: “God of this people! Thou whose breath.” [“Utica, July 1, 1837. E.H.C.”]. (“Poetry,” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate, 7 July 1837, 216). “Hymn sung at the annual meeting of the Plymouth County Anti-Slavery Society, on the 4th of July.”613 By George Russell. Tune, [“America?”]. First line: “Sons of the noble sires!’ “Ode for the Fourth of July. Written by James Aiken, Esq. and sung at a celebration in Centre County, Pennsylvania. Original.” First line: “When Grim oppression’s iron hand” (Baltimore Monument: A Weekly Journal ... 8 July 1837, 317). “Ode. Written for July 4, 1837.” First line: “String well the harp! ye chosen free” (Farmer’s Cabinet, 30 June 1837, 3). “Order of exercises at the celebration of the sixty first anniversary of American Independence.”614 Includes National Ode (first line: “Ye sons of Columbia who bravely have fought”) by R.T. Paine; Hymn, 194 Belknap (first line: “O’er mountain tops, the mount of

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1837 God”). Broadside, Newburyport [MA], 1837. Copy in Brown University. “Original Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Hail, hail Independence! all hail to the Fourth!” (Ladies’ Companion, a Monthly Magazine [July 1837]:124). “Whig Patriotic Song.” July 4, 1837 to the air “StarSpangled Banner.” First line: “Midst the turmoil of party and anarchy’s strife” (Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1837, 2).

Performances Connecticut New Haven: “Folsom,” “Hamburg,” “Yarmouth” were sung between addresses at the Sabbath School celebration. Broadside. “Order of exercises.” Copy in New York Historical Society.

Massachusetts Boston: The Boston Baptist Sabbath School Union celebrated at the meeting house on Baldwin Place. “The singing, performed by a juvenile choir, selected from the schools, under the superintendence of Mr. Charles D. Gould, assisted by Mr. Bruce, organist, was uncommonly excellent.” Members of the Boston Sunday School Union of 18 churches celebrated at the Odeon. The music was performed by a juvenile choir, numbering nearly one hundred and fifty children, who sat back of the speakers, and facing the audience. Four hymns, appropriate to the celebration, were sung with the most perfect precision of time, and with the sweetest melody which youthful voices well trained could accomplish. Much credit is due these young performers, and to those who arranged and superintended the music. A young lad, by the name of Copeland, about twelve years of age, sung a patriotic hymn, commencing “Before all lands in east or west,” in a most charming manner. [“Sunday School Celebrations of the Fourth of July,” Zion’s Herald, 12 July 1837, 110].

Quincy: “The children, about five hundred in number, and in a neat, uniform dress, under their several teachers, marched in procession to the first church, escorted by a fine band of music, and attended by the clergymen of the several religious societies, the school committee, municipal authorities, and citizens.” A hymn “written for the occasion by the Rev. William P. Lunt” was sung at the church. First line: “When, driven by oppression’s rod” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July, at Quincy,” Christian Register and Boston Observer, 15 July 1837).

Mississippi Jackson: Performed at “Spring Grove near the upper Steamboat Landing, on Pearl River, to a beautiful bower, formed by Nature’s hand” by a band of musicians: Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle (“Cele-

bration of American Independence,” Mississippian, 7 July 1837, 3).

New Hampshire Fitzwilliam: A procession led by the Fitzwilliam Band gathered in front of the village school house at 11 A.M. Included in the parade were “female singers of both choirs.” The group marched to the North Meeting House where the following program took place: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Anthem by the Choir. Hymn. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Sabin. Hymn. Oration by A.A. Parker, Esq. Voluntary by the Band. Hymn. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Farmer. Hymn. Benediction. Voluntary by the Band.

As reported in a local newspaper, “The Fitzwilliam Band, recently organized by some of our spirited young men, appeared in uniform, and by their skilful manner of performing our national airs, added much to the pleasures of the celebration.” At the dinner held on the common, Mr. Shirley, a Revolutionary War soldier, “gave a patriotic song” and the band performed “spirit-stirring national airs” (“Celebration at Fitzwilliam,” New-Hampshire Sentinel, 13 July 1837, 2). Milford: The Sabbath schools of Milford, Mont Vernon and Amherst met at the Congregational Meeting House “in great numbers.” The exercises included “well performed singing of the appropriate hymns by the choir, rendered the occasion highly interesting, and we trust profitable to all who attended” (“Fourth of July,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 7 July 1837, 3).

Rhode Island Newport: The exercises held at the meeting house included music “under the direction of Messrs. Thos. Stacy, Jr. and Edward Landers” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” Newport Mercury, 1 July 1837, 2).

Virginia Petersburg: A procession through city streets to the theater included a band. After the exercises at the theater, a dinner was provided by Mr. Nathaniel Blick. Toasts were presented accompanied by the following music: Hail Columbia — Scots Wha Hae — Washington’s March—Jefferson’s March—Marseilles Hymn— Ere Round the Huge Oak—Tyrolese Air of Liberty— Should Auld Acquaintance be Forgot — President’s March — Pillar of Light — Yankee Doodle — Haydn’s Andante615— Here’a a Health, &c (“Fourth of July,” Richmond Enquirer, 14 July 1837, 1). Richmond: At a dinner for the Richmond Light Infantry Blues, the toasts presented included the following musical works: Tune, Hail Columbia — Washing-

153 ton’s March — Scot’s Wha Hae — Auld Lang Syne — Star-Spangled Banner — Marseilles Hymn — Dead March — Dirge — Texian March616— Hail to the Chief— Yankee Doodle — Old Virginia Never Tire — Here’s Health to All Good Lasses (“Fourth of July Celebrations,” Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1837, 3). Williamsburg: At William and Mary College, The Norfolk Light Artillery Blues and Williamsburg Guards, and “visitors, faculty and students” heard a number of addresses and later the ceremonies at the church, commenced with music from the organ, and prayer by the Rev. Mr. Parks of Norfolk.... One of the most striking as well as novel incidents of the day at Church, was an anthem to the tune “God save the King,” by the organ and choir. It had upon some a very thrilling effect — Such sounds, I am sure, had not been hard there for more than half a century. Last year, it was said, that the keys were touched by the “pious and delicate fingers of one of Spottsylvania’s beauteous daughters”— on the present occasion, they were acted upon by the more skilful hands of Mrs. Johnson, as organist, an accomplished English lady, who has for some time past, conducted with success, a female seminary in Williamsburg.617 [“Fourth of July in Williamsburg,” Richmond Enquirer, 11 July 1837, 3].

1838 Publications “The following Odes were sung at the Celebration in this town on the 4th inst: ‘Hail Columbia.’” First line: “Hail Columbia! Happy land!”618; “America.” First line: “My Country! ’Tis of Thee”; “Marseilles Hymn.” First line: “Ye Sons of Freedom, wake to glory” (“Poetry,” Rhode Island Republican, 11 July 1838, 4). “Hail Columbia,” “Hymn,” and “Ode” sung at “a juvenile temperance celebration.” Litchfield, Connecticut. Broadside. Copy in Connecticut Historical Society. “Hymn sung at East Bradford, on the 4th of July.”619 By M.P. Atwood. First line: “Bright dawns a nation’s jubilee.” “Hymn sung at the anti-slavery celebration in Charlestown on the 4th of July.”620 By F. Howe. First line: “Now joyous hail the genial light.” “Hymns To Be Sung at the Sabbath School Celebration, on the 4th of July, 1838, at Lewisburg, Pa.” Broadside. Includes text of five hymns. Copy in Bucknell University. “Independence Celebration. A Juvenile Temperance Celebration will be Holden at Litchfield [Connecticut] on the 4th of July, 1838 ... Order of Exercises.” Broadside. Includes text of three songs: Hail Columbia, Hymn, and Ode. Copy in Connecticut Historical Society.

1838 “Lines sung at a meeting of the Westford Anti-Slavery Society on the 4th of July.”621 By Claudius Bradford. First line: “Behold, behold, how earth and sky.” “Ode for the Fourth of July. By Otway Curry.” First line: “God of the high and boundless heaven!” (Hesperian; or, Western Monthly Magazine [July 1838]:244). “Original Hymn sung at Marlboro’ Chapel, July 4, 1838.”622 By P.H. Sweetser. First line: “Who fought their country to redeem.”

Performances Massachusetts Barre: A town procession, and exercises in the church were praised. “Credit is due to the Fitchburg Brass Band for the rich music with which the day was enlivened” (“The Fourth in Barre,” Barre Weekly Gazette, 6 July 1838, 2). Lenox: Republicans and others representing “23 of the towns in Berkshire” processed to the Congregational Church where the music “under the direction of that deservedly popular teacher of psalmody, Mr. M.S. Wilson,623 was of a very superior order, and reflected much credit upon the performers” (“The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 12 July 1838, 2). Lowell: Nearly 3000 school children marched “two in two” with “the usual noisy accompaniment of martial music” to a grove where the exercises were held. They sang “Come, Holy Spirit, Heavenly Dove,” to the tune “St. Martins,” and “an appropriate original hymn, in Old Hundred, closed the exercises” (“Sabbath School Celebrations,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 13 July 1838, 2). New Bedford: The revelry of the Fourth was somewhat diminished because the orator “did not arrive at all” and “the failure of the Boston Brass Band to make their appearance, which they probably would have done had they received a sufficient inducement and seasonable invitation.... Quite a number of the Truckmen we understand went out of town on the occasion, mounted on their horses and preceded by a band of music, intending thus the same day to feast their eyes with the beauties of the adjacent country, their ears with the ‘sweet sounds’ of martial music” (New Bedford Mercury, 6 July 1838, 2). Salem: “Duett and Chorus” (Handel) and “National Hymn (Haydn)” performed “by a select choir, under the direction of Mr. Monds,624 who will preside at the organ” at the Baptist Church (Gloucester Democrat, 3 July 1838, 2). Worcester: A temperance celebration began with a parade “accompanied with excellent music by the brass band at Worcester” to the Central church. After an address and prayer, “an original hymn was then sung by choirs ... a large choir of singers, with a fine organ, well played by our friend Zeuner,625 of Boston, added much to the intent of the occasion” (“Temperance Festivals,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 13 July 1838, 2).

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1839 New Hampshire Portsmouth: The Whigs of Portsmouth held a dinner at Jefferson Hall that included spontaneous toasts. “These were interspersed with agreeable songs, one of which, to the tune of ‘Yankee Doodle,’ was sung by Major Larkin with inconceivable humour and effect; it was handed down, the Major said, from the days of the Revolution, with an injunction that it should never be printed nor sung except ‘on great occasion’” (“Fourth of July,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature & Politics, 7 July 1838, 2).

New Jersey Elizabethtown: “As Israel’s People in Despair,” “Hail to the Day When the Bold Declaration,” and “The Star-Spangled Banner” were sung “in the church.” Broadside. (Fourth of July Celebration at Elizabeth-town. 1838. Order of Exercises in the Church. Elizabethtown, N.J., 1838.) Copy in Brown University.

New York New York: At the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution exercises, included: an “original hymn,” to the tune “America” (first line: “Break forth, ye hills, in song”) by Benj. F. Taylor and sung by the choir; an “original ode,” to the tune “Parma” (first line: “Loud swell the Pean to the skies”), by Wm. Carey Richards and sung by the choir; “select music, ‘Happy the land,’626 &c,” sung by the choir (broadside, “Order of Exercises on the Sixty — Second Anniversary of American Independence, Wednesday, July 4, 1838,” An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera). Sing Sing: A procession of military companies and mechanics’ trades was preceded by the Sing Sing Military Band. After marching to the Presbyterian Church, the exercises included a reading of the Declaration of Independence and an oration, after which “Mr. Robert George Paige627 ascended the rostrum, and sang the following Ode, which some unknown author had the kindness to write for the occasion. Tune —‘Hurrah for the Bonnets of Blue.’” First line: “Here’s a cheer for the land of our birth!” At the close of the song, we are sorry to say, a portion of sealing [sic] in the right wing of the Church gave way, and, falling upon the people below, for a moment created considerable alarm. It being ascertained that no material injury was done, the audience became composed, and listened to a national air from the Band, and the parting benediction.

At Circus Hill where the dinner was served, the band played airs (“Fourth of July,” Hudson River Chronicle, 10 July 1838, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: The exercises were scheduled at the meeting house where “the music on the occasion will be under the direction of Messrs. Edward Landers, Wm.

Coggeshall, and John E. Goff ” (“Anniversary of American Independence,” Newport Mercury, 30 June 1838, 3; Rhode Island Republican, 3 July 1838, 2). Providence: At a dinner celebration, “several temperance songs were sung” (Farmer’s Cabinet, 13 July 1838, 2).

1839 Publications “Hymn for the Fourth of July. Air—The Marseilles Hymn.”628 [“Dear Brother Garrison: If the following extempore effusion be worthy a place in the Liberator, it is at your service. Wm. J. Snelling.”] First line: “Heirs of the brave, who live in story.” “Hymns sung at the Reading Sunday school celebration, July 4, 1839 [Redding, CT].” Broadside, 1839. “Hymns to be sung at the Sabbath school celebration, Millbury, July 4, 1839.” Includes: Three hymns./ Fourth of July. Tune — Auld lang syne; first lines: “To thee, the little children’s friend, their hymn to day shall rise.” / Tune — Bruce’s address; first lines: “Come, ye children, and adore Him, Lord of all, He reigns above.” / Parting hymn. Tune — Old hundred; first line: “Come, Christian brethren, ere we part.” Broadside, Worcester, MA: Spooner & Howland, 1839. “Jonathan’s Independence. Tune — Yankee Doodle.” First line: “Says Jonathan, says he, to-day.” “Pencil annotation reads: Sung in Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1839.” Songsheet, copy in Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (“America Singing: Nineteenth Century Song Sheets,” American Memory website. “Metrical Diversions — No. XIII. By Wilson Flagg. A Song for the Fourth of July. Written for an anniversary in 1837.” First line: “Hark! how the echoes of freedom delighted” (Boston Weekly Magazine, 29 June 1839, 339). “National Temperance Ode, sung at the dinner, July 4, 1839, in Faneuil Hall. By Isaac P. Shepard. Air — America.” First line: “Ye sons of freedom’s clime.” Songsheet. Copy in Rare Book and special Collections division, Library of Congress (“America Singing: Nineteenth Century Song Sheets,” American Memory website). “Ode for the Fourth of July. By Miss H.F. Gould. Air and chorus: “I see them on their winding way.” First line: “Columbia’s natal day all hail!” (Rhode-Island Republican (Newport), 17 July 1839, 4). “Ode sung at the celebration of the 63d anniversary of our national independence, by the ladies and gentlemen of East Bridgewater, July 4th, 1839.” First line: “All welcome here each cheerful friend.” Tune, “Auld Lang Syne.” Broadside, [East Bridgewater, Mass., 1839]. Copy in Brown University.

155 “Odes to be Sung at Newark, July 4th, 1839, at the Young Men’s Celebration.” Includes: Anthem: first line, “The glorious song of liberty”; Ode, first line: “Soldier — dost thou hear the song”; Ode, first line: “Columbia, if, still the patriot fires”; Ode, first line, “Strike the cymbal, roll the tymbal.” Broadside. [Newark, MJ], 1839. Copy in Brown University. “Odes to be Sung at the Juvenile Patriotic Festival, July 4, 1839.” For 1–2 unacc. voices. Includes “Invitation to Praise”; “Jubilee Hymn”; “Anniversary of Independence”; “Before All Lands in East or West”; “Freedom’s Home”; “Auld Lang Syne at School”; “Land of the West”/music by L. Mason; “Huzzah! The Constitution!/music by S[ylvanus] B[illings] Pond629; “Happy Independence Day”; “Hail Columbia”; “Ode”/by Mrs. L.H. Sigourney, to be sung at the Juvenile Celebration on the 4th of July; “Praise for National Prosperity and Liberty”: tune, “Old Hundred.” [United States]: H. Ludwig, printer, 74 Vesey-St., [1839]. Copy in Brown University. “Original Ode” (tune, “Herald”) sung by a choir at the Hamilton Literary and Theological Institution celebration in New York. First line: “Lo! the day, the East adorning.” American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. “Patriotic Ode. The following Ode was written by a gentleman of Hubbardston, in this state [MA], for the occasion of the celebration of the Fourth, and communicated to the Messenger”: first line, “Rejoice, ye sons of Columbia rejoice!” (Barre Gazette, 26 July 1839, 2).

Performances District of Columbia At Georgetown, “The Star-Spangled Banner” was sung by members and guests of the Philodemic Society at a dinner held at Georgetown College (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1839, 3); members of the Washington Musical Association celebrate the Fourth at the residence of Enoch Tucker, about 3 1 ⁄ 2 miles from Washington (National Intelligencer, 8 July 1839, 3).

Maryland Piney Point: Performed by the U.S. Marine Band: Hail Columbia — Here We Meet Too Soon to Part — Home, Sweet Home — Jefferson’s March — Lafayette’s March — President’s March — A Rose Tree in Full Bearing—Star-Spangled Banner—Van Buren’s March—Washington’s March—Yankee Doodle (National Intelligencer, 11 July 1839, 3).

Massachusetts Barre: “At half past five—time having been allowed for the return of our citizens from neighboring celebrations — a procession was formed at Wheelock’s, under the conduct of efficient marshals, and marched to the accompanying music of the Brass Band, to the town hall. About two hundred of both sexes were there” and heard speeches and “Mr. Perry [who] sang

1839 appropriate songs with his best effect.... As night closed around a goodly portion of the company adjourned to the upper hall, where the festivities closed with ‘much dancynge to ryghte [sic] merrie musicke,’ and temperate indulgence in ices and cooling draughts that care had provided” (“Celebration in Barre,” Barre Gazette, 12 July 1839, 2). Boston: At a temperance dinner at Faneuil Hall, “several original odes and other pieces of music were performed at intervals between the speeches. Mr. Colburn sang in his very best style, and the services of the glee club which had volunteered its aid, added much to the enjoyment of the day” (“Fourth of July,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 12 July 1839, 3); other musical ensembles active that day included a Brigade Band in the municipal parade, and a brass band in the parade of the Mechanic Apprentices (“Fourth of July in Boston, New Bedford Mercury, 12 July 1839, 1). See Publications above. Hardwick: “Order of Exercises for the Celebration of the Declaration of Independence at Hardwick”: Music, by the Band. Prayer. Hymn. Reading of the Declaration of Independence. Hymn. Oration, by Pliny Merrick, Esq. Anthem.

The services took place at the “old Meeting House” (Barre Gazette, 28 June 1839, 2). Mattapoisett: A Sabbath school celebration at the church was “interspersed with vocal and instrumental music” (New Bedford Mercury, 4 July 1839, 2). Reading: At South Parish, a celebration by five Sabbath schools at the Meeting House. “The services began with singing the hymn, ‘Joy to the pleasant land we love,’ &c. Then a prayer was offered by Mr. Picket of the place, which was followed by the hymn, ‘Welcome, teachers, now we meet you,’ &c. Mr. Orcutt, of North Reading, then gave an appropriate address to the scholars, and offered a prayer. Then the hymn, ‘Yes, dear children, well we love you,’ &c. was sung.” The exercises closed “with a doxology, and benediction” (“Celebration of the Fourth of July, 1839, at South Parish, Reading,” Boston Recorder, 19 July 1839). Taunton: At the celebration of Whigs, “the services at the church were closed by a Chorus from the Mozart Society”; “the following original hymns, the first from the classic pen of the Rev. Mr. Pierpont, were sung by a full choir, whose performances contributed much to the interest of the occasion. Ode — By the Rev. Mr. Pierpont”: first line, “Day of glory! welcome day!”630 and “Hymn”: first line, “What thanks, O God, to thee are due” (“The Fourth of July,” New Bedford Mercury, 12 July 1839, 1–2). Templeton: “Order of Exercises for the Celebration of the Declaration of Independence at Templeton, July 4, 1839”:

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1840 Music, by the Military Band. Hymn. Prayer. Hymn. Reading of the Declaration of Independence. Original Ode. Oration, by Joseph Mason, Esq. Festival Anthem. Benediction. [Barre Gazette, 28 June 1839, 2].

New Hampshire Acworth: A procession to the grove included the Acworth Band of Music; later at the dinner a toast was offered to “The Acworth Band of Music — Their generosity honors them as men, and their skill as musicians” (“4th of July at Acworth,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 15 July 1839, 2). Alstead: Citizens met at the Paper Mill Village and marched, “escorted by the Alstead Artillery and the Walpole Band to the Meeting House, where the following appropriate services were performed”: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Voluntary by the Band. Hymn by Alstead Singing Society. Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Adams. Prefatory remarks and reading of Declaration by the Rev. J.V. Wilson. 5. Voluntary by the Band. 6. Hymn by the Choir. 7. Address by the Hon. Joseph Healy, of Washington. 8. The ‘Pilgrim Fathers,’ from the Odeon, was performed with spirit and power by the Choir. [“Celebration of the 4th of July, at Alstead,” NewHampshire Sentinel, 17 July 1839, 1].

Hanover: At Dartmouth College affair at the church, a “National Celebration,” with a “band of music,” “voluntary by the band,” “ode by W.A. Giles,” “Ode by J. Barrett — tune — Old Hundred.” Dartmouth dinner at the “Assembly Rooms,” includes a “national song by Pushee of Lebanon,” “chorus — Marseilles Hymn,” and “final chorus Auld Lang Syne” (“National Celebration at Dartmouth College on the 4th of July,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 24 June 1839, 3). Loudon Ridge: After a procession from the meeting house through city streets and back, exercises were presented, including a reading of the Declaration of Independence, followed by “a piece selected for the occasion [and] sung by the choir.” After the oration by Maj. G.T. Barker, “the choir sung a piece composed by Capt. J.K. Cate for the occasion” titled “Independence — July 4, 1839” (first line: “The day was dark while tyrants drear”). (“Celebration at Loudon Ridge,” New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 22 July 1839, 2). Scropperstown: A mock celebration described by Jedediah Jumper; the services at the Meeting House attended by the Bungtown Fusileers and others. “At the commencement of the services the following patriot

Ode was sung.” First line: “Columbia’s natal day all hail!” (“Celebration of Independence at Scropperstown, N.H.,” Essex Gazette, 19 July 1839, 2).

New York New York: “Hail Columbia” was performed by a band as President Van Buren stepped onto a “canopied barge,” and while the Marines “presented arms.” When the President left the barge, the band played the “Star-Spangled Banner” (New York Herald, 8 July 1839, 2). Peekskill: “The exercises in the Church,” with military unites and citizens “was filled to overflowing” and the exercises included 1st Ode by the Choir. 2d Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Cooly. 3d National Hymn by the Choir. 4th Declaration of Independence, by Mr. Yerks. 5th Hail Columbia, by the Choir. 6th Oration by Mr. Thomas Nelson. 7th The Star-Spangled Banner, by the Choir. 8th Benediction by the Rev. Mr. Youngs.

Later at the dinner held at the Franklin Hotel, the toasts were “accompanied with appropriate music” (“Celebration at Peekskill — Fourth of July,” Hudson River Chronicle, 16 July 1839, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: The music for the exercises held at the meeting house was “under the direction of Mr. Edward Landers” (Newport Mercury, 29 June 1839, 2).

Virginia Paris: Performed by a band at a dinner celebration in a grove: Auld Lang Syne — Bannockburn — Hail Columbia — Home — Jefferson’s March — Madison’s March — Marseilles Hymn — Meet Me by Moonlight Alone631— President’s March — Star-Spangled Banner — U.S. Marine March — Washington’s March — Yankee Doodle (Alexandria Gazette, 9 July 1839, 2).

1840 Publications “The Banner of the Free. An Ode for July 4th, 1840 written by a Young Lady of Albany for the Young Men’s Association. Composed by U.C. Hill.” New York: Firth & Hall, [1840]. First line: “The bright flag of America.” Soprano, chorus, and piano. “Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music,” American Memory, Library of Congress. “For the Fourth of July. Tune —‘Infancy.’” First line: “Come, genius of our happy land”; “Freemen of Columbia. By Henry Stanley, Esq. Tune—‘Ye Gentlemen of England.’” First line: “Ye freemen of Columbia”632; “The Fourth of July. Tune —‘Anacreon in Heaven.’” First line: “O’er the forest — crown’d hills,

157 the rich valleys and streams”; “Yankee Chronology.633 Written for the 4th of July, 1812 — The last verse was added on opening the Theatre.” First line: “I need not now tell what it was drove our sires”; “Ode for the Fourth of July —1812.” First line: “Wake once more to toil and glory”; “The Day to Freedom. Tune —‘Gramachree.’” First line: “The day to freedom dear returns” (William McCarty, The New National Song Book, Containing Songs, Odes, and Other Poems, on National Subjects. Compiled from Various Sources [NY: Leavitt and Allen, 184–?]). “The following was written for the occasion and sung at the celebration of the Fourth, in the Mount Pleasant Academy grove. Ode, by J.M. Knowlton.634 Tune —“Hail to the Chief Who in Triumph Advances.” First line: “Hail to the day when Columbia awaking” (Hudson River Chronicle, 14 July 1840, 1). “Fourth of July Ode,”635 by Alfred D. Street. “Air— ‘The Star-Spangled Banner.’” First line: “Oh what is that sound swelling loudly on high” (Tippecanoe Song Book: A Collection of Log Cabin and Patriotic Melodies [Philadelphia: Marshal, Williams, and Butler, 1840]). “Great God of Nations.” Sung to the tune “Old Hundred” at the Colchester, Connecticut, Sunday School celebration. Broadside. Copy in the Connecticut Historical Society. “Hymns, to be sung at the Juvenile Temperance Celebration at Colebrook, July 4, 1840.” Includes these first lines of text: “Sons and daughters of the pilgrims”; “Happy the land, where lives and reigns”; “Now let us strike the cheerful strain.” Broadside, [Colebrook, NH], 1840. “Ode, for the Fourth of July. By Henry Hirst.” First line: “Land of my fathers, of the free” (Saturday Evening Post, 4 July 1840). “Ode to Liberty, by the Boston bard.” First line: “When Freedom ‘neath the battle storm”636 (“Poetry,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 10 July 1840, 1). “‘Ode.’ Tune — Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “With cheerful hearts, we sons of toil.” Broadside, [1840– 1880?]. Copy in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University. “Order of Exercises at the Sabbath School Celebration in Sachem’s Wood [New Haven, CT], July 4th, 1840.” Includes Ode (first line: “See yonder on his burning way”), written for the occasion by J.S. Babco*ck; Ode (first line: “Now fling our eagle banner out — Hurrah!”), written for the occasion by Daniel March. Includes music. [New Haven]: W. Storer, Jun., 1840. Copy in Brown University. “Order of Exercises, 4th of July, 1840.” Hymn: first line, “O thou, whose arm of power surrounds”; original ode: first line, “Where’er our standard floats today” by Michael W. Beck;637 Ode: first line, “My country! ’tis of thee.” Broadside, 1840. Copy in Brown University. “Original Ode for the Fourth of July. By W.H. Hayward.” First line: “Hark! Hark! The shout of revelry” (Liberator, 3 July 1840, 107). “Patriotic Hymn for the Fourth of July.” First line:

1840 “God of the free! Accept the strain” (Examiner and Hesperian [1840]:82). “The Star of Freedom. An Ode for July Fourth 1840 written by Miss Martha H. Mitchell. At the request of the ‘Young Men’s Association of Albany’ to Whom the Music is Respectfully Dedicated by Charles S. Hutet.” New York: Firth & Hall, [1840]. First line: “The star of freedom sank.” Duet, chorus and piano. “Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music,” American Memory, Library of Congress.

Performances Connecticut Colchester: “Hail Columbia!,” “National Hymn,” and “New England” sung at the Colchester Sunday School celebration. Broadside. Copy in the Connecticut Historical Society. Norwich: “Feed My Lambs.” Sung to the tune “Shirland,” at the “American Independence Sabbath School Celebration.” Broadside. Copy in Connecticut Historical Society.

Massachusetts Bridgewater: “At an early hour the delegations from the various towns came in with their banners, flags, log cabins, bands of music and military companies, under escort of the cavalcade of horsem*n” (“Fourth of July at Bridgewater,” New Bedford Mercury, 17 July 1840, 1). Haverhill: The town’s celebration was described as “very quiet,” although “in the evening we had some good music from the Bradford Band” (“Fourth of July,” Haverhill Gazette, 11 July 1840, 2). Pittsfield: The Mechanics celebration began at the Berkshire Hotel when a parade was formed led by the Berkshire Brass Band “under the direction of their talented leader, Mr. Perry,638 who also added much to the enjoyment of the occasion by their exercises in the church and at the dinner table and during the evening. The procession moved down South to Factory Street, and from thence to the Congregational Church. The exercises in the church were commenced with music by the Choir, under the direction of Col. Barr,639 and it is great praise to say, that rarely, if ever, has it been surpassed on any anniversary occasion.” The Band played a piece after the oration and also performed music during the presentation of toasts back at the hotel (“Independence” and “Mechanics Celebration of the 4th of July,” Pittsfield Sun, 25 June and 9 July 1840, 3 and 2, respectively). Quincy: A Revolutionary War soldier joins a parade sounding the drum which “for a long time [he] used in the war” (Baltimore Sun, 15 July 1840, 2).

New Hampshire Center Harbor: At a grove, exercises took place, including an address by Joel Eastman, of Conway. “After Mr. E. concluded, songs were sung by Mr. Charles D. Hoar, Mr. Thomas Neal, and Mr. Folsom

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1841 from Meredith.” Following the singing was an address by Col. C.W. Cutter, after which “Harrison songs were again loudly demanded and the singers above named, reappeared with ‘Harrison Melodies’640 in their hands, and the ‘woods rang again with the songs of the free’” (“Fourth of July at Centre-Harbour,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, 18 July 1840, 2). Epping: At a dinner celebration in a tent at Major Smith’s, “the music of the Band, and the many excellent Whig songs, sung at the dinner, not a little contributed.” There followed “a musical concert, and fireworks in the evening” (“Whig Celebration at Epping,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, 18 July 1840, 1).

New York Poughkeepsie: A group of Whigs from Albany celebrated with an excursion on the steamboat Diamond that included a band of music and all proceeded gaily down the River saluting the different landings and villages, and arrived off Poughkeepsie about 3 in the morning. The trip was one of delight, and almost unbroken melody. As the inspiring strains of music from the band ceased from time to time, the voice of song would awake throughout the night, to supply their place. Every popular, and especially every national air, seemed to invoke some new and beautiful tribute to the services and virtues of Gen. Harrison. Over forty different songs were sung during the evening, from the Whig minstrelsy of the day, the words of which seemed perfectly familiar to nearly every person on board the boat.

The excursion was followed by a procession through city streets of Poughkeepsie (“Poughkeepsie Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Hudson River Chronicle, 14 July 1840, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: A large procession marched from the Custom House to Zion Church where the “order of exercises” began with a “Voluntary on the organ by Mr. George Taylor” followed by an Ode by Mr. William M. Rodman.” The services also included two additional “original odes.” The choir sat in the gallery (“Fourth of July: Order of Arrangements,” Newport Mercury, 4 July 1840, 2).

South Carolina Charleston: At a meeting of the Washington Society at Boyd’s Hotel, the following works performed with the toasts: A Beam of Tranquility Smiled in the West641— By the Hope within Us Springing — Come Rest in this Bosom — Come Send Round the Wine — Dirge—Governor’s March—Hail Columbia—Home Sweet Home — Now Let the Warrior Plume His Steed — Oh! Tis Love, tis Love — Star-Spangled Banner — Strike the Bold Anthem — Tis Good to be Merry and Wise (Charleston Courier, 8 July 1840, 2);

“Hail Our Country’s Natal Morn” and “Huzza, Here’s Columbia Forever” (solo and chorus) performed by an orchestra, directed by E. Fenelon, at the “Old Medical College.” The event was billed as “a sacred and national concert” and sponsored by “Messrs. Speissegger and Reeves” (Charleston Courier, 4 and 7 July 1840, 3 and 2, respectively).

1841 Publications “Independence Day.”642 By Wm. Lloyd Garrison. To the tune, “Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “The bells are ringing merrily.” “Odes to be Sung at Newark, on the Celebration of American Independence, July 5th, 1841.” Anthem: first line, “Go forth to the Mount, bring the olive branch home”643; Ode, Washington’s Address at the Battle of Princeton; Ode, The Battle of Trenton; Ode: first line, “Hail to the day, when the bold declaration.” Broadside. [Newark, NJ, 1841]. Copy in Brown University.

Performances Massachusetts Charlemont: The celebration occurred on July 5 with a parade, exercises, and dinner. There was “good music under the direction of Mr. Parker, [which] served to enliven the time” (“The Deomocracy of Franklin ‘Wide Awake,’” Pittsfield Sun, 15 July 1841, 3). East Bradford: “About 10 [P.M.], the Bradford Band having returned from Haverhill, struck up a serenade in the yard” at the Academy Hall, “after which they came in and partook of the festivities of the occasion, and greatly enlivened the remainder of the evening with their excellent music.... Several pieces of music were sung.” Another report stated “a young lady of the company” had written an Ode which “was sung at the ‘Soiree’” on July 5 to the tune “Bonny Doon” (first line: “Say, heard ye not that mighty voice”) (“Fourth of July at East Bradford,” Haverhill Gazette, 10 July 1841, 2, and 17 July 1841, 2). Haverhill: The parade of the “teachers and scholars of the several public schools in this village, the high school and seminary in Bradford, the officers and members of the W.T.A. Society, the Reverend Clergy, and all others” included a music component. The exercises held on “the grounds in the rear of the Summer Street Church,” included the following program: 1. Reading of the Declaration of Independence of the Haverhill W.T.A. Society. 2. Singing. 3. Prayer, by the Rev. Mr. Plummer. 4. Collation. 5. Toasts, drunk in cold water, with music, speeches, &c.

159 6. Close with the following Ode, to be sung in chorus, by the whole assembly. Tune —“From Greenland’s Icy Mountain.” [First line]: “A beacon has been lighted.”

“The following original Hymn, and other appropriate pieces, will also be performed. ‘Temperance Hymn.’ By the Rev. T.P. Abell.644 Tune —‘Scots wha hae, &c.’” First line: “Men, who’ve felt the Rum — King’s bane” (Haverhill Gazette, 3 July 1841, 2); a temperance meeting included temperance societies and several schools that marched to the Summer Street Chapel, with more than 1200 persons participating. Part of the entertainment was the Bradford Band, “whose music was very enlivenling,” and the Haverhill Band, “it being the first public appearance of the latter.” Following the dinner, “several songs were sung, among them an original one by Mr. R.S. Duncan” (“The Anniversary,” Haverhill Gazette, 10 July 1841, 2). Sheffield: “The procession will be formed at E.S. Callender’s Hotel, at 11 o’clock, by the Sheffield Brass Band, under the direction of Wm. B. Saxton and Col. J. Wilcox, Marshals.” At the church, the exercises included these musical works, “March to the Battle Field,” “Minstrel’s Return from the War,”645 and “Grand Union March” (“Fourth of July Celebration in Sheffield,” Pittsfield Sun, 1 July 1841, 3).

Missouri St. Louis: “Hymn of Thanksgiving” sung in the Cathedral at St. Louis University (Daily Missouri Republican, 3 July 1841).646

1842 with a happy effect” (“Independence,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 9 July 1841, 3). Portsmouth: Members of the Washington Total Abstinence Society from Portsmouth and neighboring towns marched through the town’s streets to “the rear of the late residence of Nath’l Adams, Esq., where the services of the day were performed.... The services were commenced by singing the following ode, in Auld-lang-syne”: first line: “Can we forget the gloomy time.” Another ode by “Mr. T.P. Moses was sung”: first line: “All hail, all hail, ye soldiers bold.” At the address by Samuel E. Cones, “the following ode, to the tune of Old Hundred, was sung by the vast auditory”: first line “Hail temp’rance, fair celestial ray!” (“National Independence,” Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics, 10 July 1841, 2).

New York Whitlockville: At the Literary Association celebration held at the Methodist Church, “a national hymn by the choir ... ‘Hail Columbia’ by the band,” and various other musical pieces (“Whitlockville Celebration,” Hudson River Chronicle, 13 July 1841, 3). Yonkers: A procession “formed at the Yonkers Hotel” to parade to the Episcopal Church. The procession included a band, which played “Hail Columbia” at the exercises after the reading of the Declaration of Independence and other unnamed music. (“Celebration of the 65th Anniversary of American Independence at Yonkers,” Hudson-River Chronicle, 29 June 1841, 3).

New Hampshire Amherst: Salem Brass Band at the pavilion on the Common (Farmers’ Cabinet, 2 July 1841, 3). Fitzwilliam: “On the 3d instant, the anniversary of our National Independence was commemorated in this place by appropriate religious exercises for the promotion of the cause of Sabbath schools.” At the Town Meeting House, a ten o’clock service included voluntaries by the choir and the hymn “My country ’tis of Thee” (“S.S. Celebration at Fitzwilliam,” New Hampshire Sentinel, 14 July 1841, 3). Lebanon: A “social celebration” given by members of the Lebanon Ladies Social Society included a picnic and music from the Lebanon Band which played three pieces of during the exercises. A dinner followed which when ended, “on leaving the table the band (Mr. Bond in attendance), performed several pieces to the admiration of the company and an occasional ode from the choir, and songs from Capt. Pushee added a zest to the exercises generally.” Toasts were “accompanied with music and the discharge of cannon” (New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 9 July 1841, 2). Milford: The celebration occurred on July 5. The Sabbath School Union celebration representing several towns met. The exercises included “appropriate music by the choir ... an original hymn was sung by the children under the direction of Mr. Joshua Hutchinson,647

1842 Publications The Cold Water Army Song Book, for the Use of Juvenile Schools and Adult Homes: Adapted in Part to Temperance Meetings, and Fourth of July Celebrations. By S [imeon] B [utler] Marsh. Amsterdam, NY: S. B. Marsh, Printer, 1842. “For Freedom, Honor, and Native Land”648 (anthem), “For Thee, My Native Land, for Thee” (anthem), and “God Bless Our Native Land” (anthem) performed (Order of Exercises at the Celebration of the Sixty-Sixth Anniversary of American Independence. Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1842; Three Patriotic Songs, Suitable for the Public Celebration of American Independence, on the 4th of July.649 By Lowell Mason. Boston: Tappan & Dennet, 1842). “Ode for the Temperance Celebration, Dedham, July 4, 1842.” By Ellis Worthington. Tune —“America.” First line: “Hail! Day of Glory, Hail!” Broadside. Dedham, MA, 1842. Copy in Brown University. “Song — for the 4th of July” to the “Tune —‘Auld Lang Syne’” First line: “Leave vain regrets for errors past” (Alexander Gazette, 7 July 1842, 1).

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1842 “Temperance Ode for the Fourth of July, 1842. Tune —‘Yankee Doodle.’ By the Rev. E.F. Hatfield and dedicated to the Washingtonians throughout the United States.” First line: “We come, we come, in grateful bands.” (New York Evangelist, 26 May 1842, 84.) “We’re Free. A Fourth of July Song. By H.S. Washburn.” First line: “We’re free! we’re free! how glorious still” (Christian Reflector, 29 June 1842, 2).

Performances Massachusetts Great Barrington: The temperance exercises were “held at the ‘Grove,’ where the hymn and the voice ‘My country, ’tis of thee!’ sounded most charmingly (Berkshire County Whig, 14 July 1842, 1). New Braintree: “At half past ten o’clock the Cold Water Army, of boys and girls, with buoyant hearts and cheeks blooming in health and beauty, unfurled their banners and took up their line of march, preceded by the Greenwich Band, for the meeting house, the lower part of which was already filled with ladies and gentlemen anxiously waiting for the commencement of the exercises. After the Band had discoursed some excellent music, Col. Mixter, the president of the day, offered a few appropriate introductory remarks....” Following an address by Charles Eames “came several well sung songs from the Cold Water Army stationed in the galleries.” At the dinner held “under a spacious bower erected for the occasion, ... Mr. Hamilton of Worcester enlivened the assembly [of 400 persons] with several cold water songs” (Barre Gazette, 8 July 1842, 2). Stockbridge: After a procession from the academy to the meeting house, “America” was “sung by a numerous choir, in deep-toned thrilling harmony.” Following a reading of the Declaration of Independence, the 150th psalm was sung. The Pittsfield Brass Band closed the exercises with “an appropriate air.” “After a recess of some two hours, and a most refreshing shower after the repast was over, the auditory again assembled for the afternoon’s exercises — when it was greeted by the choir ‘in full chorus with triumph and glee,’ chaunting an Ode of the Rev. Mr. Mandell. In symphony with the address was sung the Ode of Mr. Palmer: “Then left not the wine cup/For dark in the depths of its fountains below/Lurk the spirits that lure to the vortex of woe!” (“Celebration of the 4th of July at Stockbridge,” Berkshire County Whig, 7 July 1842, 2). Waltham: The exercises included: “Original ode” (first line: “Have ye heard of our triumph, that far o’er the nation”), by Miss Tilden; “Original ode” (first line: “List, we are coming with banner and song”), by Miss Tilden. (Broadside. “Order of Exercises at the Temperance Celebration at Waltham, July 4, 1842.” Waltham, MA: J. Hastings, [1842]). West Cambridge: At the Congregational Meeting House, “Come, Ye Children, Learn to Sing,” “This

Day to Greet, with Joy We Meet,” and “Shall E’er Cold Water be Forgot” (by John Pierpont) were sung (“Order of Exercises at the Congregational Meeting House.” Broadside. Boston?, 1842). Westfield: At the Congregational Church, a “distinguished quartet” and singing by a choir, as well as a procession that included the Westfield Brass Band.”650

New Hampshire Merrimack: The “temperance societies of Merrimack, Bedford and Litchfield” marched, escorted by “an excellent band of music,” to Read’s Ferry, and there embarked in five large boats, containing from two to three hundred each, and sailed down the Merrimack river to a beautiful grove on an island.... Animating music echoed from boat to boat.” On the island, there was “singing by the choir” and music by the band (“Celebration at Merrimack,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 15 July 1842, 3). New Boston: A procession of over 1000 persons that included Sabbath schools and “friends of temperance” marched, preceded by a band of music, to the Presbyterian Meeting House. The exercises included “appropriate music, performed by the choir” (“Fourth of July Celebrations,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 15 July 1842, 3).

New York Brooklyn: At the Military Garden, a concert by a band at 5 pm included “overtures, solos and marches.” An 8 pm event was billed as “a grand military concert, consisting of several popular and favorite pieces of music, by the much admired and celebrated New York Brass Band.” An orchestra presented a “promenade musicale in the Grand Saloon,” the program including 1. Grand Overture to Amiklie 2. Napoleon’s Imperial March (Donizetti) 3. Quick Step — Norma (Bellini) 4. Waltz — Nassau Guards (Grafulla) 5. Song — The Soldier’s Tear (Bishop) 6. Quick Step — 6th Comp. Nat. Guards (Grafulla) 7. La Gitrana (Spanish) [Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 2 July 1842, 2].

Sing Sing: After a military review, various companies and trade associations marched, preceded by the Sing Sing Brass Band,651 to the Mt. Pleasant Female Seminary where the exercises were held (Hudson River Chronicle, 28 June and 12 July 1842, 3 and 3, respectively); “Musicians of the 15th Brigade” perform (“Sixty-Sixth Anniversary of American Independence,” Hudson River Chronicle, 14 June 1842, 3). Whitlockville: The Whitlockville Literary Association gathered in a grove belonging to Anthony M. Merritt. “The music engaged for the occasion, marching in front of a procession of upwards of one hundred interesting youth.” After a reading of the Declaration and an oration, “a national hymn, original, prepared for the occasion, which reflected much credit to its

161 author, was then sung by the Sunday School, under the direction of Mr. William Horton.” In addition, several pieces were then sung by the Sunday School choir in the most sweet and lovely manner, which were greatly admired as reflecting much to their accomplished and gentlemanly teacher. The whole concluded with a variety of excellent sentiments, which were received amid the loud cheers of the audience, and the rich swelling notes of the instrumental music, which throughout, in a most admirable manner, contributed greatly to enliven the scene. [“Whitlockville Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Hudson River Chronicle, 26 July 1842, 2].

Pennsylvania Potter: The Earleystown and Mount Pleasant sunday schools marched to the Presbyterian church where the exercises began with “singing and prayer.” After addresses in English and German, an anthem was sung, by the choir, which was present [sic] on the occasion, after which the Declaration of Independence was read by Dr. Wm. J. Wilson, and another anthem was sung. After this appropriate and well performed anthem was concluded, the schools were dismissed and returned to their respective homes. I cannot refrain from saying a few words in reference to the choir which was present on the occasion (generally termed the “Bank Singing School”) of which Mr. Platt is the precentor. It met the approbation of all present. If such music emanates from the heart, and from the understanding, it cannot fail to “Swell with heavenly hope the pensive mind.” I am informed that Mr. Platt is a scientific teacher of music, and should he continue his labors a while longer in this neighborhood, vocal music will undoubtedly be much improved through his instrumentality. [“Sunday School Celebration on the Fourth of July, in Potter Township, Centre Co, Pa,” Weekly Messenger, 20 July 1842, 1422].

1843 Publications “Fourth of July Ode”652 (first line: “With patriotic glee”); “Fourth of July Washingtonian Song” (“first line: “A glorious day is breaking.” By John Pierpont. Printed in Cold Water Melodies, and Washingtonian Songster (1843). “Great temperance festival. Hymns for the temperance jubilee at the (late) Tremont Theatre, July 4, 1843.” Includes: Four songs./ My country ’tis of thee [i.e., America, by Samuel Francis Smith]; first lines: My country ’tis of thee sweet land of liberty./ Song for Independent Day, Tune—Yankee doodle. Written

1843 for the temperance jubilee ... by George Russell; first lines: To-day is Independent-Day, why should not we be merry?/ Yankee’s Fourth of July song, “Composed for the occasion, by Charles W. Denison ... Tune — The fine old English gentleman;” first line: When lovely Freedom took her flight/ National temperance jubilee hymn, “By William B. Tappan. To be sung by M. Colburn, Esq.;” first line: What boots it that yon green hill-side/ “Notice. There will be music by the band, commencing at 7 o’clock.—Songs ... by Messrs. Colburn and Birds. Addresses by distinguished friends of temperance.— Refreshments for sale at all hours of the day. ... Admittance 12 1–2 cents. Children half price.” Broadside, [Boston]: Tuttle & Dennett, 1843. Hartley Wood’s Anniversary Book of Vocal and Instrumental Music, Practical and Theoretical, for the Fourth of July, Temperance and Anti-Slavery Occasions.653 Principally composed by Lowell Mason, I. B. Woodbury, and H.W. Day. Boston: The Musical Visitor Office, #8 Court Square, 1843. “Hurrah for the Clay” (Philadelphia: J.C. Osbourn, 1843). Sung at the Whig Festival. Regarding Henry Clay. Copy in Johns Hopkins University. “Music for the Fourth of July.” By H.W. Day. Includes “Temperance Star.” By Lowell Mason. First line: “Rise and shine through every nation.” Includes another song, “The Nation Rousing.” First line: “Hark! a voice from heaven proclaiming”654 (Boston Musical Visitor, 7 June 1843, 134). “Ode, for the celebration of the Fourth of July, by the Repeal Association of Philadelphia. Adapted to the Music of the Marseillaise Hymn. Miss Anne C. Lynch.”655 [Philadelphia?: 1843?]. First line: “A Nation’s birth-day breaks in glory!” Broadside. Copy in Brown University. “Ode for the Fourth of July” by John Pierpont. First line: “Who are the brave, if they were not.” In Cold Water Melodies, and Washingtonian Songster (1843). “Patriotic Poem” (11 stanzas to be sung to the tune “Nashville”). “Written for the Washingtonian and Sabbath School celebration of independence” in Andover, Connecticut. Broadside. Connecticut Historical Society “A Song for the Fourth of July. Dedicated to John A. Collins.” [Signed “Emily.” “From the National Anti-Slavery Standard.”] First line: “The Fourth! the Fourth! the glorious Fourth.” (Liberator, 7 July 1843, 108.)

Performances District of Columbia At the cornerstone laying ceremony for the Temperance Hall, an ode was sung after the opening invocation and the “Apollo Association ... sung a national anthem. The services were closed by the singing of an ode, written and set to music by J.H. Hewitt,656 Esq.— for its melody it was considered decidedly one of the best of the author’s compositions” (National Intelligencer, 3, 6, and 10 July 1843, 3, 3, 3, respectively;

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1843 Baltimore Sun, 7 July 1843, 4); in Georgetown in the early morning, “the band at the College could be heard in the distance resounding the national anthem.” At the Bridge Street Church, Sunday school teachers and students met. One of the “youth marched up the centre isle with the American flag in hand and the band struck up the soul-stirring air of ‘Hail Columbia.’ It was a moment that I am sure lead [sic] every one present to exclaim with pride, ‘I am — I am, an American citizen.’” Those at the church then assembled at “the spacious park of Brook Mackall, Esq. in the very center of the lovely and attractive heights of Georgetown ... to the number of not less than 3000. Addresses were intervened by the singing of hymns” (Baltimore Sun, 7 July 1843, 4).

Massachusetts Athol: A procession included a band which played “Yankee Doodle.” At the Unitarian Church, the exercises included music by a “choir under Messrs Cleaveland and Hapgood [which] received united praise for the manner in which it performed the different parts assigned to it in the services” (Barre Gazette, 14 July 1843, 2). Boston: At Faneuil Hall, “An Ode, by a select choir of pupils of the public schools, under the direction of L. Mason, Esq.” was performed: first line, “To the good cause!” In addition, an “Ode, written by Mrs. L.H. Sigourney” was presented: first line, “Clime! beneath whose genial sun.” Following an oration and prayer, a “Hymn” (first line: “God bless our native land”), by Lowell Mason, was sung. Mason’s choir consisted of 57 boys and 73 girls. Broadside. (“Order of Performances at the Sixty-Seventh Anniversary of American Independence, by the City of Boston at Faneuil Hall, 1843”).657 Website, American Time Capsule; “Fourth of July in Boston,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 14 July 1843, 2. Pittsfield: At the celebration of the Washington Total Abstinence Society, a procession to the Congregational Church was “escorted by the Berkshire Brass Band.” The exercises included “music by the Cold Water Army, under the direction of Mr. W.T. Merriman.” Another newspaper reported that “the exercises in the church were closed with music by the pupils of the Young Ladies Institute, who acquitted themselves with much credit” (“National Independence,” Berkshire County Whig, 29 June 1843, 3; “The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 6 July 1843, 1).

New Hampshire Concord: In the East Village, the exercises of the day were commenced by the choir, under Mr. Page as leader, assisted by various amateurs and professors of music and the Concord Brass Band658 under the direction of Mr. Drew, and it is needless to say that this part of the exercises was performed in admirable style. After an excellent and very appropriate prayer by the Rev. Mr. Cummings, and the reading of the Declaration of

Independence, the following Hymn, prepared for the occasion, was sung by the choir: [first line] “The circling sun his annual round.”

Following the exercises the band accompanied the assemblage to “a beautiful grove at a short distance east from the meeting house, where the taste and hospitality of the ladies was most appropriately displayed” (“Celebration of the 4th at Concord East Village,” New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 20 July 1843, 1). Nashua: The day’s attraction were a “boat ride” and the Sabbath School event. “In the evening many of our citizens passed an hour or two in attending the concert given by those charming singers, the Hutchinson Family, at the Town Hall” (“Fourth of July at Nashua,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 14 July 1843, 2).

New York Sing Sing: At the grove, “Singing, ‘Old Hundred,’ to words composed for the occasion”—“Song —‘Hail Columbia’”—“Song —‘Star-Spangled Banner.’” “The choir consisted principally of a few young ladies and gentlemen of the vicinity ... and their efforts certainly increased the enjoyments of the day.” Later, “under an arbour in front of the Hotel,” the assemblage dined and toasted accompanied by the following music: Yankee Doodle — Washington’s Grand March — Haymakers — Hail Columbia — Jefferson and Liberty — President’s March — March — Cadet’s Quick Step — Gen. Greene’s March — Erie Canal March — Jefferson’s March — Rory O’Moore (“Celebration of the 4th July, at North Salem,” Hudson River Chronicle, 18 July 1843, 2).

Pennsylvania Lititz: “Come Joyful Hallelujaha,” composed by Peter Wolle, was performed at the first Fourth of July celebration in this town. The concert occurred in the evening and the orchestra was conducted by Wolle.659

Rhode Island Kingston: At the Congregational Church, three odes and an anthem were performed: ode 1 (first line “Hail ever glorious day!”); ode 2 (“To Thee O God, in lofty strains”); ode 3 (“We sing our fathers’ deeds of fame”); anthem (“O praise ye the Lord! prepare your glad voice”). Broadside, “Order of Exercises for the Celebration of the Sixty-Seventh Anniversary of American Independence, at the Congregational Church in the Village of Kingston, R.I. July 4th 1843.” Copy in Brown University.

Virginia Richmond: “Hail Columbia”and “Washington’s March” performed by the Band of the Washington Riflemen at a celebration of the “military companies of Richmond,” at the Second Baptist Church (“The Fourth at Richmond,” National Intelligencer, 11 July 1843, 3).

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1844 Publications Glee for the Fourth of July. From Glees for the Million. Music arranged from S.S. Webbe. Words by O.W. Withington. First line: “From hearts uplifted.” For quartet (SATB) or chorus. American Journal of Music and Music Visitor (1844–46), 25 November 1844, 24. “Hymns: Sabbath School Celebration, Newark. July 4, 1844.” Broadside, 1844. Native American Grand March.660 Extracted by Permission of the Author from Dr. Wm Geib’s Fantasie of the American National Air. Published in Honor of the Native American Association for the Fourth of July 1844. Philadelphia: Osbourn’s American Music Saloon, n.d. “Odes to be sung at the Young Men’s Celebration at Newark, N.J. July 4th, 1844.” Contains: “Ode.” First line: “For conscience and for liberty”; “Song. My Own Native Land” [by W.B. Bradbury]661; “Ode.” First line: “Remember the hour, ye sons of the brave.” Broadside, Newark: Daily and Sentinel Office, 1844. Copy in Brown University. “Order of Exercises at the Sabbath School Celebration, in Byfield, July 4th, 1844.” Contains six original hymns: “Our God, we consecrate to Thee”; “Lo! Beneath the Bending Sky” (Daniel P. Noyes); “Glorious Day of Liberty” (William Dummer Northend); “To God Let All Our Songs Be Given” (Thomas Buchanan Read); “Ancients to Their Secret Bowers” (Sarah D. Peabody); “We Come from Pleasant Homes Away.” Broadside, Byfield, MA, 1844. Copy in Brown University. “Order of Exercises at the Sabbath School Celebration of Independence: in the South Church, July 4, 1844, at 7 1 ⁄2 o’clock, A.M.” Includes: “Song” (first line: “Awake ye awake”); “Ode” (first line: “Lift up, lift up the standard”) by the Rev. J. Pierpont; “Song” (first line: “Before all lands in east or west”). Broadside, Boston, 1844. Copy in Brown University. “Order of Exercises at the Temperance Convention on Boar’s Head, Hampton Beach, July 4th, 1844.” “Cold Water Pledge”; Song for the Fourth, by Mrs. H.C. Knight; Ode, by L. Simes: first line, “By the glow of hope excited”; Ode, by J.G. Adams: first line: “Up! To the winds of heaven”; Song: “Come hither all ye yankee boys, need be no learned scholar”; Song of the Redeemed, by J. Pierpont. Broadside. New Hampshire: Samuel Fabyan, Jr., 1844. Songs, for the Boston City Celebration of American Independence, July 4th, 1844662 (Boston: A. J. Wright’s Steam Power Press, 1844). Two selections include “My Native Land” and “Anglican chant of seven measures duration, ten stanzas of text.”

1844

Performances Massachusetts Boston: Among the various celebrations in Boston was the “Truckmen” procession that was “accompanied by a band of music.” Another celebration that included music was the “city celebration” that began at City Hall and marched to the Temple where the services “consisted of music, by a choir selected from among the pupils of the public schools.... The juvenile choir was composed of about two hundred masters and misses, who have received instruction from Mr. L. Mason. Their performance was one of the most agreeable incidents of the day.” Later at the dinner held at Faneuil Hall, toasts were “followed by music from the band, and the company were entertained with several performances by a glee club.” Another celebration was that of the Sabbath schools of the Boston Baptist Sabbath School Union at the Tremont Temple. “A choir of children, under the direction of Mr. H.W. Day, performed admirably, and imparted much interest to the occasion” (“Anniversary of Independence,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1844, 2). See Publications above. Rutland: The Westminster Band and a choir provided music at a gathering at a grove outside of town. Citizens from Holden, Hubbardston, and Paxton were also there to celebrate (“Temperance Celebration at Rutland,” Barre Gazette, 12 July 1844, 3).

New Hampshire Amherst: “In this place, the Sabbath Schools of Milford, Amherst and Mont Vernon, were assembled to participate in the festivities of the jubilee.” A procession to a bower marched in due order, escorted by the ‘Milford Washingtonian Band,’ who kindly volunteered their services for the occasion, and it is due to them to say that they greatly heightened the interest of the occasion by their music, & to commend them for the stand they have taken in banding themselves in behalf of and sounding aloud the true Washingtonian principles — for which we learn they were presented on that day with a very handsome banner, inscribed with their name, by the ladies of Milford, and which they bore with them in the procession.

At the bower, “the audience being seated the exercises were commenced by singing a hymn of praise.... These exercises were interspersed with singing and prayer.” After refreshments were served, the event ended with the singing of a hymn (“The Fourth,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1844, 2). Peterborough: Included in the procession were the Peterboro’ Guards, with the Citizens’ Band and 600 children from various schools in the area. At the Unitarian Meeting House, the exercises began with “music from the choir and Citizens’ Band.” Additional music was performed after both the prayer and oration. A

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1845 dinner was held at Wilson’s Grove. “The toasts and responses were interspersed very much to the gratification of the company, by songs from the glee club, and music from the Citizens’ Band. About 3 o’clock, after having sung the tune of ‘Old Hundred,’ the multitude dispersed with hearts beating with gratitude for the blessings of freedom, of liberty and independence” (New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 25 July 1844, 1).

New York Flatbush, Brooklyn: The Brooklyn Brass Band “which played several new pieces, and among them one adapted from ‘Our way across the mountains’ etc. earned for themselves new laurels.” The band also played the “Star-Spangled Banner” (“The Celebration,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1844, 2).

Rhode Island Newport: A procession to the Congregational Meeting House included the Croyden Brass Band (New-Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette, 18 July 1844, 2). Providence: “At Providence, the municipal celebration was held at the First Baptist Church.” The exercises included the singing of an Ode “written by Wm. J. Pabodie,663 Esq.” (Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1844, 2).

Virginia Mount Vernon: The U.S. Marine Band was on the steamboat Sydney returning from an excursion to Aquia Creek when the boat broke down trapping the band and all the passengers on board in front of Mount Vernon for the night. Meanwhile the band provided music for dancing which went on for several hours (National Intrelligencer, 8 July 1844, 3).

1845 Publications “Anniversary of the Sabbath School Union: East Avaon, July 4th, 1845.” Hymn 1 (first line: “God bless our native land”); Hymn II (first line: “We come, we come, with loud acclaim” [G.W. Bethune])664; Hymn III (first line: “O’er wild and stormy seas); Hymn IV (first line: “Let the songs of praise and gladness”). Broadside, East Avone [NY}: Press of Burleigh & Goodrich, 1845. “‘Fourth of July.’ Words by Mrs. Sigourney. Music by G.W.C.”665 First line: “We have a goodly clime” (The Liberty Minstrel. Ed. George W. Clark. NY: Leavitt and Alden, 1844; The Harp of Freedom. Compiled George W. Clark (NY: Miller, Orton & Mulligan, 1856). “Hail to the Morn. A song for the fourth of July.” First line: “Hail to the morn, when the day-spring

arising.” [Signed “W.G.K.”] (Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist, 9 July 1845). “Hymn for the Fourth of July.” First line: “The merry peal of freedom’s bells” (American Journal of Music and Musical Visitor, 1 July 1845, 94). “Songs, Prepared for the City Celebration of 4th July, 1845”666 by L. Mason. Boston: Printed by A.B. Kidder, 1845. Includes: Ode, “Thrice hail, happy day”/ Ode, “When stern oppression’s iron rod”/ Hymn, “God bless our native land.” Copy in Salem State College Library.

Performances Massachusetts Boston: Flagg’s Brass Band performed on the Common (National Intelligencer, 10 July 1845, 3). Lanesborough: From a notice in a local newspaper: “Concert — On Friday, July 4th, at 5 o’clock, P.M. there will be a Concert at the Congregational Church in Lanesborough, by the Glee Club, under the direction of Mr. Crossett, their instructor. The music will be composed of selections from the Vocalist,667 consisting of Glees, &c. Admittance 12 1 ⁄ 2 cents, to defray expenses” (Pittsfield Sun, 3 July 1845, 3).

New York Brooklyn: At the Brooklyn Garden, the Brooklyn Brass Band “will play, during the evening, some of their choicest airs” (“Fourth of July,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1 July 1845, 2).

1846 Publications “Glee for the Fourth of July,” “music arranged from S. Webbe, the words composed expressly for this work, by O.W. Withington, Esq.”668 First line: “From hearts uplifted.” For four-voice “Quartette or chorus.” (American Journal of Music and Musical Visitor, 31 March 1846, 4, 20). Music and lyrics. “Hymns, for the rural anti-slavery celebration, at Dedham, July 4, 1846.” Includes: “National anti-slavery hymn,669 4th July, 1846, written for the occasion by Thomas Wentworth Higginson; Hymn, first line: “Hark! Hark! it is the trumpet-call”670 by Maria W. Chapman; “Children of the Glorious Dead; Hymn, first line: “Hear ye not the voice of anguish”; “Come all who claim the freeman’s name”; “Spirit of freedom, wake!” Broadside. 1846. “‘Palos-Alto and Resaca.’ By W.G. Simms. A New Song for the 4th of July, 1846.” First line: “Now while our cups are flowing” (“Poetry,” Pittsfield Sun, 25 June 1846, 1; Baltimore Sun, 9 July 1846, 1). “Sunday School Celebration, at the First Presbyterian Church: July 4th, 1846.” Includes: “Independence” (first line: “We come with hearts of gladness”);

165 “Anniversary song” (first line: “O welcome, welcome, festal day”); “National Blessings” (first line: “Swell the anthem, raise the song”); “American Independence” (first line: “Sovereign of all the worlds above”); “America” (first line: “My country! ’tis of thee”). Broadside. [Columbus, Ohio?], 1846. Copy in Brown University.

1847 included.” According to the Barre Patriot, “the afternoon was enlivened by appropriate songs from a choir of singers, and music by the band, both of which were of high order, and called forth the hearty applause of the multitude of listeners” (“The Fourth in Barre,” Barre Gazette, 10 July 1846, 2; Barre Patriot, 10 July 1846, 2).

New Hampshire

Performances Connecticut New London: The procession was assembled in front of the City Hotel and led off with a music ensemble. At the church, the “order of exercises” included 1. Music by the Choir. 2. Prayer. 3. Reading Declaration of Independence, by H. Willey, Esq. 4. Singing by the Choir. 5. Oration by the Rev. T.J. Greenwood. 6. Singing by the Choir. 7. Benediction.

(“Order of Exercises for July 4th 1846,” Morning News, 3 July 1846, 2); “The Juvenile Singing Class of 120 masters and misses” gave a concert on July 2 in the 2nd Congregational Church whose proceeds went to provide a picnic for the class on Independence Day. Among the works sung was “Song for 4th July” (“Juvenile Concert,” Morning News, 2 July 1846, 3).

Maryland Baltimore: “Day of Freedom,” by the Rev. J.N. McJilton,671 set to music by J.M. Deems,672 and “composed for the occasion” was performed at the public school celebration at the high school building (Baltimore Sun, 6 July 1846, 2).

Massachusetts Barre: “Our village was early thronged with people, and betimes fine music gladdened the ear.... A band of music came in from Colebrook, followed by a huge omnibus drawn by eight horses and literally crammed and covered with people. On the steps was lashed a swivel, which sent forth music that would have done credit to a larger gun.... At 11 o’clock a procession was formed at Morel’s Hotel and preceded by the Hubbardston Band, marched to the Universalist Church, where the Declaration of Independence was read by Gardner Ruggles, Esq. of Hardwick.” At the dinner at Morel’s Hall, “about two hundred gentlemen” enjoyed “much pleasure” from the “performances of the Hubbardston Band, under the lead of Mr. D.L. Johnson, than which there is no band in this region can discourse more acceptable music.” Another was that of the Temperance procession which “marched through the village to the excellent music of the Baldwinville Band.” The group celebrated at the town hall and consisted of 665 men, women, and children, “music

Marlborough: A temperance celebration held at the hotel included a reading of a “Temperance Declaration of Independence” and oration. “The two choirs of singers and the band, by their skillful and appropriate performances, increased essentially the variety and pleasure of the entertainment” (“Celebration at Marlborough,” New-Hampshire Sentinel, 5 August 1846, 1).

New York Brooklyn: In the procession to Fort Greene and at the exercises there is the Brooklyn Brass Band, W. Granger, leader; also at the exercises two odes were performed: “Ode” by the Rev. T.B. Thayer for 4th July Celebration in Brooklyn” (first line: “Long ages had rolled by”) and “Ode by Walter Whitman to be Sung on Fort Greene, 4th of July, 1846, tune ‘StarSpangled Banner’” (first line: “O, God of Columbia! O, shield of the Free!”); on July 6, the postponed fireworks takes place accompanied by the Navy Yard Band which played “some of their most admired overtures, airs and marches” (“Fireworks in Fort Greene,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 2 and 6 July 1846, 2 and 2, respectively). Sing Sing: The town’s parade included a “band of music,” various companies and societies, and later that evening the band provided background music to the fireworks A separate celebration of the Order of Rechabites took place and included a parade, as well a ceremony with four pieces of music (“Fourth of July,” Hudson River Chronicle, 30 June 1846, 3).

Virginia Alexandria: The U.S. Marine Band performed at the St. John’s parsonage benefit celebration at Mount Welby near Berry’s Farm, opposite of Alexandria (National Intelligencer, 3 July 1846, 4).

1847 Publications “‘Fourth of July Ode.’ The Albany Argus publishes several songs, all by young ladies of that city, sung upon the late anniversary. We select the shortest.” First line: “No more alone in glory” (Pittsfield Sun, 15 July 1847, 1). “Freedom’s Hymn, for the Fourth of July.” First line: “The patriot sires in glory sleep” (“Poetry,” Boston Recorder, 22 July 1847, 116).

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1848 “Ode for the Fourth of July, 1847.” By William Cullen Bryant. First line: “Forth from the willows, where the wind” (American Whig Review 6/1 ( July 1847): 55–59). “Songs, for the Boston City Celebration of American Independence, July Fourth, 1847.”673 Copyright, June 4, 1847.

an address by Julius Rockwell, “the following original Ode, written for the occasion, was sung:” first line, “Lift up your voice in song.” The ceremony closed “with the following Recitative and Chorus:” recitative, “Father, thy word is past, man shall find grace; air, “I for his sake will leave” (“Young Ladies’ Institute,” Pittsfield Sun, 8 July 1847, 2).

New Hampshire

Performances Connecticut New Haven: A “Floral Procession” with 2,000 boys and girls, dressed in white, and their Sunday school teachers marched on behalf of the orphan school. The children sang an ode, “Fourth of July,” written by Mrs. Sigourney; first line: “Wild was the battle strife.” The youth also sang another work titled “Children’s Song”; first line: “We bring no pearls of ocean” (Pittsfield Sun, 15 July 1847, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: At the Boston museum, there were Fourth of July four splendid performances.... On Monday, July 5th, 1847, will be presented (first time) the great myuthological, musical and dramatic Chinese spectacle entitled The Dragon’s Flight! Or The Pearl Diver. Written for the museum, by S.S. Steele; original music by T. Comer674; the piece directed by W.H. Smith. The performances will commence with the excellent vaudeville, Crimson Crimes: or — Deeds of Dreadful Note!

Broadside, [Boston]: Hooton’s Press, Haskins’ Building, opposite head of Hanover Street, [1847]; a civic celebration occurred at the Tremont Temple where “several patriotic songs were here sung by about 300 young ladies, with a very pleasing effect” (“Fourth of July in Boston,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 15 July 1847, 2). Dalton: After a procession from the “Hotel of G.W. Branch” to the Congregational Church, the following was the “Order of Exercises”: 1. Prayer, by the Rev. Timothy Benedict. 2. Fourth of July Ode, by the Choir. 3. Reading of the Declaration of Independence, by F. Weston. 4. Oration, by the Rev. O. M. Sears. 5. Music by the Choir. [“Celebration at Dalton,” Pittsfield Sun, 8 July 1847, 2].

Pittsfield: At the dedication ceremony on July 5 for the “new Chapel at the Young Ladies’ Institute to the purpose of female education, ... the exercises commenced with singing the following National Ode. The music was composed by Col. Barr, a teacher in the Institute, and, as were all the pieces performed, was ably executed under his direction:” first line, “Come with a cheerful step and true.” “No. 3 in the order of exercises was the following Solo and Chorus:” solo, first line: “But who shall see the glorious day.” After

Winchester: A procession of over 500 “scholars in the common schools of the town, and one or two schools from Hinsdale,” ended at the town church. The services “were interspersed with appropriate music by the choir, by the Winchester Band,675 and by the scholars” (“Fourth of July,” New Hampshire Sentinel, 8 July 1847, 2).

Ohio Cincinnati: At the College building, “the proceedings of the day were commenced with ‘Hail Columbia,’ sung in very good style by an amateur association.” After a prayer, “an appropriate ode was then sung, set to the excellent tune” of “Old Hundred” and later “My country ’tis of thee” was also sung (“Fourth of July at Cincinnati, Ohio,” Anglo American, a Journal of Literature, News Politics, the Drama ... 24 July 1847, 9, 14).

South Carolina Charleston: Performed at a dinner celebration of The Fourth of July Association held at the Pavilion Hotel: All’s Well — Buena Vista March — Gen. Worth’s Quick-Step — Governor’s March — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Ocean Wave Quickstep — Palmetto March — President’s March — Rough and Ready Quick Step — Star-Spangled Banner — Washington’s March (Charleston Courier, 9 July 1847, 2). Chester: Performed by the Cedar Shoals Band and/or the Chesterville Band at a “barbecue” held at the town’s Court House on the occasion of celebrating Independence Day and raising funds for a railroad from Columbia to Charlotte: Chester Volunteers Quick Step — Col. Butler’s March — Gen. Taylor’s March — Governor’s March — Hail Columbia — Hail to the Chief— Lovely Woman — Old North State—Old South State—President’s March— Rail Road Quick Step676— Soldier’s Return — Yankee Doodle (Charleston Courier, 16 July 1847, 2).

1848 Publications “Anti-slavery hymns and songs, for the convention at Abington [MA], July 4, 1848.” Includes: “Spirit of freemen, wake!” (tune: America)—“Progress of the cause” (tune: Zion)—“Land of my sleeping fathers” (tune: Missionary hymn)—“Children of the glorious

Ocean Wave Quick Step (New York: Firth, Hall & Pond, 1843), as arranged for the piano by Allen Dodworth and played at a celebration of The Fourth of July Association in Charleston, South Carolina, on July 4, 1847 (author’s collection).

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1849 dead” (tune: Scots wha hae)—“We’re coming, we’re coming” (tune: Kinloch of Kinloch)—“Come all who claim the freeman’s name” (tune: Away the bowl)— “Right on” (tune: Lenox). Broadside, [Abington, 1848]. “Fourth of July. An ode, by James Olcott, M.D., intended for the Fourth of July, 1848.” First line: “The day has come! Our ears salute the sound” (Mechanic’s Advocate, 18 December 1847, 11). “Fourth of July Ode. By James R. Lowell.” First line: “Our fathers fought for liberty” (Christian Inquirer, 1 July 1848, 150). Music Arranged for the City Celebration of the Fourth of July, 1848. By B.F. Baker.677 Boston: Printed by A.B. Kidder, [1848]. Boston: A.B. Kidder, [1848]. “To Music”: first line, “Full and harmonious, let the joyous chorus”; “The Day, the Glorious Day Returns!”: first line, “The day, the glorious day, returns!”; “For Fourth of July”: first line, “Hark! those mingled sounds proclaim our jubilee”; “Boston”: first line, “From all that dwell below the skies.” “Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music,” American Memory, Library of Congress. “An Ode for the Fourth. From the Journal of Commerce.” First line: “Ring, merry bells, from out your airy towers!” (Liberator, 14 July 1848, 112).

[First line] by J.R. Lowell.—“Hymn. Montgomery. Ages, ages have departed” [First line].—“Song. Friends of Freedom! ye who stand” [First line] by J.R. Lowell.—“Right on!”—“Come all who claim the freeman’s name” [by J.H. Wilder]. Broadside, 1849. “‘The Leicester Boys and Girls.’ By Hon. C. Thurber. (Sung at the Celebration in Leicester, Me., July 4, 1849).” First Line: “With buoyant hearts and merry feet.” (“Poetry,” Barre Patriot, 27 July 1849, 1.); “Song for the table, at Leicester’s Gathering, July 4th, 1849. Tune —“Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “With buoyant hearts and merry feet.” Broadside. N.p., 1849. Copy in Brown University. “Ode written by Mrs. Balmanno for the Fourth of July, 1849 [New York?].” First line: “Rise, to sing the deeds of glory.” Library of Congress, An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera. “The Pillar of Glory.” A song with score. M’Makin’s Model American Courier, 4 July 1849. “Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “The trumpet of liberty sounds through the world” (North Star, 20 July 1849).

Performances

At the White House, children of the E Street Baptist Church visited President Zachary Taylor and sang two hymns: “Auspicious morning hail!” and “Loud raise the peal of gladness” (“Sabbath School Visit to the President,” National Intelligencer 6 July 1849, 1).

New York Brooklyn: William Cutter’s ode was sung by a choir and other music provided by Granger’s and Tassies’ Brass bands (“Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1848, 3). Henrietta: Anti-slavery songs were sung at the Presbyterian Church, following a speech on human rights (North Star, 7 July 1848, 2). New York: The Institution for the Blind Band played at Washington Square and Dodworth’s Brass Band played tunes as bodies of soldiers recently fallen on the battlefields of Mexico are escorted through the city (Weekly Herald, 8 July 1848, 15).

1849 Publications Hymn by Henry S. Washburn, esq. Tune — Old Hundred. (First line: “We gather from a thousand homes”). Broadside 124 (Leicester, Mass.?): State Library of Massachusetts. Sung at Leicester [Mass.?], July 4, 1849. “Hymns and songs, for the anti-slavery celebration of the Declaration of Independence, at Abington, July 4, 1849.” Includes: “Invocation. Hear’st thou, O God, those chains” [First line] by J. Pierpont.—“Original ode. The stripes and stars are waving free” [First line] by [?] ton.—“Hymn. Men! whose boast it is that ye”

Performances District of Columbia

Massachusetts Boston: The Roxbury [brass] Band was “engaged to play for a fire company, to escort them to Boston common [sic] for a collation.”678 Pittsfield: A procession was escorted by the North Adams Brass Band. At the Congregational Meeting House, a choir, directed by Col. A[sa] Barr provided music and Miss H.M. Dunham,679 at the organ, “executed with the good taste and accuracy which have acquired for her a deserved reputation as an organist” (“Fourth of July,” Pittsfield Sun, 4 and 12 July 1849, 2 and 2, respectively).

Minnesota Saint Paul: The city’s first Fourth of July celebration included a parade of 500 persons “headed by a military band from Fort Snelling.” The event included a ceremony, fireworks, and a “grand ball.”680

Vermont Windham: A “Common School Celebration” made up of children from all the schools sat at a table some 200 feet in length. “The exercises of the day were frequently interspersed by anthems, songs, and glees by the choir. I did not anticipate such a treat on the hills of Windham. The singing was in good taste and admired by all present, especially the strangers” (“Fourth

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of July at Windham,” Semi-Weekly Eagle, 16 July 1849, 1).

Pittsfield,” Pittsfield Sun, 4 and 11 July 1850, 3 and 2, respectively].

1850

Cohoes: At Dickey’s Grove, the town exercises included an “Anniversary Hymn” and a hymn, “The Golden Rule,” by the schools.681 Newburgh: At the dedication of the “‘Old Hasbrouck House,’ known as Washington’s Head Quarters,” while Gen. Winfield Scott raised a flag, an Ode (first line: “Freemen, pause, this ground is holy”), written by Mrs. J.J. Mondell, of Newburgh, was sung (Literary World, 13 July 1850, 36). Sing Sing: A procession formed on State Street: “the Cold Spring Band of Putnam County preceded the procession, discoursing soul-stirring music.” Another band marching included the Kemble Guard Brass Band of Cold Spring, William Brevet, leader. At a grove on Hunter Street, the exercises opened with “Hail Columbia” by the band. There followed a dinner at the Empire hotel with the toasts and the following pieces of music: tune, Save the Union—tune, Old Virginia — Tune, Dirge — Tune, Hail to the Chief— Tune, Yankee Doodle — Governor’s March — StarSpangled Banner — March, by the Band — Tune, The Campbells are Coming — Tune, Bold Soldier Boy — Tune, Perry’s Victory—Tune, Harvest Home—Tune, Julian Polka (“Fourth of July,” Hudson River Chronicle, 9 July 1850, 2).

New York

Publications “Firemen’s Ode, delivered on the Fourth of July, 1850. By Wm. H. Coyle; dedicated to the firemen of Detroit.” (Detroit: Dunklee, Wales, 1850). “Hymns and songs, for the anti-slavery celebration of the Declaration of Independence, at Abington, July 4, 1850.” Includes: “American hypocrisy,” by W.L. Garrison.—“Slavery is falling,” by E. Davis.—“We cannot falter,” by J.G. Whittier.—“To the traitor,” by A.P. Morris.—“Come all who claim the freeman’s name” by J.H. Wilder. Broadside, [Abington, MA?]. “Song for July 4, 1850. Tune —‘Auld lang syne.’” First line: “The sons of freedom gather now.” Broadside, [Worcester, MA]: H.J. Howland, [1850]. Copy in American Antiquarian Society.

Performances District of Columbia Garcia’s Band performed at Monument Place, in front of the White House (Republic, 4 July 1850, 3).

Massachusetts Boston: “Children’s Hymn for Independence,” written by the Rev. John Pierpont, to the tune of “Old Hundred,” is premiered (Boston Courier, 6 July 1850, 1). Great Barrington: At the exercises, “an oration is to be delivered, and an original Patriotic Ode is to be procured and sung in the Church.” The Ode (first line: “With joy we celebrate”) was written by Samuel B. Sumner (Pittsfield Sun, 20 June and 11 July 1850, 2 and 2, respectively). Pittsfield: In the parade, the Pittsfield Brass Band, and at the Congregational Church, “a Voluntary on the Organ, by Mr. Groenevelt, one of the Teachers at the Young Ladies Institute, who executed with great skill and much credit to himself; of Music by the Choir, under the direction of Col. Barr, distinguished in the musical service.” The following were the “order of exercises at the church”: Voluntary on the Organ. Prayer by the Rev. Bradley Miner. Music. Reading of the Declaration, by Robert W. Adam, Esq. Music. Oration, by N.S. Dodge, Esq. Music. Benediction by the Rev. Dr. Chapman. [“Independence” and “Independence Day in

1851 This year marked the 75th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

Publications “Faithful, until the Master Calls,” “Our Freedom, God’s Gift,”written for the occasion, “My Country [’tis of thee], and “A Song of National Thanksgiving” (Raynortown, NY, now Freeport.) Broadside, 1851. Copy in New York Historical Society. “Order of Services at the Tremont Temple before the City Council of Boston, on the Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1851.” Includes: national song (First line: “Hear ye the song! Hear ye the song!); Hail Happy Day (first line: “Hail! hail! happy day!”); Hymn (first line: “God bless our native land”). Broadside. Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1851. Copy in Brown University. “Song.” Composed by William J. Hamersley and sung at Centre Church. Broadside. Copy in Connecticut Historical Society. “Song for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Come, let us meet this pleasant day.” [“The following song was sung, over and over again, to the tune of ‘There is na luck about the house.’ It was written for the occasion. It was afterwards sung in Hartford to the tune of ‘Auld Lang Syne’”] (Robert Merry’s Museum, 1 July 1851, 30).

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Performances District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band performed at the laying of the “cornerstone of the new Capitol edifice” (National Intelligencer, 7 July 1851, 2).

Illinois Cleveland: The city presented an entertainment including performances of “The Star-Spangled Banner” and “Hail Columbia.”682

Massachusetts Lanesboro: A parade was “animated by excellent music by the Cheshire Brass Band” and they marched to a grove. During the exercises, “the song of the Lanesboro Glee Club broke upon the ear like the morning song of the uncaged bird” (“Pic-nic and Celebration at Lanesboro,” Pittsfield Sun, 7 August 1851, 2). Pittsfield: Martial Band and Pittsfield Brass Band in procession and “discoursed most excellent music.” At the Baptist Church, “Voluntary on the organ — anthem — music by the choir,” and “band will play during the [fireworks] exhibition” (“Fourth of July, 1851,” Pittsfield Sun, 26 June, 3 and 10 July 1851, 3, 2 and 2, respectively).

New York New York: Governor’s March — Fence to the Souls of the Heroes — Hail Columbia —[Home] Sweet Home — Huzza, Here’s Columbia Forever — Land of Washington — Let the Toast Be, Dear Woman — Liberty Forever — Our Flag is There — President’s March — Rest Spirits Rest — Star-Spangled Banner — Union March — Yankee Doodle performed by Dodworth’s683 Band at the Tammany Hall celebration (New York Herald, 6 July 1851, 1); “Hail to the Chief,” “Home, Sweet Home,” and “Star-Spangled Banner” sung or played on board the American steamship Baltic at sea returning from Liverpool, England (New York Herald, 6 July 1851, 2).

Utah Salt Lake City: Capt. Pitt’s Nauvoo Brass Band performed at the “liberty pole” at the lake. On the following day, July 5, at 10 A.M., “a number were assembled around the band carriage, to hear the admirable singing of John Kay and Jacob Hutchinson, together with the music of bagpipes, etc., and the almost endless variety of tunes which were played by the band.” The following music accompanied the toasts that were given: America — Comin through the Rye — Yankee Doodle — Washington’s Grand March—Come Buy a Broom—Again, Shall the Children of Judah Sing — Come Holy Spirit — Jockey to the Fair — The Rose Tree — Sound the Loud Timbrel — Hark Listen to the Trumpeters — Hail to the Chief684 (“The Celebration of the Fourth of July,” Deseret News, 12 July 1851, 3. See also, “The Celebration

of the Twenty-Fourth of July 1851, in G.S.L. City,” Deseret News, 19 August 1851, 9).

Vermont Brattleboro: The Brattleboro Brass Band, in procession and at exercises in grove “in rear of Main streets” (“Declaration of Independence,” Semi-Weekly Eagle, 30 June 1851, 2).

France Paris: “Some Americans, dining together on the 4th of July at Paris, employed a band of music, which, after playing several times the Marsellaise Hymn, were ordered by the police not to repeat it. The Americans were determined not to give it up so, but stood under the broad folds of their flag, and shouted out the Revolutionary Hymn in full chorus. The large crowd standing around looked decidedly astonished” (Pittsfield Sun, 28 August 1851, 1).

1852 Publications “Hymns, sung in the 1st Presbyterian Church by the sons of Temperance of Pottsville, July 4, 1852.” First lines: “Intemperance, like a raging flood”; “The temp’rance trumpet blow.” Broadside, [Pottsville, PA?}, 1852. “Songs, prepared for the Boston city celebration of American Independence, July fourth, 1852 (Boston: A.B. Kidder [1852?]. By George W. Pratt. Copy in Brown University.

Performances District of Columbia “God bless our native land” sung by a choir at the Union Chapel (Baltimore Sun, 5 July 1852, 4).

Maryland Baltimore: “Hail Columbia performed by the Blues Band, under the direction of “Prof. Holland,” at a city celebration held at the State Exhibition Grounds on North Charles Street extended (Baltimore Sun, 7 July 1852, 1).

Massachusetts Dana: A celebration of over one thousand persons assembled for a ceremony and dinner. “The New Salem Band of music, than which there are few better in this section, rendered their musical services, and under a military escort the procession, graced by a large number of ladies, in uniform and appropriate dress, moved to the tables where the usual entertainments at such celebrations were had” (“Celebration in Dana,” Barre Gazette, 9 July 1852, 3). Pittsfield: Springfield Brass Band in a procession

171 that was “large and imposing, and surpassed any thing of the kind ever witnessed in Pittsfield.” The band also provided music at Burbank’s Hall where the exercises were held. Four pieces of music were performed. “The Springfield Brass Band performed during the fireworks display that evening” (“Independence!” and “The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 1 and 8 July 1852, 3 and 2, respectively). Worcester: On July 5, the New England Band participated in a parade with residents and a military escort to a “spacious tent.” After a dinner, toasts were offered. “After the delivery of the sixth toast, ‘Henry Clay,’ which was received in silence, the band played a dirge.” Later, “at about 8 o’clock a band stationed on the common played familiar airs, until a large crowd had collected.” A parade followed and over 2000 persons led by a band marched about town (“Whig Celebration at Worcester,” Barre Gazette, 9 July 1852, 2).

New York New York: Adkins Brass Band played “Hail Columbia,” “Star-Spangled Banner,” and “Yankee Doodle” in accompaniment to fireworks there (“The Fireworks,” New York Times, 7 July 1852, 2); at the Tammany Society celebration on July 5, the following music accompanied the toasts presented: Hail Columbia — President’s March — Governor’s March — Yankee Doodle — St. Tammany’s March — The Goddess of Liberty — The Red, White and Blue — Our Native Land — Jackson’s March — General Cass’ March—Hail to the Chief—Star-Spangled Banner— Let the Toast Be Dear Woman (broadside, “Tammany Society; Or, Columbian Order Celebration of the 76th Anniversary of National Independence, at Tammany Hall, Monday, July 5th, 1852,” in “Hargrett Library Historical Broadsides,” Digital Library of Georgia, University of Georgia Libraries) http://fax.libs. uga.edu/bro.

Pennsylvania Pottsville: “Anniversary Hymn” sung at “Lawton’s Hill, about one mile from town” by the members of the two German and English Lutheran schools (Miner’s Journal, and Pottsville General Advertiser, 10 July 1852, 2). See Publications above.

1853

1853 Publications “Celebration of the Griffin Sunday Schools! Fourth July, 1853.” Includes: “Bricher’s Chant” (first line: “Lord, we come before thee now”); “God Bless Our Native Land” (first line: “God bless our native land”); “National Song” (first line: “Hail! our nation’s birthday morning!”); “Sabbath School Hymn” (first line: “Father! Now the day is passing”). Broadside, in “Hargrett Library Historical Broadsides,” Digital Library of Georgia, University of Georgia Libraries http://fax. libs.uga.edu/bro. “Fourth of July, a New National Song” (Philadelphia: Lee & Walker, 1853). First line: “Today, today, on only heart is beating thro’ the land.” Written by “Miss Leslie,” and “adapted to a popular military air.” This work was “sung at the anniversary dinner of the Cincinnati Society of Philadelphia, July 4th 1853,” and was probably a premiere performance. “‘Fourth of July’ Chorus. An Easy Glee for Singing Classes & Choirs.” New York Musical World, 25 June 1853 (6/8): 119–20. Fourth of July Hymns and Songs Written for the Sabbath School of the M.E. Church in Sacramento. By Ernest George Barber. [Sacramento, CA]: Printed at the Daily Union Office, 1853. “‘Fourth of July.’ Temperance Chant.” By Frank Ford. New York Musical World, 2 July 1853 (6/9): [135]. “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Another year has passed away”685 (Liberator, 18 November 1853, 184). “Ode — July Fourth, 1853. By Albert Pike.” First line: “When shall the nations all be free” (Spirit of the Times, 6 August 1853, 291).

Performances Connecticut Norwalk: The Bridgeport Cornet Band performed (“The Day at Norwalk,” New York Times, 6 July 1853, 2).

Utah

Kentucky

Salt Lake City: Includes articles on the Fourth in Salt Lake City, including “Ode for the Fourth of July” by Miss E.R. Snow, “Independence Oration “ by Thomas Bullock. Includes personal names and that the “Star-Spangled Banner” was performed by a band. (“Celebration of the Anniversary of the Fourth of July in Great Salt Lake City,” Millennial Star [October 1852]).

Carrollton: At a temperance celebration the children sang an opening hymn: first line, “God bless our native land.” (Kentucky Family Mirror, 2 July 1853).686

Massachusetts Boston: The order of services at the Old South Church: I. II. III. IV.

Voluntary by the [Boston] Brass Band. Chant. Prayer by the Rev. Joseph Cummings. Song —“The Union.” First line: “A song for our banner, the watchword recall.”

1853 V. Reading of the Declaration of Independence, by A.O. Allen, Esq. VI. Hymn —“National Gratitude.” First line: “Let every heart rejoice and sing.”687 VII. Oration, by Timothy Bigelow, Esq. VIII. Anthem —“Mighty Jehovah.” First line: “Mighty Jehovah! accept our praises.” IX. Benediction.

“The music was performed by a choir selected from the public schools, under the direction of L.H. Southard, Esq.”688 An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1853. By Timothy Bigelow. (Boston, 1853), 79–80. Lowell: “The most interesting feature of the day was the parade of the ‘Antiques and Horribles,’ which took place early in the morning, and thousands of people from the neighboring towns and cities were present to witness this most interesting and comical procession.” Among the groups in the parade were “the Warren Light Guard, Capt. Pearey, with a full band; the Spindletown Flying artillery, Capt. Davis, with 30 men mounted, accompanied with a band; the Middlesex Rangers, with band and banner; Ayer’s New City Fencibles, with a band.... There was also in the procession the Calathumpian Band, with all

172 sorts of instruments, some manufactured of tin, sheet iron, &c. They numbered about 15, and performed their part well.” The City Procession consisted of some military units “preceded by the Lowell Brass Band” (“Celebration at Lowell,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 14 July 1853, 2). Pittsfield: “Music by the American Brass Band, of Springfield, and several bands of martial music” and at the Baptist Church, “music by the choir of the Society, under the direction of Mr. W.A. Hungerford” (“Independence” and “The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 30 June and 7 July 1853, 3 and 2, respectively).

New Hampshire Milford: “The procession will be formed at ten o’clock, under the escort of the Milford Brass Band, the Fire Engine Company, and a cavalcade composed of the young men of that town.... The Hutchinson Family are positively engaged to be present. On any occasion, they are unrivalled, but on the Fourth they will be aided by an unwonted inspiration amid the friends and scenes of their early years.... the Hutchinsons will give a concert of their best and most popular songs at four P.M., in the Congregational Church (Milford). Tickets 25 cts, ladies and children 12 1 ⁄ 2 cts.” (“Free

“Let Every Heart Rejoice and Sing — National Anthem,” from the collection The Anthem Dulcimer (New York: F.J. Huntington & Co., 1856) by I.B. Woodbury. This anthem was written “for Independence, Thanksgiving, or other National festivals” and likely had its first performance on July 4, 1853, at the Old South Church in Boston (author’s collection).

173 Democratic Celebration at Milford,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 30 June 1853, 3). Portsmouth: After a full day of parades, ceremonies and general revelry, in the evening there was a “‘promenade concert’ at the tent, by the fine bands present, which was very generally attended.” The procession that day included the East Boston Brass Band, Bond’s Boston Cornet Band, New-York Band of Music, and Saco Brass Band. (“The Fourth at Portsmouth,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 14 July 1853, 2; The Reception of the Sons of Portsmouth Resident Abroad, July 4th, 1853, by the City Authorities and the Citizens of Portsmouth; A Record of the Proceedings, Decorations, Speeches, Sentiments, Names of Visitors, &c. Portsmouth: C. W. Brewster & Son, 1853).

1854 Sigourney. [First line: “Clime! beneath whose genial sun.”] Oration, by Thomas Durfee, Esq. Music — By the American Brass Band Song — By the Juvenile Choir. “The Flag of Our Union.”690 Words by Geo. P. Morris, Esq. [“First line: “A song for our banner? The watchword recall.”] Benediction — By the Rev. J.C. Stockbridge.

(“Fourth of July in Providence,” New York Daily Tribune, 6 July 1853, 6; An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities and Citizens of Providence, on the Seventy-Seventh Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1853. By Thomas Durfee. Providence: Knowles, Anthony & Co., 1853).

New York

Vermont

New York: Departing from 23rd Street and East River, Dodworths Band for a “Grand Cotillion Excursion” aboard the steamer General Scott (New York Times, 4 July 1853, 5); in New York, the New York Brass Band performed at Barnum’s American Museum (New York Times, 4 July 1853, 5); in New York, Wood’s Minstrels in two performances at 444 Broadway (New York Times, 4 July 1853, 5; on board the ship Hermann as it sailed towards New York Harbor from Bremen and Southhampton, Americans and foreigners (about 170 passengers) sang the “Star-Spangled Banner” and “Hail Columbia.” An ode written for the occasion by Stahl Freicht, “the well known lawyer” of New York City, was sung. A German national song was sung by Dr. Murich of Russia (New York Herald, 7 and 8 July 1853, 3 and 2, respectively); Shelton’s Band provided music for the Tammany celebration. After an oration, “the banquet room being opened, the company marched in regular order, to the tune of Yankee Doodle, to their places at the well-furnished table” (“Annual Celebration of the Tammany Society or Columbian Order,” New York Times, 6 July 1853, 5). Tarrytown: Dodworth’s Band and Van Cortlandt’s Independent Brass Band perform at a ceremony and parade on the occasion of laying the “foundation of a monument to the memory of Paulding, Williams and Van Wart, the captors of Major Andre” (New York Times, 6 July 1853, 2).

Burlington: On the anniversary of the founding of Burlington College, William Dempster, “the noted vocalist,” sang the “Star-Spangled Banner” and the crowd there “joined vociferously in the chorus” (“Burlington College,” New York Times, 6 July 1853, 2).

Rhode Island Providence: At the First Baptist Church, “the following was the order of exercises”: Voluntary on the Organ. Introductory anthem — By the Juvenile Choir. Words by Geo. P. Morris. [First line: “Freedom spreads her downy wings.”] Prayer — By the Rev. J.C. Stockbridge Music — By the American Brass Band689 Reading of the Declaration of independence. By William M. Rodman, Esq. Music — By West’s Cornet Band Song — By the Juvenile Choir. Words by Mrs. L.H.

Washington Olympia: At the Methodist Chapel, “thronged with people, ... ‘America,’ the ‘Star-Spangled Banner,’ and ‘Hail Columbia’ were sung by the choir” (“Proceedings on the Fourth,” The Columbian, 9 July 1853, 2).

Wisconsin Hartford: The first Fourth of July celebration took place in Hartford in this year and those assembled sang the “Star-Spangled Banner” and “My Country ’Tis of Thee” (“The First Fourth of July,” Hartford Press, 12 March 1907).

1854 Publications “‘Hymn’ sung at the celebration of the Fourth of July, in Salem, 1854.” By Jones Very (1813–1880).691 First line: “Hail, love of country! noble flame.” In The Complete Poems (1993). “Hymns and songs for the anti-slavery celebration of the Declaration of Independence at Framingham, July 4, 1854.” Includes: Fourth of July 1854 (written for the celebration at Framingham). Tune, “Lenox”— Original hymn / by Miss Caroline Bacon. Tune, “Greenville”— Independence Day / by Wm. Lloyd Garrison. Tune, “Auld Lang Syne”— Hymn / by the Rev. John Pierpont. Tune, “America”— Freedom’s banner / by the Rev. R.C. Waterston — Let all be free! / by James II. [sic] Wilder. Tune, “Away the bowl.” Broadside, Boston: Prentiss & Sawyer, 1854. “Music, for the City Celebration the Fourth of July, 1854” by B[enjamin] F[ranklin] Baker & A.N. Johnson. (Boston: Printed by A.B. Kidder, [1854].

1854

174

The Stars & Stripes Forever: Brilliant Variations on the Star Spangled Banner (1854) by Charles Grobe, performed by the author at an Independence Day concert on July 3, 2008, in Clarksburg, Maryland. This was one of numerous renditions of the national anthem that were popular in the nineteenth century. Grobe’s use of the phrase “The Stars and Stripes Forever” predates John Philip Sousa’s popular march of the same title by forty years (author’s collection).

175 “Ode for the Fourth of July.” First line: “Ye sons of Columbia! oh, hail the bright day” (Liberator, 14 July 1854, 112).

Performances Massachusetts New Bedford: A parade to City Hall included the Newton Brass Band (Pittsfield Sun, 13 July 1854, 2). Newburyport: “Order of Exercises at the Pleasant Street Church”: 1. Voluntary on the Organ. 2. Chorus —“Praise the Lord, ye Nations all”— from Mozart’s 12th Mass. 3. Reading of the scriptures and Invocation, by the Rev. D.M. Reed. 4. “Song of Welcome,” by Hon. George Lunt, music by M.D. Randall. [first line: Welcome! a thousand times welcome home!”] 5. Reading Declaration of Independence, by Hiram B. Haskell. 6. Ode, by Jacob Haskell, music “Star-Spangled Banner.” [first line: “All hail to the past — to the dark trying hour.”] 7. Oration, by the Rev. George D. Wildes. 8. Chorus, “Hallelujah,” from the Oratorio of the Messiah. 9. Benediction, by Daniel Dana, D.C.

“The music will be performed by a select choir, under the direction of M.D. Randall, Esq. Organists, Messrs J.W. Cheney and R.P. Morse.” The music which filled the house with strains now sweet and melodious — now bold and starling, that moved all hearts — that excited the best and noblest feelings of our natures, was performed by a select choir of fifty musicians of the highest musical talent of the city, under the direction of M.D. Randall, Esq., whose long experience in this department places him at the head of the catalogue of teachers in his profession. The Voluntary on the organ by Mr. R.P. Morss [sic], of this city, was played in the most exquisite manner. He commenced with the national song, “Hail Columbia,” with the full organ, followed by the full strain of “Should Old Acquaintance be forgot,” and closed with “Home, Sweet Home,” upon the swell organ, so soft and sweet that the almost breathless silence of the audience became necessary to hear it. The final chorus of the Messiah, by Handel, was sung with wonderful effect; its lofty and sublime strains, sustained by so many flexible, yet full voices, were truly inspiring, particularly in the passage, “King of Kings and Lord of Lords.” The other chorus, from Mozart’s 12th Mass, “Praise the Lord the nations all,” was no less grand in its performance than the one alluded to above. The “Song of Welcome,” by Hon. George Lunt, is one of his best productions, and will speak for itself in thrilling tones. The music for this hymn was composed by M.D. Randall, and was listened to with delight,

1855 and is another of the many gems of his compositions. The patriotic Ode, by Jacob Haskell, Esq., is replete with meaning, and its performance by the choir to the old tune of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” seemed to carry the minds of the audience back to days long since passed, when its strains were as familiar to all as household words. The tenor solo in this piece was sung by Mr. George W. Hale, who possesses in the fullest extent all the elements which make a public singer. The organ accompaniments to the choir were performed by Mr. J.W. Cheney, in a style far surpassing any of his former efforts. His masterly touch upon this grand and powerful instrument in the sublime strains of Handel and Mozart, were truly inspiring.

(A Report of the Proceedings on the Occasion of the Reception of the Sons of Newburyport Resident Abroad, July 4th, 1854, by the City Authorities and the Citizens of Newburyport. Compiled and reported by Joseph H. Bragdon. Newburyport: Moses H. Sargent, 1854, 11, 35–36). North Adams: In the procession, Hodge’s Brass Band, North Adams Sax Horn Band, and at the exercises on Church Hill, “Voluntary by Sax Horn Band,” and “music by the Choir —‘America’” (“Independence,” Pittsfield Sun, 29 June 1854, 3).

New Hampshire East Jeffrey: At the dedication of a new school house a “dedicatory hymn, by Mrs. E.K. Bailey and celebration hymn by the Rev. J.E.B. Jewett” were presented. [A.H. Bennett, An Address Delivered at the Dedication of the New School House in East Jaffrey, N.H., July 4, 1854 (Peterborough, Transcript Press, E.H. Cheney, printer, 1854)].

New York New York: At the Tammany Society celebration, “The American Boy,” “Governor’s March,” “Hail Columbia,” “Jackson’s March” and “Washington’s March” were performed by Shelton’s Brass Band (“Independence Day,” New York Times, 5 July 1854, 1); at a pyrotechnic display in one of the parks, Manahan’s Band performed “Hail Columbia” and the Germania Band and orchestra of the Italian Opera performed at the Crystal Palace (New York Times, 4 and 5 July 1854, 5 and 1, respectively).

1855 Publications “Liberty or Death. A Song for the Fourth of July. By Frank Easy.” First line: “From the captive in his dungeon” (Happy Home and Parlor Magazine, 1 July 1855, 60). “Municipal Celebration of the Seventy-Ninth Anniversary of American Independence, Wednesday, July 4, 1855.” Includes Ode to Liberty: first line, “Hail,

176

1855 to thee, Liberty!”; National Ode, The Bright Flag of America: first line, “The bright flag of America.” Broadside, Providence, RI: A.C. Greene, 1855. Copy in Brown University. “Ode for the Fourth of July. By Colonel Eidolon.” First line: “Again has come the glorious day.” United States Democratic Review 36/1 ( July 1855): 43–45.

Performances Illinois Chicago: “Two German song and music societies” assembled at Dearborn Park (Daily Press, 6 July 1855, 3).

Kansas Council City (now Burlingame): This town held its first independence celebration in a grove with 75 persons present and included singing an original song titled “Land of Priceless Liberty” by Mrs. J.M. Winchell.692 Leavenworth: A Sabbath school celebration included a parade to a grove where an original song titled “We Will Join the Celebration” by J.I. Moore was sung.693

Massachusetts Abington: At a Know Nothing Anti-Slavery Celebration, “addresses were interspersed with music by the Abington Brass Band” (“In Abington,” Boston Daily Journal, 5 July 1855, 2). Dorchester: “Old Dorchester Has Fame to Wear,” performed in a large tent by “a select choir accompanied by the Band” to the air “God Save the Queen.” The work was cited as “an original hymn” (Boston Daily Journal, 5 July 1855, 1; New York Times, 6 July 1855, 3). Pittsfield: A parade included various military and fire companies. The “Firemens’ Band” was one of the first to march. Another group included the Phoenix and Undine Companies, “escorted by the Pontoosuc Fire Company, to their Engine House, and the Hope Company of Gt. Barrington, accompanied by the Mahawie [cornet] Band....The fine appearance of the men and the excellent Bands which accompanied them, were greatly admired, and added much to the interest of the display.” “The Music during the exercises in the Park was furnished by Hodge’s [cornet] Band of North Adams and the Mahawie Band of Great Barrington.” See Publications (1795), for reference to a Hymn text that was presented at this celebration but was acknowledged as having been performed fifty years prior. Another report noted that the North Adams Sax Horn Band performed in the parade (“Independence!” and “The Celebration of the Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 5 and 12 July 1855, 3 and 2, respectively).

New Hampshire Amherst: “The class of young ladies under the instruction of Miss L. H. Johnson, of Nashua, with their

teacher, propose a free vocal and instrumental entertainment in the evening, which we are sure will call forth a full house, and prove none the less gratifying because sustained by home talent. Further particulars next week. P.S. Cannot our citizens treat the ladies, in return, with a sprinkling of fireworks, at the close of their concert? What say, gentlemen?” “The citizens of this place will enjoy a musical treat in the evening at the concert to be given by the class of Miss L.H. Johnson, as also those of Milford, at the concert of that prince of pianists and good fellows, E.T. Baldwin. The Ladies Levee at Mt. Vernon with musical ‘fixins’ by a part of our Brass Band, will afford a good time. Everybody should turn out” (“The Glorious Fourth,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 21 June and 5 July 1855, 2 and 2, respectively).

New Jersey Newton: Flockton’s Jersey City Brass Band performed (“The Fourth in Jersey,” New York Times, 4 July 1855, 4).

New York New York: Shelton’s Band played “magnificent airs” from the balcony at the Tammany celebration. “An ode, written for the occasion by F.R. Hulbert, Esq., was then sung by Messrs. [Richard B.] Connolly, Taylor. G.B. Hall, and Abert Wallace, assisted by the audience.” During the toasts, Shelton’s Band played “We Are All a Band Brothers” and “Clear the Husky Raccoons Down” (“The Day at Tammany,” New York Times, 5 July 1855, 1); at Niblo’s Garden, after the first act of the “military opera,” Daughter of the Regiment, “The National anthem, Hail Columbia!” was sung by the whole company, “solo parts by Miss Louisa Pyne and Mr. W. Harrison” (New York Times, 4 July 1855, 5).

Pennsylvania Connellsville: This town was awoke on the Fourth “by sweet strains of music from the Connellsville Band” A newspaper reported that “the members of our band play their pieces well; their practice has been limited, yet they are learning rapidly. They have the material in the Band to make excellent musicians, and need but practice to bring them out” (Connellsville Enterprise, 6 July 1855, 2).

Virginia Norfolk: On the steamer Louisiana off the coast near Norfolk, over 1000 persons enjoyed patriotic music performed by Barrett’s “celebrated Brass Band of the city of Baltimore” (Daily Southern Argus, 6 July 1855, 2).

Washington Olympia: At the farm of Mr. Isaac Wood, citizens of Thurston County heard a band perform music after the toasts that were presented: Yankee Doodle—President’s March — Hail Columbia — The Marseilles

177 Hymn — The Star-Spangled Banner — Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean694— Home, Sweet Home (“Fourth of July, 1855,” Pioneer and Democrat, 13 July 1855, 3).

1856

1857 New York New York: “Patrick Henry’s Call” and “Pilgrims at Plymouth” (first line: “When the Pilgrim Mayflower sailed”) performed by the choir of the M.E. Church (43rd Street, near Eight Avenue) (New York Times, 5 July 1856, 1).

Publications Five songs on a broadside having the heading “July 4th, 1856. For Fremont and Freedom!” ([New Haven]: J.H. Benham, [1856]) include: “Sparkling and Bright” (first line: “Hark! to the cry, which loud and high”); “Rally! The Marseillaise” (first line: “Behold! the furious storm is rolling”); “What We Shall Do. Rosin the Bow” (first line: “Gather ye! Men of New England!”); “Fremont on the Course. Camptown Races” (first line: “Who is the people’s candidate? Fremont! Fremont!!”); “Finale. Auld Lang Syne” (first line: “The voice of freedom loudly calls”). “Written for July 4th, 1856 by T. Atwood. Tune ‘America.’” First line: “Great God, to thee we raise.” Broadside, 1856. Copy in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University.

Performances Massachusetts Boston: At Tremont Temple, “O Sing Unto the Lord a New Song.” By a “choir of children selected from the public schools,” directed by Charles Butler. “The singers looked and sung admirably, showing the thorough training to which they had been subjected.” Sung also was “O Firmly Stand, My Native Land” and “Hail Columbia” (“The Fourth,” Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1856, 2). Great Barrington: Music provided by the Mahaiwe Cornet Band and at Lee, MA, at the festival given by the Ladies of the Baptist Society, “the ‘Old Folks Choir,’ conducted by M.S. Wilson, will furnish a specimen of the music of olden time” (“The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 3 July 1856, 2.) Pittsfield: The Springfield Brass Band marched in a parade to City Hall (Pittsfield Sun, 3 July 1856, 3).

New Hampshire

1857 Publications Concord Fourth of July “Ode” by Ralph Waldo Emerson. First line: “O tenderly the haughty Day.” Sung in the town hall in Concord, NH. “Fourth of July breakfast and floral exhibition at the Town Hall, Concord, for the benefit of Sleepy Hollow Cemetary.” Broadside. (Liberator, 17 July 1857, 116; Every Saturday: A Journal of Choice Reading, 29 June 1867, 818; North American Review 135/308 ( July 1882): 24). Copies of broadsides in Harvard University, University of Florida, and University of Virginia. “Dead Rabbits’ Fight with the Bowery Boys/ New York July 4th 1857. Written at Hoboken, by Saugerties Bard. Air-‘Jordan.’” First line: “They had a dreadful fight, upon last Saturday night.” Broadside. “Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music,” American Memory, Library of Congress. Fourth of July: March.696 By F.W. Smith. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1857. For piano. Copy in University of Alabama. “Ode for Fourth July, 1857. By Ralph Waldo Emerson.” First line: “O, tenderly the haughty day” (Liberator, 17 July 1857, 116; Ohio Farmer, 18 July 1857, 115; Christian Inquirer, 25 July 1857, 1, and 4 September 1858, 4). “Ode for July Fourth, 1857. By James Franklin Fitts.” First line: “Raise we a strain to-day” (Flag of Our Union, 13 June 1857, 191). “Songs & Hymns to be Sung by the Children of the Union Sabbath School, Plymouth, at Their Anniversary, July 4th, 1857.” Includes five numbered songs and hymns. 4 pp. Copy: am. antiq. soc.

Performances

695

Keene: At a “Fremont meeting” a parade to a grove on the “Perry Estate” included “3500 to 4000 people in the procession walking four abreast, the Keene Brass Band discoursing excellent music.” Music during the exercises included a piece “‘Freemont and Victory,’ to the tune of Marseilles Hymn, was sung by a vocalist, all the company joining in the chorus with enthusiastic effect” (“Fourth of July in Keene, N.H.,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 July 1856, 3). Manchester: At the ceremony for laying the cornerstone of the House of Reformation, the Lowell Cornet Band provided the music (“Fourth of July in Manchester” and “The Fourth in Manchester,” Farmers’ Cabinet,” 3 and 10 July 1856, 3 and 3, respectively).

California Sacramento: A procession included “bands of music” and at the Forrest Theatre, where the exercises were held, there were patriotic songs by the San Francisco Minstrels (Weekly Bulletin, 11 July 1857, 3). Stockton: At the Stockton Theatre, the exercises included the performance of “several pieces of national music” by a choir (Weekly Bulletin, 11 July 1857, 3).

Connecticut Nauvoo Island: “Mormon Creed” sung by Charles R. Savage, director of the band and “leader of the choir” at the celebration of the Mormons. The piece

178

1858 was cited as “a sort of medley, half secular, half religious.” Words are printed. Also, “Brother Hall from Utah” sung the “Star-Spangled Banner” (New York Times, 6 July 1857, 3).

Wisconsin Milwaukee: “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by Robert B. Lynch at a public gathering (Milwaukee Daily Sentinel, 4 July 1857, 2).

Iowa Davenport: The Smokey Hill Brass Band at the exercises held at Churchill’s Grove “about four miles from town” (“Celebration at Churchill’s Grove,” Daily Iowa State Democrat, 4 July 1857, 1).

Kansas Clinton: The Lawrence Cornet Band provided music as they escorted a parade of “ox teams, covered carriages, and horses, from the store to the adjoining grove.” About 1500 persons were present.697 Wilmington: At a grove, exercises were held with music provided by the Wilmington Quartette Club and the Germania Glee Club of Havana City.698

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At Parkinson’s Gardens: Grand gala day and night! Fourth of July, 1857: Music! Illumination!! Pyrotechny! And aeronautics!! On the occasion of the ever-glorious anniversary of the nation’s birthday, the gardens will be illuminated in an unusually brilliant and magnificent manner. A careful and scientific gentleman has been engaged to furnish during the evening a succession of brilliant but harmless pyrotechny. The orchestra, will perform a splendid programme of national, operatic and popular music, interspersed with pyrotechnic displays of unusual splendor. Doors open at 6 1 ⁄ 2 o’clock. Programme to commence at 8 o’clock. In the afternoon Mons. Eugene Godard will make a grand ascension! With several gentlemen of this city in his monster balloon. Inflation to commence at 2 o’clock. Ascension at 5 o’clock. Evening programme of pyrotechny. Admittance to each exhibition, 50 cents. Children, half price. Every care, for the safety and comfort of ladies and children, will be taken, as usual.

Broadside, [Philadelphia]: Alex C. Bryson, printer, 23 N. sixth St., [1857].

Texas Palestine: At a barbecue and fish fry, the Palestine Brass Band “on their return from a musical engagement at Centerville upon a Houston occasion was there, and added greatly to the enjoyment of the occasion, by the magnificent and soul stirring music which they discoursed” (Trinity Advocate, 8 July 1857, 2).

Utah Salt Lake City: A parade and festivities were highlighted by three bands: Nauvoo Brass Band, Ballo’s Band, and a “martial band” (“Fourth of July Celebration in Great Salt Lake City,” Deseret News, 8 July 1857, 5).

1858 “The Birth-Day of Freedom. A Song for the Fourth of July, 1858. Tune — Star-Spangled Banner. By Richard Wright.” First line: “Glorious Birth-day of Freedom! thy advent we hail!” [Dated] June 28, 1858 (Alexandria Gazette, 5 July 1858, 2). “The Declaration of Independence, Signed July 4th, 1776: a Song, Designed for the Public Schools and Academies.” To be sung to the tune: “Twenty Years Ago.” First line: “To memorize the names of those.” Broadside. Pittsburgh: Hunt & Miner, 1858. Copy in Brown University. “Independence Day. Sung by Mrs. Barney Williams and Mrs. Florence, in all the principle Theatres.” First line: “Squeak the fife and beat the drum.”699 Broadsides. New York: H. De Marsan, ca. 1858; Philadelphia: J.H. Johnson, ca.1858. “Patriotic Odes, to be Sung at the Independence Celebration at La Porte, California.” First line: “Hail our country’s natal morn.” Broadside. [La Porte, CA]: Mountain Messenger Book, Card and Job Print. Office, [1858]. Includes 4 songs. Copy in Brown University. “Stand by the Flag,”700 words by John N. Wilder, recited in Albany, NY, and later sung in December 1863 by Capt. William F. Hartz in Chattanooga, TN, to the tune “Cheer, Boys, Cheer.” (first line: “Stand by the flag! Its stars, like meteors gleaming”). (Marshal H. Bright, “Stand by the Flag,” Los Angeles Times, 24 October 1896, 9). “Virtue, Liberty, Peace, and Our Country Forever: A National Song, written for the Pittsfield celebration, July 4th, 1858. By Richard Wright, Washington, D.C.” First line: “In sweet social friendship, we this day are meeting” (Pittsfield Sun, 8 July 1858, 3).

Performances Connecticut Bridgeport: The celebration occurred on Monday, July 5. “The military and fire department will parade ... The military have engaged Tompkins’ Brass Band of Waterbury, and the Fire Department have engaged the Second Regiment Band of Union City” (Pittsfield Sun, 24 June 1858, 2).

District of Columbia Georgetown: Sung by a group of children at a Union Sabbath School celebration at Jewett’s Grove near Georgetown: Independence Day — My Country ’Tis of Thee — Star-Spangled Banner (accompanied

179 by Wither’s Band)—The Sunday School Army (Washington Evening Star, 6 July 1858, 2).

Massachusetts Boston: An “al fresco concert” took place on the Common by “four principal bands701 of the city.” The works performed were “from the music of America, France, England, Italy, Turkey, and Russia.” The “Light Artillery” fired salutes during the playing of “Hail Columbia” in order “to heighten the effect of America’s national air.” (“Massachusetts,” New York Times, 6 July 1858, 2); “an original Ode by B.P. Shillaber will be sung” at the Young Men’s Democratic Club (“The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 1 July 1858, 2). Pittsfield: Hodge’s Cornet Band, Pellett’s Brass Band702 (both of North Adams), and a band of martial music marched in a parade. The exercises at the park included four pieces of music by the bands (Pittsfield Sun,1 and 8 July 1858, 2 and 2, respectively).

New York East Greenbush (“landolders [sic] of Rensselaer County): Johnny Cook’s Band of Albany “will discourse elegant music” (“The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 1 July 1858, 2). Middletown: This town celebrated the Fourth on July 3 and a parade of 1,500 included military units and the Newburgh Brass Band which “discoursed most excellent music,” as well as the Middletown Brass Band (Banner of Liberty, 7 July 1858, [6]). New York: “Hail Columbia” and an Ode (“Lo! our fathers from the skies”) performed at the Tammany Society meeting (“The Celebration in Tammany,” New York Times, 6 July 1858, 1); Ode “prepared expressly for the occasion” and “peppered all over with points of exclamation,” sung to the tune of “Hail Columbia,” accompanied by a band, at the Tammany celebration in New York (“The Fourth in Tammany,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 6 July 1858, 5); at the various parts in the city, no less than 10 bands performed, including Adkin’s Band, Robertson’s Band, Excelsior Band, Casse’s Band, Connell’s Band, Wannemaker’s Band, Shield’s Band, Shelton’s Band, Monnaham’s Band, Blind Band (New York Times, 5 July 1858, 3).

South Carolina Graniteville: “America” and “O Come Let Us Sing” sung by the “factory girls” at a ceremony held at the “School House.” First line: “Our land with mercies crowned” (Charleston Courier, 8 July 1858, 1).

Virginia Charlottesville: At Monticello, a “vast assemblage” of persons was present and heard a band perform a funeral dirge in the chamber where Thomas Jefferson died. “Hilarity and merriment immediately ceased, and as the solemn music fell upon the ear the tear gushing from the eye, and the uncovered and bended heads of the listeners, told that they felt they were paying a tribute to the memory of a great man, and that

1859 this chamber was truly a hallowed spot.” The band also “played an appropriate air” in front of the tomb (“Celebration at Monticello,” Alexandria Gazette, 8 July 1858, 3). Warrenton: The United Sabbath School Societies celebrated, with the Leesburg Brass Band providing music at sunrise. Later that morning at a grove, the exercises included speeches and a reading of the Declaration of Independence. “The band discoursed sweet music throughout the day, and the children sang a number of appropriate pieces, which added much to the interest of the occasion” (Alexandria Gazette, 7 July 1858, 3).

1859 Publications “An Appeal to American Freemen, Fourth of July, 1859.”703 By “Justitia.” Tune, “America.” First line: “Sons of the boasted free.” “Fourth of July Ode. Air —‘Star-Spangled Banner.’” By E. G. Barber. First line: “Bright, bright, be the heavens that smile on this morn.” Broadside. [New Haven, Conn., 1859]. Copy in Brown University. “Song: Concord, July 4th, 1859.” By F[ranklin] B[enjamin] Sanborn. “Air, Auld Lang Syne.” [Concord, Mass.?, 1859?]. Copy in Houghton Library, Harvard University. “Sung by children at Milford for a July 4 celebration.”704 First lines: “From the pine of the North to the Southern savannah”; “That freedom the fathers from heaven receiving.”

Performances Colorado Denver: “The city’s first public concert [was] given on July 4, 1859.705 Settlers from Omaha had brought the instruments of a brass band and knew how to use them.” Works performed included “The Star-Spangled Banner,” “Yankee Doodle,” and “Hail Columbia” (“Denver’s First Concert,” Rocky Mountain News, 8 August 1999).

Connecticut Bridgeport: At “a finely shaded part at East Bridgeport,” workers of the Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine Company celebrated. The Wheeler & Wilson Brass Band provided music for the exercises (“The Fourth at Bridgeport,” New York Observer and Chronicle, 14 July 1859). Woodbury: On the occasion of the centennial celebration held on July 4–5, the exercises “were opened by the choir’s singing to the air of ‘Bruce’s Address’” and an “Ode of Invocation” by William Cothren (first line: “Spirit of our sainted dead”). The exercises also included a “Song” by Cothren sung to the tune “Auld Lang Syne” (first line: “Should early ages be forgot”).

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1860 On the second day an assemblage met at Bethel Rock at 8 A.M. and the music consisted of singing one verse of the hymn “Be Thou, O God, exalted high”(air, Old Hundred) and another hymn “Once more, my soul, the rising day.” After some brief address, a verse from the 90th Psalm was sung and the ending of the meeting with “Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing.” At 10 am a service began with a reading of the “Centennial Hymn” (first line: “Here, then, beneath the greenwood shade” and “supposed to be sung on the spot where the Pilgrim settlers held their first Sabbath worship”) by the Rev. William Thompson Bacon. Included also was another “Ode” by Cothren sung to the air “Sweet Home” (first line: “Thrice welcome the day which now brings to the mind”) and an “Ode” by Mrs. Ann S. Stephens sung to the tune “America” (first line: “All hail our brothers, friends!”). The New Milford Brass Band performed in the procession and Lydia Sigourney contributed a poem titled “Return to Woodbury.” (Second Centennial Celebration of the Exploration of Ancient Woodbury, and the Reception of the First Indian Deed, Held at Woodbury, Conn., July 4 and 5, 1859. Edited by William Cothren. Woodbury: Published by the General Committee, 1859; “The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 21 July 1859, 1).

District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band performed at Philharmonic Hall (States, 30 June 1859).

Massachusetts Athol: The Athol Brass Band provided music at a consecration ceremony for a cemetery and monument. A hymn titled “The Nameless Grave” was sung: first line, “Walk gently o’er that nameless grave” (The Home of the Ancient Dead Restored. An Address Delivered at Athol, Mass., July 4, 1859. By the Rev. John F. Norton. Athol: Rufus Putnam, 1858). Boston: The city procession gathered at City Hall and included the Boston Brass Band706 and Gilmore’s Band.707 The group marched to the Music Hall. “As the procession entered the hall a voluntary was played by the Boston Brigade Band. A choir of about one hundred children, under the direction of Mr. Charles Butler, then chanted the ‘Venite Exultemus Domino’” (first line: “O come, let us sing unto the Lord”). After a prayer, the following original ode was sung by the choir of children”: first line, “Jubilate! Jubilate!” “The Declaration of Independence was read by Mr. George H. Cumings, in a very effective manner.” A national ode, the words by Mr. William Winter, and the music by Mr. B.A. Burditt, was then sung as follows: “Honor to Washington” (first line: “Honor to Washington, our nation’s pride!”). After the oration by George Sumner, “the Doxology was sung.” (An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1859, by George Sumner. Boston: George C. Rand and Avery, 1859); on the Common, a “grand military concert” was presented and several national anthems were played (New York Times, 7 July 1859, 2).

Maplewood: The Maplewood Young Ladies’ Institute hosted the celebration which included performances of Pastoral Scene, derived from John Milton’s Arcades, and Cantata of Liberty, written by a teacher, Miss Z.A. Clark. The story is about the Goddess of Liberty who “invoked the nations of the past, who, seven in number, represented by as many pupils of the school” and each being introduced and accompanied by characteristic music of that nation. For America, “Yankee Doodle” and “Hail Columbia” were sung or played. The production ended with the singing of “The Star-Spangled Banner” by the entire cast (“The Celebration at Maplewood,” Pittsfield Sun, 7 July 1859, 2). Pittsfield: At the “public park,” Pellett’s Cornet Band of North Adams “supplied most excellent Music during the day, and in the evening at the Fire Works” (“Celebration at Pittsfield” and “Local Intelligence: The Fourth,” Pittsfield Sun, 30 June and 7 July 1859, 3 and 2, respectively).

New York Brooklyn: At City Hall, “music by Dodworth’s Band” at the exercises and again at the “exhibition of fireworks in the evening” (“The National Anniversary,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 2 July 1859, 2); at Fort Greene a “new liberty pole on Washington Park” took place and “H. Capt. DeBevoise of the 14th Regt., with their music [Navy Yard Band], will play the appropriate national airs.” The pieces included “Hail Columbia,” Star-Spangled Banner,” and “Yankee Doodle” (“The National Anniversary,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 2 July 1859, 2; New York Times, 6 July 1859, 2). Williamsburgh: Turl’s Band performed at fireworks celebration (“In Williamsburgh,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1859, 2).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: On the grounds of Pennsylvania College, the College Glee Club sang “patriotic odes and choice selections of music.” The group sang “Hail Columbia,” “Star-Spangled Banner, “that famous old College song ‘Gaudeamus Igitur,’” “I See Them Still the Patriot Band,” and “The Mariners” (“The Fourth at Pennsylvania College,” Republican Compiler, 11 July 1859, 2).

1860 Publications “Freedom’s Battle-Song written for and sung at the Framingham A.S. Celebration, July 4.”708 By R. Thayer. Tune, “Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “A Band of freemen we go forth.” “Hymns and Songs for the Anti-Slavery Celebration of the Declaration of Independence, at Framingham, July 4, 1860.” Includes: Freedom’s Battle Song by R. Thayer — Freedom’s Summons — Hymn to Free-

181 dom—Hymns and prayer—Appeal to Massachusetts. Broadside. Boston: Prentiss and Deland, 1860. Copy in Brown University. “Written for the celebration of July 4 at North Elba, and read by the Secretary, as it was not possible to arrange music for it at the time.”709 By “Mr. Sanborn.” First line: “Eternal hills! that rise around.”

Performances Massachusetts Boston: “At eight o’clock, a grand concert was given upon the Common, by a band composed of the Brigade, Boston Brass, Germania, and Gilmore’s bands, all under the direction of Mr. B.A. Burditt. A programme of ten pieces of music was performed, including ‘Hail Columbia’ and the ‘Star-Spangled Banner,’ to heighten the effect of which the guns of the Light Artillery were introduced. The Concert concluded with ‘Old Hundred’; the immense concourse of people, who had been listening with gratification to the previous pieces, joining in a grand and powerful chorus.” The services at Music Hall included both vocal and instrumental music and “began with a voluntary by the Germania Band, after which the following chant was sung by the juvenile choir [150 boys and girls], under the direction of Mr. Charles Butler”: first line, “O sing unto the Lord a new song.” After a prayer, an “original ode, written by A. Wallace Thaxter,” was sung: first line, “Raise the paean! swell the chorus.” After a reading of the Declaration of Independence by Samuel H. Randall, an “original ode was then sung”: first line, “Native Land! Our warm heart’s adoration.” Following an oration by Edward Everett, the choir sung the Doxology, “the audience rising and joining in singing the last verse”: first line, “From all that dwell below the skies” (Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1860, by Edward Everett. Boston: Geo. C. Rand & Avery, [1860]).

New Hampshire Hillsboro: At 9 A.M. the Sabbath schools of Hillsboro and adjacent towns marched, “preceded by the Manchester Band,” to the grove. Participating also was the Henniker Brass Band and the Concord Cornet Band. The proceedings included “singing from the [Hillsboro] glee club, under the direction of Prof. Barton” (“Fourth of July Celebration at Hillsboro,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1860, 2).

New York New York: Nyer’s Twelfth Regiment Band710 performed on the steamer Hendrick Hudson on an excursion “to Newbugh, Westpoint, and Coldspring,” leaving from the 12th Street pier (“Excursions,” New York Times, 3 July 1860, 6); Rohn’s “New York Band” at the City Hall in Brooklyn, New York, at evening fireworks event (“The Fourth in Brooklyn,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1860, 2); at Niblo’s Garden, “a new

1861 national and patriotic overture,” composed by John Cooke, is premiered (New York Times, 4 July 1860, 7).

Rhode Island Seekonk: The “Order of Exercises” included a “National Ode by the Choir” and an “original Hymn written for the occasion” (first line: “What voices from the silent past”) by the Rev. William M. Thayer, of Franklin, Mass. Spirited and tasteful music was set to these hymns by Dea. D.B. Fitts, formerly of Seekonk, but now organist at the Congregational Church in Holliston, Mass., who also wrote an original piece of music for the original hymn on this occasion; and the singing was beautifully executed by a choir of twenty-five well trained voices (Dea. Fitts presiding at the organ) the whole being under the direction of Daniel Perrin, Esq., of Seekonk, a gentleman who exhibited ample qualifications for the task he was called to sustain.

After a dinner prepared for the occasion, an Ode “originally written by William J. Pabodie of Providence for another purpose” was sung to the tune “Old Hundred”: first line, “From dwellings by the stormy deep” (Rehoboth in the Past. An Historical Oration Delivered on the Fourth of July, 1860. By Sylvanus Chace Newman. Pawtucket: Robert Sherman, 1860).

Texas Millican: “At the site selected for the Depot of the Houston & Texas Central Railroad” in Brazos County, eighty miles from Houston, a procession was formed headed by a band of music which played “several national airs” (“The Fourth at Millican’s,” Weekly Telegraph, 10 July 1860).

1861 Publications Another 4th of July: The Wedding-Day is Coming. Song and March711 (Evansville, Ind.: Herman Fluegel, 1861), by Herman Fluegel, for piano, guitar, and voice. First line: “Oh my dear your eyes look red was it weeping made them red?” Copy in Johns Hopkins University. The Declaration of Independence of the United States of North America, July 4, 1776, Arranged and Adapted for Vocal and Instrumental Music, as the Great National Chant and Dedicated to the World. Baltimore: John E. Wilson, 1861. Copy in Johns Hopkins University. “The Flag of Our Union — July 4th 1861.” By J.M. Dunbar. First line: “Our country’s bright flag greets the morning’s first ray.” No imprint data. Copy in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University. “Fourth of July Song. Air: Star-Spangled Banner.”

1861

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Examples of two Civil War Union songsters that troops carried into battle. Each contains typical popular Fourth of July song texts, such as “The Sword of Bunker Hill,” “The Star-Spangled Banner,” “Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean,” and “My Country ’tis of thee.” Hymns, Religious and Patriotic, for the Soldier and the Sailor (Boston: American Tract Society, 1861), with music, and The Red, White, and Blue Songster (Indianapolis: C.O. Perrine, 1861) (author’s collection). By M.J. Million. First line: “We hail, once again, the glad day that gave.” Broadside. New York: H. De Marsan, [1861–63]. Copies in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University and New York Historical Society. “Fourth of July song: Gotten Up Expressly for Those Who Have an Appreciative Mind.” Broadside, [between 1861 and 1865]. Copy in Wake Forest University. “Hail! Glorious Banner of Our Land.” By Charles Warren. “Respectfully inscribed to Major General George B. McClellan, by Mrs. Mary Farrell Moore, Cincinnati, Ohio, July 4th, 1861.” For voice and piano. Philadelphia: Lee & Walker, 1861. “Hymns and songs for the anti-slavery celebration of the Declaration of Independence at Framingham,

July 4, 1861.” Includes: “Secession” [First line: “They threaten now to take their leave”] / by M. Trafton.— “Liberty for all” [First line: “O shame! that e’en within the shade”] / by A. Caldwell. Broadside, Boston: Prentiss & Deland, 1861. Hymns, Religious and Patriotic for the Soldier and the Sailor. Boston: American Tract Society, 1861. Includes lyrics for “My country ’Tis of thee,” “The StarSpangled Banner,” “Hail, Columbia,” “Red, White, and Blue,” and “The Flag of Our Union.” “July 4th, 1861.” [n.p.: Cooke & Danielson, Evening Press Office], 1861. Copy in Brown University. “An Ode for the Union” (first line: “No shorn republic name to me!) (National Intelligencer, 4 July 1861, 2). “Patriotic Songs!: These songs of freedom will be

183 sung on the Mall, July 4th, 1861, by a large choir, commencing at 6 1 ⁄ 2 o’clock. Hail Columbia ( J. Hopkinson); Marseilles Hymn; Star-Spangled Banner (F.S. Key); American Hymn (Miss H.F. Gould); America (the Rev. S.F. Smith); Army Hymn712 (O.W. Holmes). Copy in New York Historical Society. The Red, White, and Blue Songster. No. 1, National Patriotic Songs, Written to Popular Airs. Indianapolis: C.O. Perrine, 1861. Includes: “Red, White, and Blue,” “Hail Columbia,” “Star-Spangled Banner,” “Columbia! Arise to Glory!” (first line: “Columbia! Columbia! to glory arise!”), “Yankee Doodle,” “Our Flag is There,” “The Marseilles Hymn” (first line: “Ye sons of Freedom, awake to glory!”), “Hull’s Victory,” “The American Star” (first line: “Come, strike the bold anthem, the war-dogs are howling”), “The Clime Beneath Whose Genial Sun,” “The Sword of Bunker Hill” (first line: “He lay upon his dying bed”), “America,” “Our Native Land,” “Viva L’America.” “The Standard of the Free: National Song and Chorus. Dedicated to Col Lefferts,713 and officers and men of the gallant New-York Seventh Regiment. Sung with Great Applause at the Tammany Celebration, 4th July 1861. Words and music by John Mahon.” First line: “Fling out that banner, the standard of the free.” Broadside. [New York: H. De Marsan, 1861?]. Copy in New York Historical Society.

Performances

1861 Perkins, who, during the day, furnished excellent music.” (D. H. Allen, July Fourth, 1761: An Historical Discourse in Commemoration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Charter of Lebanon, N.H., Delivered July Fourth, 1861, 90).

New York Brooklyn: Christy’s Minstrels at the Brooklyn Athenaeum in New York: “everything new, original and unique. Burlesque operas, patriotic songs and choruses, artistic dancing, &c. Admission 25 cents”; at the Brooklyn Garden, “a grand extra concert, performed by twenty of the best musicians ... to commence at 3 o’clock P.M. Admission five cents. Ladies free” (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 and 5 July 1861, 3 and 2 respectively). New York: Prize National Overture, performed by “a grand orchestra under the direction of Mr. John Cooke” 715 (New York Leader, 29 June 1861, 8); “Standard of the Free,” written by John Mahon was sung by the Tammany Glee Club at the Tammany celebration (New York Times, 6 July 1861, 2); Hirschman’s Orchestra performed at Jones’ Wood and the Seventh Regiment Band716 and a choir from the Institution for the Blind performed at the Academy of Music. The choir and audience sang the “Army Hymn” to the tune “Old Hundred,” words by Oliver Wendell Holmes (New York Times, 4 July 1861, 3). See Publications above.

Maine

Rhode Island

Portland: The Portland Band performed and some “original odes” were sung by a choir (Daily Evening Traveller, 5 July 1861, 2).

Providence: Order of exercises at the city celebration:

Massachusetts Boston: “Star-Spangled Banner” was sung with new words by “Dr. Holmes”714 at the Music Hall (Daily Evening Traveller, 5 July 1861, 2; North American and United States Gazette, 5 July 1861, 2); at the Academy of Music: T.W. Parson’s ode, “Land of Columbia,” is premiered by a children’s choir of 300; the Germania Band performed; a song, “Stand by the Stars and Stripes,” arranged to the “Pirate Chorus” from Enchantress was sung (Daily Evening Traveller, 5 July 1861, 2). South Danvers: “Massachusetts Volunteers” sung by the children of the town at the public square and “Star-Spangled Banner” was sung by the audience and accompanied by the band (South Danvers Wizard, 3 July 1861, 2).

Michigan Detroit: “Star-Spangled Banner” sung at a dinner held at “Simpson’s” by H. J. Buckley (Detroit Free Press, 6 July 1861, 1).

New Hampshire Lebanon: The exercises “on the stand” included “singing by a choir under the direction of Mr. J.M.

1. Music by Shepard’s Cornet Band 2. Singing by a select choir from the High School and grammar schools under the direction of Seth Sumner, Esq., teacher of vocal music: “God bless our native land” (first line) 3. Prayer, by the Rev. A.H. Clapp, Pastor of the Beneficent Congregational Church 4. Reading of the Declaration of Independence, by N.W. DeMunn, Principal of the Benefit Street Grammar School 5. Singing, by the select choir: “Firmly Stand, My Native Land” (first line: “Firmly stand, firmly stand”) 6. Oration, by the Rev. Dr. Samuel L. Caldwell, Pastor of the First Baptist Church 7. Singing, by the select choir: “Star-Spangled Banner!” 8. Benediction, by the Rev. A.H. Clapp

(Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities and Citizens of Providence, on the Eighty-Fifth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1861. By Samuel L. Caldwell. Providence: Knowles, Anthony & Co., 1861.)

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1862

1862 Publications “Ode by the Rev. T.J. Greenwood. Air — StarSpangled Banner.” First line: “We come not to-day, as we oft-time have come” (Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 July 1862, 1). “Original Hymn written for and sung at a July 4 celebration at Framingham.”717 By Caroline A. Mason. Tune, “Old Hundred.” First line: “Our fathers worshipped Thee, O God.” “Our National Visitation,718 written for and sung at the anti-slavery celebration at Framingham, (Mass.) July 4th, 1862.” By W.L.G. [William Lloyd Garrison]. Tune: “John Brown Song.” First line: “For the sighing of the needy, to deliver the oppressed.” “Pro Patria: a National Song for the Fourth of July, 1862.” First line: “Our country’s glorious birth.” By Pilgrim John. Brooklyn, N.Y.: D.S. Holmes, 1862. Copy in Filson Historical Society. “Song for the Fourth of July, 1862.” By Eliza R. Snow. Broadside. [Salt Lake City?, 1862?]. Copy in Yale University Library. “Song Written for the 4th, of July, 1862.” Air: “Auld Lang Syne.” First line: “Beside the flowing river’s tide.” Dedicated to President Lincoln. Broadside. Copy in Brown University.

Performances Massachusetts Amherst: An entertainment in the town hall was organized by the ladies of Amherst and consisted of “tableaux, vocal and instrumental music.” Admission to the evening performance was 15 cents (“Independence Festival,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 3 July 1862, 3). Boston: At 8 A.M. on the Common, a “grand union concert” was presented by all the military bands in the city (“The Fourth of July,” Boston Daily Courier, 5 July 1862, 2); at Faneuil Hall, “Washington’s March” was performed by a band (Boston Daily Courier, 5 July 1862, 2); “Star-Spangled Banner,” with words by W.T. Adams, and “Union” sung by “a choir of pupils selected from the high and grammar schools, under the direction of Charles Butler (City of Boston: EightySixth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1862. [Boston]: J.E. Farwell & Co., [1862]); “Old Glory” cited as an “original ode” and sung by “the young school misses, under the direction of Mr. Charles Butler,” at the Academy of Music (Boston Daily Courier, 5 July 1862, 2). Newton: “America” sung by church choirs and others at the celebration there. First line: “My country! ’Tis of thee”; “The Dear Old Flag”: first line, “See the flag! The dear old flag”; “The Flag of Our Union”: first line, “A song for our banner! The watchword recall”; “Marching Along”719: first line, “The Children

are gathering from near and from far”; “Marseilles Hymn”: first line, “Ye sons of freedom, wake to glory”; “Old Hundred”: first line, “From all that dwell below the skies”; “Our Flag is There”720: first line, “Our flag is there! Our flag is there!”; “Song of the Contrabands”: first line, “Oh praise an’ thanks! De Lord he come”; “Battle Hymn”: first line, “Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord”721; “Star-Spangled Banner”; “Viva l’America”722: first line, “Noble Republic! Happiest of lands.” Broadside. (Grand National Union Concert ... by the Sabbath and Public Schools of Newton and the Surrounding Towns. Newton, Mass., 1862). North Salem: A raising of a flag-staff 135 feet high on July 3 took place and on July 4 the Salem Brass Band provided music near the adjacent platform and Miss Mary E. Todd’s ode (first line: “Sons of freedom, raise the banner!) was read by the mayor. (Celebration at North Bridge, Salem, July 4th, 1862. Oration by Dr. George B. Loring. Boston: J. E. Farwell, [1862]; “Celebration in Salem, Boston Daily Courier, 5 July 1862, 1).

New Hampshire Amherst: “At 10 o’clock, the children, teachers, and friends of Sabbath Schools assembled at the Congregational Church” where the exercises included “singing by the choir and children.” Afterwards “a procession was then formed, and under escort of Lawrence Engine Company, No. 2, and the New Boston Brass Band, marched around and saluted the ‘dear old flag,’ with rousing cheers. The procession then moved to the Atherton grove, where ample tables had been spread and furnished, and a stand for speaking erected. Here the ‘Star-Spangled Banner’ was sung by the children, under the direction of Mr. H.E. Abbott.... The exercises were closed with a song by the children.” That evening, “the ladies gave an entertainment at the town hall’ and the affair included music by the band. “The singing of the Marseilles Hymn and Old New England, by the quartette, consisting of Messrs. Mack and Sawtelle, Mrs. H.E. Abbott and Miss Lucy David, was in good taste and well received” (“The Fourth in Amherst,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 July 1862, 2).

New York Brooklyn: At Fort Greene, while 20,000 persons watched fireworks, “a band of music was present and played patriotic and operatic airs at intervals” (“How the Day Was Observed,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1862, 2). New York: At the Cooper Union Debating Society meeting, “Meeting of the Waters” sung by “Miss G. Hartshorne” who “received due appreciation” and “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by J.A. Adams who “received of course with the most vociferous applause” (“Cooper Institute,” New York Times, 6 July 1862, 2); at Nixon’s Cremorne Gardens, Mme. Strakosch sang “The Flag of Our Union” and Carlotta Patti sang “The Star-Spangled Banner,” the latter “assisted by

185 all the Italian artists” (New York Times, 4 July 1862, 7); at Niblos’s Garden, Miss Caroline Richings appeared as Pauline in the musical drama National Guard (New York Times, 4 July 1862, 3).

Ohio Cincinatti: At Shires’ National Theater a “grand Fourth & Fifth of July celebration” included the Mammoth Minstrel Band and Rainford’s Empire Minstrels. On Friday, July 4, an afternoon presentation included a “patriotic drama” titled Fourth of July in the Morning, followed by a “national dance,” by Miss Rosa Hill (Cincinatti Daily Gazette, 4 July 1862, 4).

1863 Band, and Richmond Band (“The 4th in Cambridge City,” Cincinnati Daily Gazette, 6 July 1863, 4).

Kentucky Lexington: Saxton’s “celebrated band” provided music for a celebration and charitable event for poor children given by the St. John’s Educational Society (New York Freeman’s Journal & Catholic Register, 18 July 1863, 5).

Virginia James River: General George B. McClellan encouraged his bands to play national airs for the Army of the Potomac camped adjacent to the river banks (Evening Star, 9 July 1862, 2).

Wyoming Fort Bridger: Near the fort, in a military camp, the morning began with “the firing of muskets and revolvers” and “elivening strains of our National airs, Hail Columbia, Star-Spangled Banner, Yankee Doodle, etc., performed with excellent spirit by our two brass buglers, Charles Evans and Josiah Eardley” (“The Celebration of the Fourth of July Near Fort Bridger, by Capt. Lot Smith’s Command,” Deseret News, 23 July 1862, 8).

1863 Publications “Three Times Three, a Song for the Fourth of July” was introduced by G.H. Williams (Daily Ohio State Journal, 4 July 1863, 1).

Performances Indiana Cambridge City: From six to eight thousand persons enjoyed a celebration that included music by the Milton Band, Hagerstown

Cover of America. Transcriptions Brillantes: No. 2, Yankee Doodle (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1860s) by Charles Voss. This work was performed by the author at an Independence Day concert in Clarksburg, Maryland, on July 3, 2008. The tune “Yankee Doodle” was performed annually on the Fourth of July in numerous cities and towns across the country during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (author’s collection).

186

1864 New Hampshire New Boston: On the occasion of the centennial anniversary of this town, a procession, music, and speeches took place. At 9 A.M. the New Boston Cornet Band led a parade to the Presbyterian Meeting House, where a platform had been erected in front for the ceremony. An original hymn, by Mrs. S.T. Wason723 “was sung by a large choir in which were several aged people (Mrs. Hannah Farley724 being seventy-eight years old), under the direction of Jesse Beard,725 a veteran school-teacher and singing-master, now seventy-four years old, assisted by Mr. A.P. Brigham.” The hymn was titled “Centennial” (first line: “Our fathers’ God, to thee”). Another hymn also by Wason was sung by the choir: “Our Century Plant” (first line: “Our century plant is in blossom to-day”). After music by the band, some 500 persons were seated for dinner and heard the following two songs: “Air, ‘Auld Lang Syne.’” First line: “We come from northern snow-draped homes”; “Welcome of the Fathers.” First line: “Hear ye not the soft, low whispers.” After dinner, the group reassembled in the church where the following additional two pieces written by Wason were sung: “Our Early Friends.” First line: “Our childhood’s friends have met once more”; “Our Fathers” (hymn). First line: “Our fathers’ God, who dwell’st on high” (Elliott C. Cogswell, History of New Boston, New Hampshire [Boston: Geo. C. Rand & Avery S. Cornhill, 1864], 12–19; “Centennial at New Boston” and “Poetry,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 9 and 16 July 1863, 2 and 4, respectively).

New Jersey Franklinville: “Professors Adams and Urion, will perform some of their best national airs” at an event that included an artillery salute, ice cream and other refreshments, speeches, and a “grand cotillion party in the evening.” Broadside (titled “Fourth of July Celebration in Sharp’s Grove, Franklinville, Gloucester County, N.J.”) [Philadelphia]: Familton & Rogers, printers, [1863].

native land! our native land!”; Sound the Trumpet: first line, “Sound the trump-prepare for battle”; The Flag of Our Union: first line, “A song for our banner! the watchword recall.” [Providence, RI]: A. Crawford, Greene, Steam Printer, 1864.

Performances California Sacramento: “America” cited as a hymn sung by the Philharmonic Society at the Pavilion. An overture was performed by the Sacramento Brass Band (Sacramento Daily Union, 6 July 1864, 3).

Illinois Chicago: Sharpley’s Minstrels gave a performance at Metropolitan Hall “to an excellent audience” (Chicago Tribune, 6 July 1864, 4).

New York Buffalo: A “grand steamboat excursion” included music provided by the Union Cornet Band and a Quadrille Band, along with refreshments (Buffalo Morning Express, 4 July 1864, 2). New York: At the Tammany Society celebration, “Prof. Colburn” conducted 24 pupils of the Twentieth Ward public schools in the song “The Voice of ’76.” Written for the occasion by Charles F. Olney, a pianist (New York Daily News, 6 July 1864, 2); George F. Bristow composed a Rondo to be played on the steeple bells at Trinity Church (Heintze, The Fourth of July Encyclopedia, 24).

Pennsylvania Gettysburg: A year after the deadliest single battle of the Civil War, a gathering of four to five thousand persons included a ceremony with music by the Chambersburg Brass Band (“Gettysburg,” Philadelphia Inquirer, 5 July 1864, 8).

Tennessee

Warren: The German Brass Band provided music at Johnson’s Hall (Warren Mail, 11 July 1863).

Nashville: Buildings were gaily decorated and a parade of only military units included “three fine brass bands whose lively music seemed to put wings to the soldier’s feet” (“Grand Celebration” and “The Celebration,” Nashville Daily Times, 4 and 6 July 1864, 3 and 2, respectively).

1864

1865

Pennsylvania

Publications

Publications

“Balloon ‘Star-Spangled Banner.’” Signed H.F.D.” Boston: J.E. Farwell & Co., 1864. Composed to honor the “aeronaut” Samuel A. King. First line: “Like the bird of our banner I soar on high.” “Municipal Celebration of the Eighty-Eighth Anniversary of American Independence, Monday, July 4th, 1864.” Includes National Hymn: first line, “Our

“Bright Republic: a Song and Chorus, Written for the National Jubilee, July 4th, 1865.” By the Rev. J[oel] F[oote] Bingham; music by William Krauskopf. [Buffalo?, 1865]. Words only. Copies in University of Georgia, College of William & Mary, and other repositories. “General Meade, the Hero of Gettysburg. Air —

187 Hail to the Chief who in Triumph Advances.” July 4th, 1865. First line: “Hail to the chiefain who comes in his glory.” Songsheet, copy in Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (“America Singing: Nineteenth Century Song Sheets,” American Memory website). “Hymn for the Fourth of July, 1865.” First line: “Great God of Battles, unto Thee” (Harper’s Weekly, 8 July 1865). “Ode for July 4th, 1865. Air —‘The Star-Spangled Banner.’” By Alfred Billings Street. First line: “The day, the bright day glows again in their skies.” Broadside, [Monticello, NY,] 1865. Copy in New York Historical Society. “We have just received from Horace Waters publisher, 481 Broadway, New York, two spirited and soul stirring pieces of music, appropriate for Fourth of July, and all patriotic occasions. The music of both is by the popular composer, Mrs. E.A. Parkhurst.726 The first is ‘The Peace Jubilee,’727 a national song with chorus. The second a national anthem “Glory to God in the Highest’”728 (Farmers’ Cabinet, 29 June 1865, 3).

Performances District of Columbia At the celebration by the National Lincoln Monument Association, music was provided by the Union Cornet Band.729

Massachusetts Boston: Musical entertainment for the children of the public schools was provided at Music Hall and the Boston Theatre. At the Music Hall, “three National Organ Concerts were given by Mr. G.E. Whiting and Mrs. L.S. Frohock.” James R. Elliott sang “Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean” with the audience joining in the chorus. The children sang a verse of “The Star-Spangled Banner” under the direction of Carl Zerrahn, “Chorus of Pilgrims,” from I Lombardi, and an “original hymn” by Mrs. Julia Ward Howe730 to the tune of “Old Hundredth Psalm”: first line, “Our Fathers built the house of God.” At Boston Theatre there were bands of music for dancing and promenading. One band played “Hail to the Chief ” as Boston Mayor Frederic W. Lincoln, Jr. entered. A procession earlier that day included a band from Gallop’s Island, Gilmore’s Band with a Drum Corps, and Bond’s Cornet Band731 (Peace under Liberty. Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1865, by J.M. Manning. Boston: J.E. Farwell, 1865.)

New Jersey Trenton: “Battle Cry of Freedom,”732 “Our Country’s Birthday,” “Star-Spangled Banner,” and “Welcome, Heroes, Home” sung by a glee club, directed by Professor Harding, at a grandstand on the grounds of Mr. Perdicaris (“The Fourth of July in Trenton,” Daily State Gazette, 7 July 1865, 3).

1866 New York New York: “The military display consisted of twenty-five regiments of infantry, cavalry and artillery, accompanied by thirteen bands, and was received with the greatest enthusiasm. Along the line of march the returned veterans had a perfect ovation” (“Fourth of July at New York,” Chicago Tribune, 6 July 1865, O2); George F. Bristow wrote a work titled Grand National Fantasia, “in honor of our great victories” that was performed on the steeple bells of Trinity Church. The piece included arrangements of these tunes: “Vive l’America,” “Bound Soldier Boy,” “Old Folks at Home,” “Coming through the Rye,” “Hail Columbia,” and “The Campbells Are Coming” (Heintze, The Fourth of July Encyclopedia, 24). Saratoga Springs: William Ross Wallace’s “national Song,” “Washington’s Red, White and Blue” was premiered (New York Times, 9 July 1865, 3).

Pennsylvania Gettysburg: “French’s Hymn,” composed by B.B. French was sung by the Baltimore Musical Association at the cornerstone laying ceremony for the National Soldiers Monument. This work had previously been sung on November 19, 1863, at the consecration ceremony for the National Gettysburg Cemetary event in which Lincoln gave his “Gettysburg Address.” Also sung by the Baltimore Musical Association was “This Battlefield,” composed by Gen. W.H. Hayward, of Baltimore: first line, “This battle-field-our nation’s glory.” Martial music was supplied by the band of the Ninth Veteran Reserve Corps (“Gettysburgh,” New York Times, 6 July 1865, 2 and 8). Lititz: At the grove, “the Union League Band of Lancaster was present and discoursed excellent music” (“Fourth of July Excursions to Ephrata and Lititz,” Columbia Spy, 8 July 1865, 3).

1866 Publications “Anti-slavery hymns sung at Harmony Grove, Framingham, Mass., July 4, 1866.” Includes: Onward to the work [First line: O, Father, from above] / by G.W. Stacy.— Fling out the anti-slavery flag [First line].— The happy day is dawning [First line]. Broadside, [Framingham, 1866]. Bald Mountain Schottish. By M.W.C. For piano. Troy, NY: Chas. W. Harris, [1866]. On p. 1: “To the pic-nic party, July 4th, 1866.” “Hymn for the Fourth of July. Tune, ‘Old Hundred.’” First line: “To Thee, O God, all praise belongs” (Littell’s Living Age, 21 July 1866, 144).

188

1867

Performances Illinois Salem: “Sherman’s March to the Sea” sung by a glee club of “young ladies and gentlemen” following a speech given by Gen. William T. Sherman (Weekly Missouri Democrat, 10 July 1866, 1).

New York Flushing: A group of soldiers’ orphans sang “Marching On” and “Peace to the Brave” at the laying of the cornerstone of the soldiers monument there (“The Glorious Fourth” New York Times, 5 July 1866, 8). New York: Geo. Christy’s Minstrels at 4 West 24th Street; “Hoffman’s Full Band” at Lowe’s Amphitheatre; “Theo Thomas’Garden Concerts,” two concerts at Terrace Garden, 3rd Ave between 58th and 59th Streets (New York Times, 3 July 1866, 7). Utica: A procession included the Utica Brass Band that also provided music for the exercises held at Chancellor Square (Utica Daily Observer, 5 July 1866, 1, 3).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: The Handel and Haydn Society sang “Old Hundred” for General George G. Meade and 10,000 war veterans (New York Times, 5 July 1866, 8).

sented a “National Medley” of tunes (New York Times, 4 July 1867, 5); in Harlem at Mount Morris Square, 15,000 persons heard music by Robertson’s Brass Band and students from public schools sang “America” (“The Day in Harlem,” New York Times, 5 July 1867, 1, 8).

Ohio Cincinnati: At Fiedler’s Loewen Garden, a concert at 2 P.M. was given by Wiegand’s String and Silver Cornet Band; at the National Theater, a “Great National Jubilee” included the play Wife with Four Husbands, “after which the national anthem, ‘The StarSpangled Banner,’ in character of the Goddess of Liberty, introducing the Grand Patriot Tableau of Washington Crossing the Delaware. To be followed by [a] Patriotic Song, introducing the Apothrosis of Lincoln, descriptive of the reception of this patriot martyr by Washington in the Temple of Liberty” (Cincinnati Commercial, 4 July 1867, 8).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: Hassler’s “Full Military Band” provided music for the opening of the “new” Ledger Building (“Fourth of July at the New Ledger Building, Philadelphia,” Columbia Spy, 13 July 1867).

1868

Washington Walla Walla: At the town ceremony held at the Council Grove, there was “singing by the choir” (“Fourth of July Celebration,” Walla Walla Statesman, 7 July 1866, 2).

1867 Performances District of Columbia The U.S. Marine Band led a parade of temperance organizations (Evening Star, 5 July 1867, 1).

Maryland Laurel: The Naval Academy Band, Peter Schoff, leader, provided music for the celebration of Independent Order of Rechahites (Evening Star, 5 July 1867, 1).

New York Brooklyn: Myer’s Brass Band “discoursed enliving and patriotic airs” during the fireworks display (“Fireworks,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1867, 2). New York: Grafulla’s Band performed at the laying of the cornerstone for the new Tammany Hall building on 14th Street (“General City News,” New York Times, 26 June 1867, 5; New York Citizen, 29 June 1867, 8); in Central Park, Dodworth’s Band pre-

Performances California San Francisco: The California Minstrels performed twice at Platt’s Music Hall (San Francisco Dramatic Chronicle, 3 July 1868, 2).

New Jersey Newark: “Bright Sword of Liberty” and “Our Native Land” sung by the Orpheus Society at the First Baptist Church celebration (“Newark,” New York Times, 5 July 1868, 8).

New York Brooklyn: At Fort Greene, McCann’s Band733 of the 56th Regiment “played appropriate music during the intervals between the pieces [fireworks]” (“Independence Day,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 6 July 1868, 2). New York: At Trinity Church, James E. Ayliffe rang the following tunes using the bells in the church steeple: Ringing the chimes of eight bells “Hail Columbia” “Yankee Doodle” “Blue Bells of Scotland” Airs from “Child of the Regiment” “Red, White and Blue” “Evening Bells” “On the Field of Glory”

189 “The Soldier’s Return” “Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean” “Spanish Melody” “The Eclipse Polka” Scotch Melody from Guy Mannering “The Chimes Quadrile” “Yankee Doodle”

(Heintze, The Fourth of July Encyclopedia, 24); at Lyric Hall, Blind Tom gave an evening concert and at Central Park Garden, Theodore Thomas and his orchestra gave two concerts on the Fourth. The afternoon concert featured Mrs. Jenny Kempton, “the distinguished and favorite contralto” and Mr. R. Henning, violoncellist. The program included works by Rossini, Strauss, Goltermann, Bellini, Meyerbeer, Offenbach, and Gounod. American works included “Central Park Garden,” a march by Thomas and a “patriotic song” titled “Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean” as composed by [David T.] Shaw. (New York Times, 4 July 1868, 7).

New Mexico Santa Fe: A parade included a military and citizen’s band both alternately performing on their way to the State House. At the pagoda there the exercises also included music. A newspaper reported that “the bands generously lent their assistance on the occasion without compensation, for which they are entitled to the thanks of all who joined in the celebration” (“The Fourth of July,” Santa Fe Weekly Gazette, 11 July 1868, 2).

1869 Publications “That Banner of Stars: Fourth of July Ode,” by J.C. Meininger. Lyrics by A. Fulkerson. Cincinnati: John Church & Co., 1869.

1870 VI. Oration, by Hon. Thomas Russell, of Boston. VII. Original Song, by the scholars. First line: “Hail our Nation’s proudest day!”

“To be followed by the ‘Star-Spangled Banner,’ and other patriotic selections, by the choir” (Dedication of the Hingham Public Library, July 5th, 1869, by the Hon. Thomas Russell, with an Appendix. Hingham: Published by the Trustees of the Library, 1871). Quincy: The celebration took place on Monday, July 5, with a procession that included the Quincy Brass Band and the following exercises at the church: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Voluntary on the organ. Chorus, “Star-Spangled Banner.” Prayer, by the Rev. J.D. Wells. Reading of the Declaration of Independence, by Henry Lunt. 5. Keller’s American Hymn.734 6. Address, by Charles Francis Adams, Jr. 7. National anthem, “America.”

“The choruses were sung by a choir of about fifty persons, and were finely rendered.” In the evening the Quincy Brass Band performed “an excellent selection of popular and patriotic music, from sunset until the close of the [fireworks] display” (The Double Anniversary: ’76 and ’63. A Fourth of July Address Delivered at Quincy, Mass. By Charles F. Adams, Jr. Boston: W. M. Parsons Lunt, 1869).

New York New York: At Carroll Park, the O’Reilly Band provided music before the fireworks display (“At Carroll Park,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 6 July 1869, 2).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: “America,” “Hail Columbia,” “StarSpangled Banner” and “Washington” were sung at the ceremony of dedication for a monument to George Washington (The Age, 5 July 1869, 1; New York Times, 5 July 1869, 1).

Performances

1870

Massachusetts Hingham: On the occasion of the dedication of the public library building on July 5, a town procession included the South Hingham Cornet Band and Hingham Brass Band. The “order of exercises” included: I. Singing by a select choir. “Gloria” from Mozart’s Twelfth Mass. II. Presentation of the Deed of the Land and Building. III. Original Song, to be sung by the pupils of the Derby Academy and public schools. First line: “Children, here, we meet together.” IV. Dedicatory Prayer, by the Rev. Calvin Lincoln. V. Original Hymn (composed for the occasion), tune —“America.” First line: “Thou great creative Cause!”

Publications “Liberty’s Spirit, Come Home: Commended for Fourth of July Celebrations.” By Robert Sinnickson. Salem, NJ: the author, 1870. “The Land We Love,” a “Chorus for the Fourth of July,” by Theodore F. Seward.735 Lyrics by George W. Birdseye. In William B. Bradbury, The Victory: A New Collection of Sacred and Secular Music (New York: Biglow & Main, 1870).

Performances Connecticut Woodstock: Gilmore’s Band performed for a visit by President Grant (“Ovation to the President,” New

190

1870

“The Land We Love,” a “Chorus for the Fourth of July,” by Theodore F. Seward, of Orange, New Jersey, with words by George W. Birdseye, in William B. Bradbury, The Victory: A New Collection of Sacred and Secular Music (New York: Biglow & Main, 1870) (author’s collection). York Herald Tribune, 5 July 1870, 10); print musical program in N.Y. Herald, 4 July 1870, 10.

Colorado Greeley: The Denver Band played Hail Columbia — Yankee Doodle — Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean—and a glee club sang “America” (“The Fourth at Greeley,” Rocky Mountain News, 6 July 1870, 4).

Connecticut New Haven: “Das ist der Tag des Hern (This is the Lord’s Day)” sung by a group of German singing societies under the direction of “Prof. Wehner” at the City Hall (Hartford Daily Courant, 6 July 1870, 2).

Missouri St. Charles: The first performance of the St. Charles Brass Band, Joseph Decker, bandleader, took place when the band marched in a parade on the Fourth (The St. Charles Municipal Band, Inc. website http:// www.stc-muny-band.com/index.htm).

New Jersey Newark: A parade included the Jefferson Brass Band and Sunderhaft’s Band (“The Day in New-Jersey,” New York Times, 5 July 1870, 1).

New York Brooklyn: At Lofferts’ Park, McCann’s Band provided “excellent music,” with “dancing till late in the evening” (“Fourth of July,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1870, 2). New York: At the Tammany Hall celebration, “A Song, ‘The Standard of Freedom’” was sung by William H. Davis (“The Celebration at Tammany Hall,” New York Times, 5 July 1870, 1); in Central Park, Grafulla’s Band performed the “National Overture” and the “Red, White, and Blue,” as well as other works (New York Times, 4 July 1870, 1). Randall’s Island: “Fling Out the Starry Banner Wide,” “Happy Hearts,” “Let Us Seek the Sweet Bowers,” “Unfurl the Glorious Banner,”736 “Where Has Lula Gone?”737 and “’Tis Well We Should be Gay” sung by 400 children (“The Day at Randall’s Island,” New York Times, 5 July 1870, 1).

Ohio Cincinnati: Manning’s Minstrels gave two performaces at Wood’s Theater (Cincinnati Commercial, 4 July 1870, 8).

191

1871 Publications “A Fourth of July Song. The following song, written for the occasion, is included in the programme for the Fourth of July celebration in New York. ‘The Flag of Welcome.’” First line: “Her broad flag, her grand flag, Columbia uplifts” (Cleveland Morning Herald, 4 July 1871).

Performances Massachusetts Leicester: The exercises held in the grove began at 10 A.M. with music by the Worcester National Band followed the audience, “led by a well-trained choir of thirty singers,” singing an “Invocation” to the tune of Old Hundred: first line, “Great God, to thee we raise our prayer.” Additional music included: an original hymn, “written for the occasion by the Rev. A.C. Denison, of Middlefield, Conn., a former pastor of the First Congregational Church” of Leicester and sung by the choir: first line, “From far and near to-day we come”; “Yankee Doodle” and “Auld Lang Syne” played by the band. In the evening the band gave a concert on the town’s common (Celebration of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Organization of the Town of Leicester, July 4, 1871. Cambridge: Press of John Wilson and Son, 1871).

New Hampshire New Boston: Over 1800 persons attended the celebration with music furnished by the New Boston Band (Farmer’s Cabinet, 12 July 1871, 2).

New York Brooklyn: Mayer’s 47th Regiment Band at Capitoline Grounds (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1871, 1). New York: Mr. Fisk’s Erie Band marched in their “conspicuous ‘lobster Back’” uniforms in the military parade that included between 7,000–8,000 men (New York Times, 5 July 1871, 1); Dan Bryant’s Minstrels at the Park Theatre (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1871, 1).

Pennsylvania Lititz: “The Citizens Band of York discoursed music at intervals throughout the afternoon and evening” (“The Glorious Fourth,” Columbia Spy, 8 July 1871, 3).

1872 glees, etc, by Messers. Bee, Cannel, Davis, Robbins and others, under the direction of Prof. S.R. Bee” (“Fourth of July in Tintic,” Salt Lake Tribune, 10 July 1871, 2).

1872 Performances Colorado Denver: Denver Brass Bands, played “airs most appropriate to the ‘natal’” (“The Fourth in Denver,” Rocky Mountain News, 6 July 1872, 4).

New Hampshire Nashua: The day included music by the Calithumpian Band, a band concert, and “band concert and fireworks in the evening” (Farmers’ Cabinet, 3 July 1872, 2).

New York Brooklyn: At Prospect Park, the Twenty Third Regiment Band performed before “a large assemblage.” The report including the following program of music: Part I 1. Grand March. “Gemma di Fergy.”738 Donizetti 2. Ballad. “Kathleen Mavourneen.” Crouch739 3. Overture. “Guy Mannoring.” Bishop 4. Valse. “Les Gardes de Reine.”740 Godfrey 5. Galop. “Sleigh Ride.” Folko 6. March. “Popular Airs.” Conterno Part Second 7. Overture. “Don Juan.” Mozart 8. Song. “Scenes that are Brightest”741 (Maritana). Wallace 9. Waltz. “Promotionea.” Strauss 10. Selections. “La Grande duch*essa.” Offenbach 11. Polka. “Education.” Carolla 12. March. “Scotch Melodies.” Conterno [“The Music in the Park,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1872, 2].

New York: At City Hall, the Eleventh Regiment Band provided music for those assembled there (“The Display of Fireworks at the City Hall and Elsewhere,” New York Times, 5 July 1872, 1); at St. Ann’s Church, J.M. Loretz, Jr., church musical director, performed “Fantasia-national airs” on the organ (New York Times, 4 July 1872, 5); Grafulla’s Band on the steamer Sleepy Hollow on an excursion up the Hudson River (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1872, 1).

Utah

Utah

Salt Lake City: The brass band of the 13th U.S. Infantry and Corinne Brass Band performed (Salt Lake Tribune, 4 July 1871, 2). Tintic: The Provo Brass Band performed in the procession and public concert. The newspaper reported, “sentimental and comic songs, trios, duets,

Salt Lake City: At a celebration held at the Liberal Institute, the Utah National Party Band performed Faust’s March, John Brown’s Quickstep, and other works (Salt Lake Tribune, 13 July 1872, 5).

192

1873

1873 Publications Fourth of July March (Philadelphia: Lee & Walker, 1873), for piano, by Frank Green. Fourth of July March (Philadelphia: Lee & Walker, 1873), for violin and piano, by Septimus Winner.

Performances Colorado Golden: Golden Cornet Band “assembled in front of Jefferson Hall, played several pieces” (“At Golden,” Rocky Mountain News, 6 July 1873, 4).

approved herself a model hostess, and where a skilled party of amateurs, including Mr. Spier and Mrs. Borneman, contributed to the pleasures of the occasion. Haydn’s Joy [sic, ne Toy] Symphony was a feature of the concert, and was greeted with much laughter and applause (“At the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1873, 3); the Constitution Club met on Bridge Street and Ald. Clancy, Honest John Pyburn and John Guilfoyle sang the “Star-Spangled Banner,” and Prof. L.L. Parr sang the “Flag of Our Union” (“Constitution Club Celebration,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1873, 4); Conterno’s Orchestra performed at the Brooklyn Rink and the music program is printed in the newspaper (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 and 5 July 1873, 1 and 4, respectively). New York: Harvey Dodworth’s Band performed at City Hall (New York Evening Mail, 3 July 1873, 4).

Massachusetts Amherst: A “Union Picnic” at Babboosuck Lake attended by residents from neighboring towns included music by the Wilton Cornet Band. “The gentlemanly bearing and deportment of this band are worthy of high commendation. The proficiency they have made in music promises them a cordial reception wherever they shall be invited. At 6 P.M. the sun smiled upon us as we listened to the singing of ‘America’ by the Milford delegation accompanied by the band. A pastor of the M.E. Church in behalf of the large company that had enjoyed their music, and then the Milford friends were escorted home by the band to the tune, ‘Red, White and Blue’” (“The Fourth in Amherst,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 9 July 1873, 2).

New Hampshire Temple: The Milford Cornet Band provided escort services on the Fourth at the dedication of the Soldiers Monument. The band had just received “their new fine-toned instruments” consisting of “a full set (German silver) from the manufacturer, Hall & Quinby, Boston” (“Milford Matters,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 9 July 1873, 2).

Utah Salt Lake City: “A grand concert by Madam Anna Bishop’s troupe, at the Tabernacle, in the presence of 6000 persons” (“Elsewhere,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 5 July 1873, 8; New York Times, 6 July 1873, 1).

Vermont Burlington: At the unveiling of a statue in honor of Ethan Allen, a parade included the Sherman Cornet Band, of Winooski and the St. Mary’s Cornet Band, of Burlington. The “inauguration service” began with an opening prayer. “The hymn ‘God and Our Country,’ composed by Oliver Wendell Holmes, was next sung by a choir of twenty male voices, furnished by the St. Albans Glee Club and the Harmonic Society of Burlington, to music specially composed for the occasion by S.C. Moore of Burlington” (Exercises Attending the Unveiling and Presentation of a Statue of Gen. Ethan Allen at Burlington, Vermont, July 4th, 1873, including an Oration by Hon. L. E. Chittenden. Burlington: Free Press Print., 1874, 10–11).

1874

New York Brooklyn: Celebration of the residents of the 18th and 21st wards on Willoughby Avenue, near Broadway “which adjoins the Gethsemane Baptist Church.... the exercises began by the audience singing the national hymn, ‘My Country ’Tis of Thee,’ a band of half a dozen pieces, stationed in one of the front seats, playing the music.” Also performed was the “’StarSpangled Banner,’ sung with stirring effect by Miss Lizzie Case, the audience joining in the chorus.” Following a speech, “‘God bless our native Land!’ [with complete text printed] was next sung by the audience....The meeting was closed by the audience singing the doxology and the firing of another salute by the Carlisle Battery” (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1873, 3); at the Brooklyn Orphan Asylum celebration, “the day wound up with a delightful soiree musicale at the residence of Mr. Stone, where Mrs. Stone

Publications “Fourth of July in Alabama.”742 By Joshua Simpson. Tune, “America.” First line: “O, thou unwelcome day.” Fourth of July March, arr. for Violin and Piano by Sep. Winner. Violin and piano. Series: The New Set of First Class Duets for the Violin and Piano by Sep. winner. Philadelphia: Lee & Walker, [1874]. “Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music,” American Memory, Library of Congress. “‘Huzza! ’Tis the Fourth of July!’ Written and composed by T. Waldron Shear.” San Francisco, 1874. First line: “Awake tis the loud signal gun.” Voice and piano. “Music for the Nation: American Sheet Music,” American Memory, Library of Congress.

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Performances Colorado Denver: At the pavilion, “Keller’s ‘Hymn of Peace’ was quite effectively sung by the Handel & Haydn Society,” and also “Star-Spangled Banner” and “My Country, ’Tis of Thee.”; “Music by the Mannerchor Society” (“The Fourth in Denver,” Rocky Mountain News, 5 July 1874, 4).

Illinois Quincy: “The first known band concert in the square was played by the Louis Kuehn Band on July 4, 1874, and the program included the Washington Park March by Kuehn” (Carl A.Landrum, Historical Sketches of Quincy Illinois: The First 100 Years [Quincy: Royal Printing Co., (n.d.)]; Quincy’s Washington Park website, http://www.adamscohistory.org/wash ingtonpark.html.

Massachusetts Boston: From 8–10 A.M. on the Common, Hall’s First Regimental Band, Edimonds,’ O’Connor’s and the Metropolitan Bands, all totaling 80 instruments, conducted by Arthur Hall (“Boston Correspondence,” Westfield Republican, 8 July 1874, 2). Weymouth: On the 250th anniversary of the establishment of this town, the exercises included “excellent music by Stetson’s Weymouth Band (including the performance of the ‘General Bates Quickstep,’” composed by Mr. W.F. Burrell, of Weymouth), and by Bowles’ South Abington Band.” A hymn “composed for the occasion, with the accompanying music,743 by John J. Loud, Esq., of Weymouth,” was performed: first line, “Our fathers bequeath’d this fair heritage to us.” (Proceedings on the Two Hundred and Fifieth Anniversary of the Permanent Settlement of Weymouth, with an Historical Address by Charles Francis Adams, Jr. July 4th, 1874. Boston: Wright & Potter, 1874.)

New Hampshire Milford: “At 9 o’clock a grand procession was formed on Union Square” and was led by the Milford Cornet Band. Also participating was the New Boston Band (“Milford Matters,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 8 July 1874, 2).

New York Brooklyn: At the Constitution Club House, the Union Quartet Club sang “The Star-Spangled Banner” and “Nobly the Flag Floats O’er Us To-Day.” The group was led by C. Wesley Sprague and John B. Tuttle accompanied at the piano (“At the Constitution Club,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 6 July 1874, 2). New York: Hall’s Boston Brass, String and Reed Band and Orchestra performed on the steamer Providence for an excursion into New York Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, from Pier No. 28, North River (New York Times, 4 July 1874, 7); Continental Band pro-

1875 vided promenade and dance music on board the steamer William Cook on its way to West Point and other cities, from 24th street pier (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1874, 1); Palmer’s Brass and String Bands played tunes on the steamer Thomas Cornell leaving New York for West Point and other destinations (New York Times, 4 July 1874, 7); on the steamboat Thomas Powell, Schilling’s Long Branch Orchestra and Cotillion Band performed as the vessel traveled to Newburgh, West Point, and other destinations (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1874, 1); at the Tammany celebration, the Tammany Glee Club sang the “Star-Spangled Banner” (New York Times, 5 July 1874, 1).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: On the occasion of the cornerstone ceremony of the “Public Buildings” on Penn Square, “the music was furnished by McClurg’s Liberty Cornet Band of Philadelphia, Benjamin K. McClurg, leader” (Proceedings at the Laying of the Corner Stone of the New Public Buildings on Penn Square, in the City of Philadelphia. July 4, 1874; with a description of the buildings, the statistics and progress of the work, and a summary of legislative and municipal action relating to the undertaking; with a brief history of events pertaining thereto. Printed for the Commissioners. Philadelphia: 1874.)

1875 Performances Colorado Denver: “The 4th of July will be celebrated on the 3d at Loomis’s Central Park, by which time the large pavilion for dancing now being constructed, will be ready for use. Gilman’s band has been engaged for afternoon and evening. Admission to the grounds, free” (“Fourth of July at Central Park,” Denver Daily Times, 17 June 1875, 4).

New Hampshire Milford: The Fourth was celebrated on July 5. An early report noted: “The Nashua Cornet Band744 will furnish music and give an open-air concert on Union Square in the evening.” At 8 A.M. the Milford Band gave a concert. At 10 A.M. there was a parade which included the Nashua and Greenville bands (“Matters at Milford,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 23 June and 7 July 1875, 2 and 2, respectively).

New York Brooklyn: Connor’s Band745 at the Printer’s Association celebration at Oriental Grove via the barges Chicago and Sarah Smith (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1875, 1); at Prospect Park, the Twenty-Third Regiment Brass Band, L. Conterno, director:

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1876 Part I. Grand March. Fest, Rietzel Ballad, “Dreaming of Thee,” J[ohn] R[ogers] Thomas Overture, Il Barbiere di Seviglia, Rossini Waltz, “Les Gardes de la Reine,” D. Godfrey Solo for Cornet, The Globe Polka (William Griffin, Cornet), Godfrey Fantasie, Railroad, G [iovanni E.]. Conterno Part II. Overture, Festival (introducing “My Country ’Tis of Thee”), Weber Prayer, “Sweet Spirit Hear My Prayer,” [William Vincent] Wallace Solo for Xylophon (William Former, xylophon), Former March, Irish Melodies, Arranged by Louis Conterno Galop, Sleigh Ride, Folke National Airs [“Independence Day,” New York Times, 3 July 1875, 2].

New York: At Morningside Park, the Union Home Cornet Band, “composed of youths” of St. John’s College (“Independence Day,” New York Times, 3 July 1875, 2); on the steamer Bristol, originating from New York, Hall’s Boston Brass and String Band provided celebration music on board during a trip up the Hudson River (New York Times, 4 July 1875, 11); at Gilmore’s Concert Garden, a corps of fife and drums and Gilmore’s Band performed national airs, followed by Jules Levy,746 cornetist, who performed the “American Polka” (New York Times, 5 July 1875, 7).

Ohio Springfield: A parade was led by Hawkin’s Band (Cincinnati Daily Gazette, 6 July 1875, 1).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: At eleven o’clock, A.M. there were ceremonies at the site of the Columbus Monument by the Christopher Columbus Monument Association. Nunzio Finelli, President: Music — Italian National Air, “Stella Confidente.” Introductory address, by Chev. Alonzo M. Vitl, Vice-Consul of Italy at Philadelphia. Music —Il Trovatore. Oration, by John A. Clark, Esq., of Philadelphia, on “The True Relations of Christopher Columbus to the Discovery of America.” Music —Lucretia Borgia. Address, by Chev. G.F. Secchi de Casali, of New York. Music —Ernani. Closing remarks, by the Rev. A. Isoleri, Pastor of the Italian Church, St. Mary Magdalen de Pazzi, Philadelphia. “Music by the Italian Bersaglieri Band. Prof. Federigo Nafoniello, Leader.”

“Twelve o’clock Noon. Ceremonies of breaking ground for the Agricultural Hall. His excellency, John F. Hartranft, Governor of Pennsylvania, Presiding.” Anthem, by the Centennial Orchestra. Prayer, by the Rev. William Newton, Rector of the P.E. Church of the Nativity. Reading the Declaration of Independence, by Prof. Amasa McCoy, of Chicago. Music —Souvenirs of Boston. Breaking of Ground. Opening Address, by His Excellency, John F. Hartranft. Music —The Greeting to the Stranger. Address, by Frederick M. Watts, Commissioner of Agriculture. Music —“National Airs.”

“Orchestra: Mr. Simon Hassler, Director”; at Fairmount Park, at the cornerstone for the Humboldt Monument, attended by 1500 men of various German singing societies, “a choir of singers composed of over 100 male voices, under the leadership of Professor Kuenzel” sang “The German Maennergesang” by Franz Abt and “The Watch on the Rhine,” music by Carl Wilhelm. Later at “the Hills” mansion, the audience sang “The Star-Spangled Banner” (Celebration of the Ninety-Ninth Anniversary of American Independence in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, July 5th, 1875. Published by order of the Centennial Board of Finance. Philadelphia: King & Baird, printers, 1875, 11.)

1876 The nation celebrated the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence with numerous speeches, parades, 100-gun artillery salutes, and musical performances. Philadelphia was chosen as the city that hosted the official Centennial Exhibition which attracted millions of visitors to Fairmount Park. The exhibition opened to the public on May 10, 1876, with President Ulysses Grant and Mrs. Grant sitting with 4,000 dignitaries on a grandstand erected in front of Memorial Hall, and all overlooking a crowd of tens of thousands. An orchestra under the direction of renowned conductor Theodore Thomas accompanied a chorus of 1000 voices singing John Greenleaf Whittier’s “Centennial Hymn,” composed especially for the May 10 event, but later performed in numerous locations on July 4. Other hymns composed for the opening ceremonies included “Welcome to All Nations,” by Oliver Wendell Holmes, and “Our National Banner,” by Dexter Smith (1839–1909). Also performed was Centennial Inauguration March by Richard Wagner and “Centennial Cantata” by Dudley Buck and lyrics by Sidney Lanier. Eight-hundred singers performed Handel’s “Hallelujah Chorus” that day. As in Philadelphia, other cities staged their concerts in the grandest manner. Hundreds of vocalists

195 and instrumentalists presented “monster concerts,” and multiple bands marched in parades to the delight of thousands of spectators crammed along city streets. In New York, a Centennial Union Choir of 600 voices sang at a midnight ceremony on July 3. In Worcester, Massachusetts, 1200 students presented a choral concert and five bands were mustered for the city’s morning parade. In Port Richmond, New York, 500 children sang Matthias Keller’s “American Hymn,” one of the most popular pieces performed on the Centennial Fourth. In Boston, perhaps numerically symbolic of the Centennial, a choir of 100 sang the “StarSpangled Banner” at a temperance meeting. It was also a day for the publication and premiere of numerous new works written especially for the Centennial by composers such as John Knowles Paine, David Coye, Theodore Moelling, B.P. Shallaber, Emil Dietzsch, George Phinney, Julius Edward Meyer, George F. Bristow, and Antônio Carlos Gomes. These centennial musical events helped to provide a catalyst for the healing and bonding of the nation following the Civil War. Ethnic and minority musical groups fostered hope and expressions of aspirations as the nation looked towards the future. America’s German-American communities proudly presented large and memorable concerts in towns in West Virginia, New York, New Jersey, Montana, Nebraska, and Illinois, while an Italian Band provided music in St. Paul, Minnesota, and an African-American band performed with gusto in Quincy, Massachusetts.

Publications “‘The Centennial Hymn.’ By John G. Whittier.” Music by John Knowles Paine. First line: “Our fathers’ God! from out whose hand.”747 Broadside, [1876]. Copy in Center for Popular Music, Middle Tennessee State University. Centennial National Songs and Anthems; or A Song Book for the Fourth of July, 1876. [n.p.], 1876. Copy in the Library of Congress. “Centennial Song.” By David Coye. To be sung to the tune: “Billy O’Rouke.” First line: “It’s a hundred years, July the 4th, since Uncle Sam became a nation.” Broadside. Unadilla, [NY]: D. Coye, 1876. Copy in Brown University. Centennial Songster: A Collection of Patriotic Songs for July 4, 1876. Lebanon, PA: Wm. M. Breslin, 1876. Copy in Brown University. “A Hundred Years Ago To-day: (1776. July 4th, 1876): a soprano or tenor solo, with chorus; written and composed in honor of the Centennial.” First line same as title. By Theodore Moelling. Words by R.H. Chittenden. New York: W.A. Pond, [1876]. Copy in the Library of Congress. “Independence Hymn.” By B.P. Shallaber. First line: “Come to the altar of the free” (“Poetry,” Farmer’s Cabinet, 4 July 1876, 1). “Welcome to All Nations. Written for the 4th of July Centennial Celebration at Philadelphia by Oliver

1876 Wendell Holmes, to the Music of Keller’s American Hymn.”748 Boston: Oliver Ditson & Co.; New York: Chas. H. Ditson & Co.; Chicago: Lyon & Healy, [1876]. Copies in Harvard University and University of Virginia.

Performances California San Francisco: The Silver Cornet Band performed at the official “literary exercises” there (San Francisco Chronicle, 6 July 1876, 1).

Colorado Boulder: The Boulder Glee Club sang “Whittiers Centennial Hymn” and “Star-Spangled Banner” at the grove (“The Fourth in Boulder,” Boulder County News, 7 July 1876, 2). Sunset Crossing (Little Colorado, A.T.). The following program began at 9 A.M.: “Star-Spangled Banner” by the Sunset Band Opening prayer by James Welsh Oration by Gen’l Lot Smith Music “Hail Columbia” by the Band Reading the Declaration of Independence by Daniel Davis Song “Rally Round the Flag” by Wm. Hayes Music “Sunset Quickstep” by the Band Recitation “Liberty” by Alfred M. Derrick. Historical Address by Jas. T. Woods Music “Herdsman’s Echo” by Woods and Band Song “This New Land of Ours” by Mrs. Jas. T. Woods. Recitation “Revolutionary Alarm” by Israel Call. Song “The Flag of the Free”749 by Daniel Davis Song “Off to Arizona” (original) by H. Hobbs Music “Way Up” by Woods and Band Duet “The Orphan” by Mrs. Barlow and Mrs. Call Recitation “Shamus O’Brien”750 by Wm. Hayes Song “Arizona Mission” (original) by Peter Wood Song “Larboard Watch”751 by A.M. Derrick, W.B. Hardy, H. Brewer Song “Thou Hast Learned to Love Another”752 by Mrs. Handon Rich Song “All Hail, My Sabbath-School Mates” by Miss Annie Woods Music “Yankee Doodle” by the Band Benediction by Chaplain Welsh

“The singing of little Annie Woods is well worthy of mention; in fact, I may say all acquitted themselves splendidly, especially in the moonlight dance on the plaza, where the light fantastic toe seemed to have received new life for this special occasion” (Daniel Davis, “Celebration on Little Colorado,” Arizona Weekly Miner, 21 July 1876, 1). Denver: “Hail Columbia” and “Hymn of America” sung by the audience and “Centennial Hymn” sung by the Handel and Haydn Societies at a ceremony held at Denver Park (“The Fourth,” Daily Rocky Mountain News, 6 July 1876, 1, 4).

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1876 Pueblo: A choir, led by William Bradford, sang “Whittier’s Centennial Hymn,” at Centennial Park (“Centennial 4th,” Colorado Chieftain, 6 July 1876, 4).

Connecticut Hartford: “Bright Sword of Liberty” sung by C.F. Adam and “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by Mr. T. J. Sullivan at the Opera House (Hartford Daily Courant, 4 July 1876, 2). Litchfield: “Order of Exercises at the “Centennial Celebration” at the Congregational Church: 1. Voluntary, organ and cornet. 2. Reading of Centennial Proclamation, Hon. O.S. Seymour, President of the Day. 3. Prayer, the Rev. Allen McLean. 4. Singing, choir and congregation, Hymn, “America.” 5. Reading of Declaration of Independence, Hon. Truman Smith. 6. Singing, choir and congregation, Selection from Whittier’s Centennial Hymn. [first line]: “Our fathers’ God! from out whose hand.” 7. Historical Address, Hon. George C. Woodruff. 8. Singing, by the choir, Keller’s American Hymn. 9. Benediction. 10. Voluntary, organ and cornet, national airs.

The choir was “exceedingly fine and well-instructed.” The cornet and organ were played by Eugene W. Meafoy and Miss Ella Gibbud, respectively (Litchfield Centennial Celebration, July 4th, A.D. 1876. Historical Address by George C. Woodruff. Hartford: Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1876). Mystic: “[A] goodly company gathered in Central Hall at ten and a-half o’clock to listen to the services there, which were as follows: Singing by S.[abbath] S.[chool] children, Miss Estella Tribble presiding at the organ. The ‘Star-Spangled Banner’ was beautifully sung by Miss Nettie Greenman.” Also sung were “America” and “Doxology” (Mystic Press, 6 July 1876). New Hartford: Clara Louisa Kellogg sing the “StarSpangled Banner” at the dedication of the new town hall (“Observances in Other Parts of the State,” Hartford Courant, 6 July 1876, 1).

District of Columbia “Whittier’s Centennial Hymn” was performed by a choir at a ceremony held in the First Congregational Church (Washington Evening Star, 5 July 1876, 4).

Illinois Chicago: “Hymn to Liberty” composed for the Chicago Turngemeinde by Emil Dietzsch and performed at Wright’s Grove “by all the German singing societies of Chicago” advertised as the “Grand National Jubilee Chorus” (“The Germans,” Chicago Tribune, 5 July 1876, 3). Joliet: Members of the Chicago Musical College

performed at Werner Hall and William Lewis, a professor at the college, performed a violin solo at the State Penitentiary (Chicago Tribune, 5 July 1876, 7). Meacham: “America” and “In That Far Off One Hundred Years Ago” sung by the M.E. Choir at Meacham’s Grove, Dupage County (“Meacham,” Chicago Tribune, 6 July 1876, 8). Quincy: Participating in the parade and laying of the cornerstone of “the new Court House” were Grosch’s Band, Gem City Band, Bardolph Cornet Band, “the colored band of Quincy,” and the Concordia Singing Society of Quincy. In Washington Park that afternoon, the ceremonies there included music by the Bardolph Band (Quincy Daily Herald, 6 July 1876, 3). Wilmette: “Star-Spangled Banner” was sung by J.D. Ludlam (“Suburban: Wilmette,” Chicago Tribune, 5 July 1876, 3).

Maryland Baltimore: “God Save Our Native Land”753 and “Old Hundred” sung by an “excellent choir” at St. Peter’s Episcopal Church (Baltimore Bee, 5 July 1876, 3). Cumberland: “Centennial Hymn” and “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by a choir of fifty, directed by Joseph P. Wiesel, at the town’s grandstand (Cumberland Alleganian Times, 6 July 1876, 1, 4).

Massachusetts Amherst: The Amherst Cornet Band and Amherst Quintette Club (chorus) provided music for the parade and the exercises held “at the Grove.” According to a local newspaper: “Several choruses were given by the singers under the leadership of the Rev. Mr. Bartlett; and the songs, ‘Triumphantly the morning dawned’ by Mrs. Hattie Walker, ‘Little Maid of Arcandee’ by Mrs. Susie Eaton, and ‘Revolutionary Tea’ by Miss Abbie Bosworth, were all admirably rendered and well received.” The ceremony closed “by all joining in ‘America’” (Historical Address Delivered at the Centennial Celebration, in Amherst, Mass., July 4, 1876. By M. F. Dickinson, Jr. Amherst, Mass.: McCloud & Williams, 1878, v, viii; “The Fourth at Amherst,” Farmers Cabinet, 11 July 1876, 2). Bolton: At the Meeting House of First Congregational Church, the Hudson Brass Band provided “suitable music” to begin. An “American Hymn” was sung by a select choir: and the “Star-Spangled Banner” was sung by public school children. Later “fireworks and a concert on the Common closed this highly-successful celebration of the birthday of the town and the nation” (Address Delivered in the First Parish Church in Bolton, July 4th, 1876, at the Centennial Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence; and Also in Observance of the 138th Anniversary of the Incorporation of the Town. By Richard S. Edes. Clinton: Printed by W. J. Coulter, 1877). Boston: The “Star-Spangled Banner” and “Te Deum,” were sung by a choir of 100 at a temperance

197 society celebration in St. Anne’s Church (“Other Places,” Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1876, 6). Bradford: The town assembled “at the Common in front of the Meeting House” and at 1 P.M. marched, proceeded by the Groveland Brass Band, to the grounds of Bradford Academy, where the exercises included singing “the national air, ‘Hail Columbia,’ by a select choir under the lead of Prof. H.E. Holt, with chorus by the assembly” (Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the United States of America, Held at Bradford, Mass., July 4th, 1876. Haverhill: Gazette Book and Job Printing Office, 1877). Brookline: “America” and “American Hymn,” composed by Matthias Keller and sung by 150 children at the town hall. “Mr. Whitney” sang the “Star-Spangled Banner” (Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1876, 3). Canton: The Canton Brass Band, Walter Ames, leader, “furnished music for exercises of the morning and evening.” The program for the exercises held at First Congregational Parish: 1. Organ Voluntary, Miss Clara B. Lopez. 2. Reading from the Scriptures, the Rev. John W. Savage. 3. Prayer, the Rev. William H. Savary. 4. Chorus, Centennial Hymn,754 J.K. Paine. 5. Introductory Address, Thomas E. Grover, Esq. 6. Chorus, “To Thee, O Country!” Julius Eichberg.755 7. Reading of the Declaration of Independence, Miss J. Annie Bense. 8. Chorus, American Hymn, Keller. 9. Historical Address, Hon. Charles Endicott. 10. Chorus, “The Star-Spangled Banner.” 11. Addresses by citizens. 12. Hymn, “America.” [First line: “My country, ’tis of thee”]. 13. Benediction, the Rev. Clifton Fletcher.

(July 4, 1876. Centennial Celebration, at Canton, Mass. Historical Address, by Hon Charles Endicott. Boston: William Bense, 1876). Hingham: “American Hymn,” composed by Matthias Keller and sung by school children at the Agricultural Hall (Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1876, 6). Lancaster: The following Ode, by Mrs. Julia A. Fletcher Carney was delivered at the town’s celebration: first line, “One hundred years ago, our sires” (Address, Delivered July 4, 1876, 1876, at Lancaster, Massachusetts, by Request of the Citizens. By John D. Washburn. Copy in the University of Missouri. Leicester: At the city celebration, the children of the public schools sang “My Country, ’tis of thee,” a band played the “Star-Spangled Banner,” “Home, Sweet Home,” and “Hail to the Chief,” a choir sang “The Flag Without a Stain,”756 “The Marseilles Hymn,” and “Yankee Doodle” to the words “Father and I went down to camp” (Celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of American Independence, at

1876 Leicester; July 4th, 1876. Worcester: Charles Hamilton, 1876). Melrose: Text of “America” and “Star-Spangled Banner” published in “Order of Exercises,” Centennial Celebration of the Town of Melrose, Mass., July 4th 1876 ([Boston]: Babb & Stephens, printers, Boston [1876]). Newton: “The exercises of the occasion were opened by the Newton City Band playing the several American national airs, after which the audience arose, and joined with the choir in singing, to the tune of ‘Old Hundred,’ the accompanying verses”: first line, “O God! beneath thy guiding hand.” Other musical works performed included “My country, ’tis of thee” and two verses of Whittier’s “Centennial Hymn” sung by the choir: first line, “Our fathers’ God! from out whose hand”; hymn (first line: “God ever glorious! Sovereign of nations!”) sung by the audience; “The Battle-Cry of Freedom” sung by Miss Cora G. Plimpton; “Long Live America” sung by Miss Patrick (The Centennial Celebrations of the City of Newton, on the Seventeenth of June and the Fourth of July, by and Under the Direction of the City of Newton. Newton: Published by Order of the City Council, 1876). Springfield: “America,” “Centennial Hymn,” “StarSpangled Banner,” and “To Thee, O Country” sung at the First Baptist Church by a choir directed by Amos Whiting (“Springfield,” Springfield Daily Republican, 4 July 1876, 6). Waltham: Events included music from a band of music at Rumford hall throughout the day, performance of three hymns during the exercises in the tent on the Common, included “The Star-Spangled Banner”; “Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean”; Whittier’s “Centennial Hymn”; “America.” Military music was provided by the Waltham Band and “orchestral music” by Hull’s Quadrille Band. A “Children’s Concert” at 6 P.M. in the tent included “several hundred children from the public schools under the leadership of Mr. L.B. Marshall” and an “original Hymn, composed for this occasion by Mr. Geo. Phinney”: “Waltham Centennial Fourth of July Hymn” (first line: “A Hundred years have come and gone”). (Historical Address Delivered before the Citizens of Waltham, July 4, 1876, by Josiah Rutter. Waltham: Waltham Free Press Office, 1877). Weston: Music for the procession, exercises (held at the town hall) and fireworks was provided by the Weston Cornet Band. The ensemble performed a “Russian Hymn” at the exercises (Oration Delivered before the Inhabitants of Weston, at the Town Hall, July 4, 1876. By Charles H. Fiske. Weston, 1876). Worcester: In the early morning a concert by 1200 pupils of the public schools took place in a tent. The girls generally dressed in white, and the boys in their holiday attire, each carrying a neat national flag. They were arranged on tiers of seats in regular elevation from the conductor’s stand in front. On the right of the conductor was an organ and piano,

1876

198 2. Our Native Land. Scholars of the eighth and ninth grades, organ and piano 3. Independence Day. Song, by the boys, chorus by all the voices, bands, &c., and tableau with flags. 4. Mount Vernon Bells759— To the memory of Washington. Song, by twenty-eight young ladies from the eighth and ninth grades. 5. The Red, White and Blue. Song, by boys, chorus by all, with bands, &c. 6. Keller’s American Hymn. Full chorus, bands, organ and piano. 7. Flag of the Free. Song, by boys, with full chorus. 8. New England. 9. Star-Spangled Banner. Full chorus, bands, organ, piano, and tableau with flags.

“The Flag without A Stain,” by Boston composer and publisher Charles Albert White, was a popular song written for the centennial celebration in 1876 and sung numerous times in subsequent years on the Fourth of July. The chorus section has the phrase “Sweet land of liberty,” borrowed from Samuel Francis Smith’s “My Country, ’Tis of Thee.” This edition, for voice and piano, was published by White-Smith in 1914 (author’s collection). and on the left the four Worcester bands for accompaniments. Mr. C.P. Morrison presided at the organ, and Mr. G.W. Sumner757 at the piano, with Mr. E.S. Nason758 for conductor.

The bands included the Worcester Brass Band, Worcester National Band, Worcester French Band, and Worcester Irish Band. The concert program included the following works; 1. America. Full chorus of 1200 voices, bands, organ and piano.

Worcester: Printed 1876).

Also that morning, a procession included the French Band, P.H.A. Baribeault, leader, 21 pieces; Johnson’s Drum Corps, 13 pieces; Father Mathew Temperance Band, J.B. Waters, leader, 23 pieces; Worcester National Band, A. W. Ingraham, leader, 20 pieces; Swedish Brass Band, in a carriage, 15 pieces, C. Ekbled, leader. On a “Scandinavian Car,” a number of well known figures were represented, including Ole Bull, “the celebrated musician personated by Nils Peterson” (Celebration by the Inhabitants of Worcester, Mass., of the Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. July 4, 1876. To which are Added Historical and Chronological Notes. by order of the City Council,

Minnesota St. Paul: A parade included the St. Paul City Band, Great Western Band, Crusader’s Band, Wagner’s Band, and Italian Band. The exercises at Rice Park included music by the Great Western Band, “My Country, ’Tis of Thee,” “Star-Spangled Banner” and “Freedom’s Land-A Centennial Hymn” (first line: “Age

199 upon age has rolled away”) sung by a chorus of male voices. “Programme: City of St. Paul, Fourth of July [1876],” Chilson Collection, Library, University of South Dakota.

Missouri Rolla (Missouri?): “Whittiers Centennial Hymn” was “set to music of Mr. Viah’s own composition” and “sung by all present” (“The Fourth at Rolla,” Phelps County New Era, 8 July 1876, 3).

Montana Helena: “America” and “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by the Gesang Verein and Centennial March by Wagner performed by the Silver Cornet Band at the Court House Square (“1876,” Helena Daily Herald, 5 July 1876, 3).

Nebraska Omaha: “The Flag Without a Stain” (cited as “a new song, also expressly ordered”) and “Red, White and Blue” performed at Saunders’ Grove. Sung by the Arions. (“Close of the Century,” Omaha Republican, 6 July 1876, 4).

Nevada Virginia City: “Speed Our Republic” performed at the Chollar-Postosi Mining Company grounds by a Centennial chorus of 40 voices, R.H. Lindsay, director (“Our Hundredth Birthday,” Daily Territorial Enterprise, 6 July 1876, 3).

New Hampshire Dover: The Dover Cornet Band, W.D. Taylor, leader, and the National Cornet Band participated in the parade from Franklin Square to the Park (One Hundredth Anniversary of the National Independence, July 4, 1876; Its Celebration by the City of Dover, N.H., the Public Proceedings, and Oration. By the Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D. Dover, N.H.: Morning Star Steam Job Printing House, 1876). Mont Vernon: “The exercises were held in Institute Hall, in the forenoon, the order being: singing of an original Ode written for the occasion by W.H. Conant760; address by the President, Dea. Geo. E. Dean; prayer by the Rev. W.H. Woodwell; singing of a Hymn; reading of the Declaration of Independence by Prof. G.W. Todd, who by interesting comments made the exercise very impressive; singing, ‘Viva l’ America’; oration by the Rev. W.H. Woodwell, which was an excellent production, and well appreciated and enjoyed.... The exercises at the hall closed with ‘America’” (“Celebration at Mont Vernon,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 11 July 1876, 2).

New Jersey Jersey City: “Hail Columbia” and “My Country, ’Tis of Thee” sung by Mme. Salvotti and a chorus at Kepler Hall. C.H. Benson sang the “Star-Spangled Banner” (“All around New York,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 10).

1876 Newark: The New Jersey German Centennial Sangerbund gave a concert (New York Times, 4 July 1876, 5). Trenton: A parade included two drum corps and Winkler’s Band (New York Times, 5 July 1876, 10).

New York New York: “Hail Columbia,” “Marching through Georgia,”761 “Red, White, and Blue,” and “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by the employees of the Post Office “on the basem*nt floor” (“Patriotic Post Office Clerks,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 12); at Fort Green, “Hail Columbia” performed by a band and “Hail Atlantis,” cited as “Lechner’s Hymn,” sung by the Centennial Union Choir (600 voices), Carl Traeger, director, at a midnight ceremony on July 3. “Hymn” (first line: “A hundred years ago today”) performed and “written for the occasion” by H.R.H. Chittenden and “set to music by Professor Julius Edward Meyer.”762 “Music arranged in quartet form for first and second tenors and first and second basses.” (“Old Hundred,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1876, 1); “The Heavens are Telling”763 performed during the late evening of July 3 by a chorus of German singers, directed by “Mr. Traeger” and with piano accompaniment, at Union Square. The work was barely heard due to the immense crowds. Another report cites a performance of “Waken, voice of the land’s devotion”764 (first line), lyrics by Bayard Taylor765 and set to music by “Professor Knoeller of Guben, Germany” (“Centennial Songs,” Daily Territorial Enterprise [Virginia City, Nevada], 4 July 1876, 3; “Scenes at Union Square,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 12); “Star-Spangled Banner” and “Sword of Bunker Hill”766 sung by the St. James Glee Club at a celebration of the John M. Dowley Association at No. 184 East Broadway (“Celebration Notes,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 7); “Star-Spangled Banner,” Handel’s Hallelujah chorus, and other works were sung by German choral societies, accompanied by an orchestra, at the New York Centennial Saenger Verbund (19 societies) under the direction of Reinhold Schmeiz at the Jones’ Woods Colosseum (“Centennial Saenger Verbund,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 7; see also New York Times, 4 July 1876, 2); at the Academy of Music, William Cullen Bryant’s Centennial Ode (first line, “Through storm and calm the years have led”), performed with accompaniment “by Professor H. Mosenthal, of the Mendelssohn Glee Club” (“Centennial Songs for the Fourth,” New York Evangelist, 29 June 1876, 3; New York Times, 5 July 1876, 1); at St. Stephen’s Church, a choral concert was led by H.B. Danforth, organist (“Services at St. Stephen’s Church,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 7). Port Richmond, Staten Island: “American Hymn” (Keller), “Hail Columbia,” and Star-Spangled Banner” sung by “500 children from the public schools” in the park “on Heberton Street, in front of the School-House.” The singing was led by Mr. W.L. Sexton and the instrument music by Mr. Jas. Whitford.

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1877 (New York Times, 5 July 1876, 10; An Account of the Centennial Celebration of the 4th of July, 1876, by the Citizens of the Town of Northfield, Richmond County, New York, Including the Oration by Hon. Geo. Wm. Curtis, and Historical Sketch by John J. Clute, Esq. New York: Charles Vogt, Steam Printer, 114 Fulton Street, 1876). Sinclairville: “Hail Our Country’s Natal Morn” was sung, with the solo by Mrs. L.M. Lincoln; chorus by the Glee Club (Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of American Independence at Sinclairville, N.Y., July 4, 1876, in the Sixty-Eighth Year of Settlement of the Town of Charlotte. Sinclairville: E. L. Husted, 1876). Westfield: “Centennial Hymn,” by Whittier, sung by a Glee Club at the Park (Westfield Republican, 5 July 1876, 3). Yorkville: “Hail Columbia” performed by Wallace’s Band at the Seventh District Court House (“Celebration at Yorkville,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 7).

Pennsylvania Montrose: The town held a Centennial celebration that included a parade and cornerstone laying ceremony767 for a monument dedicated to the soldiers that fought in the Civil War. On the evening of July 3 the Telford Guards marched and the Susquehanna Band played “stirring music” at midnight. There was also a “Centennial Hop” held on the street in front of the Engine House, with music provided by the Rough & Ready Orchestra. A parade on July 4 began at noon and included the Elk Lake Band, Brooklyn Band, Tunkhannock Band, Montrose Drum Corps, and Rough & Ready Band. At the exercises which followed, “the opening Hymn, to the tune of Old Hundred, was very effectively rendered by a large chorus of trained voices led by Mr. Chas. S. Foster.” The chorus, accompanied by an organ, also sang the “Centennial Hymn,” “America,” “Hail Columbia,” “StarSpangled Banner,” and “Auld Lang Syne,” the latter concluding the exercises. The cornerstone ceremony followed with speeches and appropriate music by the Brooklyn Band, and the singing of “Ship of State” by a vocal quartet (The Republican, 10 July 1876, 2–3; Montrose Democrat, 12 July 1876, 6). Philadelphia: “The Great Republic,”768 cited as a “Grand Overture,” by George F. Bristow of New York, and performed by an orchestra of 250 musicians, conducted by Patrick Gilmore at Independence Square. The band also accompanied the singing of “Hymn of Welcome to All Nations” (first line: “Bright on the banners of lily and rose”) and the Grand Triumphal March, lyrics by Dexter Smith, music by Sir Julius Benedict and “Hymn for the First Centennial of the American Independence”769 composed by Bazilian composer Antônio Carlos Gomes (Farmer’s Cabinet, 4 July 1876, 2; “City of the Declaration,” New York Times, 5 July 1876, 3; “The Fourth,” Helena Daily Herald, 11 July 1876, 1; “Home and Foreign Gossip,” Harper’s Weekly, 15 July 1876 ).

Rhode Island Providence: The order of exercises at the First Baptist Meeting House included: music by Herrick’s Brigade Band; “singing by the choir under the direction of B.K. Glezen, ‘O come hither and behold the works of the Lord,’” “The Star-Spangled Banner,” and “Whittier’s Centennial Hymn” (The Progress of Providence. A Centennial Address to the Citizens of Providence, R. I. By Hon. Samuel Greene Arnold. Providence: OProvidence Press C., 1876).

Vermont Windsor: A parade included a drum corps and the Windsor Cornet Band (18 members). At the exercises, the band played “Hail Columbia” and band members who are indivudally named, led by Henry W. Stocker, sang “The National Hymn.” (The Centennial at Windsor, Vermont, July 4, 1876. Windsor: The Journal Company, 1876).

West Virginia Wheeling: “An das Vaterland” sung by the Beethoven Society and Concordia and “Deutscher Mainer Tesigesang” sung by the Maennerchor; “Liederfreiheit” sung by the Beethoven Society; “Gruss” (Vercino) sung by Germania. “Hail Columbia” was sung by the five societies, directed by William Kryter (“The Eve!” Wheeling Daily Register, 4 July 1876, 4).

Germany Berlin: Silas Pratt770 conducted his own work, Centennial Overture, on July 4.

1877 Publications “Ode: July 4th, 1877” by Charles H. Denison. To the air “America.” First line: “Come wake the joyous lay.” Broadside, 1877. Copy in Brown University.

Performances Colorado Greenhorn: At the hall near the Harrington school house, “Prof. Tom Austin’s well-known string band” furnished music for a dance that included fifty couples (“Greenhorn Items,” Colorado Weekly Chieftain, 19 July 1877, 1).

District of Columbia “Star-Spangled Banner” sung by Robert Ball, with the audience joining in the chorus, at a meeting of the Oldest Inhabitants Association of Washington at City Hall (“The Day We Celebrate,” Evening Star, 5 July 1877, 4).

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1877

Soldiers Monument on the Public Square in Montrose, Pennsylvania. The cornerstone was laid on July 4, 1876, and dedicated on July 4, 1877, “in memory of the Citizen Soldiers of Susquehanna County, who gave their lives for the preservation of the Union in the war of 1861–5.” Music was provided for these events by the Brooklyn Cornet Band, Rough and Ready Band, the 44th Regiment Band of Binghamton, and Mud Lake Drum Corps. At the cornerstone ceremony, a vocal quartet sang a work titled “Ship of State” (courtesy Hilary Caws-Elwitt and the Susquehanna County Historical Society & Free Library Association).

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Independence Hall in Philadelphia, where the assembly house of the Pennsylvania government was located and the Second Continental Congress (1775–76), under which the Declaration of Independence was debated and signed, and the Constitutional Convention of 1787. Some of the milestone performances that took place on Independence Square included the 1876 Centennial when an orchestra of 250 musicians (Patrick Gilmore, conductor) performed The Great Republic, composed by George F. Bristow, and the 1976 Bicentennial when bands performed throughout the day and noted singer Marian Anderson read passages from the Declaration as “America the Beautiful” was played on an organ (author’s photograph).

Indiana Indianapolis: The “formal opening” of the Court House takes place and the ceremony included prayers, speeches, and the performance of two “national hymns” by the Choral Union (“Indiana,” Chicago Daily Tribune, 5 July 1877, 7).

Maryland Baltimore: Garrett Park was dedicated on this day and a band played “The Star-Spangled Banner,” and other musical selections were sung by the West End Glee Club (“Dedication of Garrett Park,” Baltimore Bee, 5 July 1877, 4).

New Hampshire Peterboro: In a parade were “six bands of music and several drum corps” and “the concert by the six bands

of music was an interesting musical feature” (“The Peterboro Celebration,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 10 July 1877, 2).

New York Brooklyn: At Ridgewood Park, near Brooklyn, “A patriotic cornet solo by Albert Smith of Baehr’s Band” (“At Ridgewood Park,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1877, 4); on the “palace steamer” Long Branch, from Fulton Ferry, Brooklyn, to Newburgh, Iona Island, West Point and other destinations, “Bauland’s grand military brass band will play select airs during the entire trip” (Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1877, 1); on the new steamer Columbia from Jewell’s Wharf in Brooklyn to Rockway Beach, “Conterno’s Twenty Third Regiment Band, the Columbia Glee Club, and Professor Soltan, the cornet soloist, will discourse sweet music on the trip” (“Far Rockaway,” Brooklyn Daily

203 Eagle, 3 July 1877, 4); at Tompkins Park, “the Navy Yard Band consisting of a drummer and fifer, furnished the instrumental music” and the audience sang “America” and the “Star-Spangled Banner” (“At Tompkins Park,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1877, 1). New York: “The Girl I Left Behind Me” and “Yankee Doodle” were performed for the Corps of Veterans, with about 24 members, by “two drums and a fife ... furnished by Major Bush, commanding officer of Governor’s Island,” as the group marched out of Sturtevant House following a dinner there (New York Times, 5 July 1877, 8).

Pennsylvania Montrose: At a dedication of a soldiers’ monument,771 the ceremonies began with a parade, with music provided by the Brooklyn Cornet Band, Capt. E.N. Barney, director; Mud Lake Drum Corp, drum major Snow; 44th Regiment Band of Binghamton; the ensembles “elicited the highest praise and won admiration on account of their perfection in the musical art.” The band had marched in the town’s parade earlier that day (“The Fourth of July,” The Republican, 16 July 1877, 1 and 4). Rush: At Butterfield Springs, Susquehanna County, the exercises were held in the afternoon with the Elk Lake Band providing the music (“Butterfield Springs,” The Republican, 16 July 1877, 4). Warren772: The following bands marched in the parade: Youngsville Band; Citizens Band of Warren; Kane Marching Band; Frewsburg Band. At the park, the exercises included: the Warren Musical Association singing “Hail to Thee, Liberty” and “America”; the Warren Band performing “Columbia”; Frewsburg Band playing “Yankee Doodle.” The ceremony closed with the music “Dixie” (Warren Mail, 10 July 1877).

1879 the cornet band had played ‘Hail Columbia’— which was rendered very creditably by the boys — the Rev. O.L. Fisher opened the exercises with prayer, after which the little girls sang ‘America.’” The girls sang another song after a reading of the Declaration of Independence (Colorado Miner, 6 July 1878, 3). Golden: A parade was led by the Golden Band, “which dispensed some excellent martial music en route” (“The Fourth in Golden,” Colorado Transcript, 10 July 1878, 3). Green Lake: Citizens from Leavenworth enjoyed the day at the lake. “At 10 o’clock the Brownville band arrived and commenced to entertain the crowd by appropriate selections.” At the bandstand, after a reading of the Declaration of Independence, “the band played the soul-stirring ‘Star-Spangled Banner.’” After the exercises, “the dancing commenced, and during the evening thirty-seven couples whirled in mazy circles to the dictating strains of the band” (“A Gala Day at Green Lake,” Colorado Miner, 6 July 1878, 2).

New York Sea Cliff, Long Island: The day “was ushered in with a grand national salute at sunrise.” At 10 a.m. a brass band performed “national airs.” The day’s events included a reading of the Declaration and an oration by C.H. Fowler. Philip Phillips,773 “the widely-known ‘Singing Pilgrim,’” sang “several patriotic airs” at the Metropolitan Tabernacle. (“Fourth of July at Sea Cliff,” New York Times, 17 June 1878, 8).

Wisconsin Geneva Lake: The Hebron Martial Band, The Harvard Glee Club, and Chemung Quadrille Band performed at the celebration held at Kaye’s Park (Program, 1878. Wisconsin Historical Society).

Virginia Arlington: At the White House Pavilion adjacent to the Potomac River: “Blest Be the Tie That Binds” sung by members of the Congregational Church and Assembly Church of Washington, D.C. (“The Day We Celebrate,” Washington Evening Star, 5 July 1877, 4).

1878 Performances

1879 Performances Colorado Denver: The day’s events included a parade of three divisions, the second led by Gilman’s Band. The third “was headed by an unnamed band — probably the Colorado Springs Cornet Band.”774

District of Columbia Colorado

Colorado Springs: A parade that began at noon included the Colorado City Band, a brass band, and the Colorado Springs Band (“Our Glorious Fourth, Colorado Springs Gazette, 6 July 1878, 6). Georgetown: A parade was led by the Silver Queen Cornet Band. “Arriving at the public ground, the representatives of the States, the speakers and the band, occupied the platform erected for the purpose. After

Pistorio’s Orchestra provided music at the Caledonian Club celebration held at Beyer’s Seventh Street Park (Washington Post, 4 July 1879, 4).

Missouri Liberty: The Liberty Cornet Band performed in Long’s Pasture (“The Picnic at Liberty July 4th,” Liberty Weekly Tribune, 11 July 1879, 2).

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1880 New Hampshire Milford: “There was a large number out on the evening of the Fourth to enjoy the open-air band concert. The selections from ‘Pinafore’ were received with such prolonged applause that they were repeated” (“Matters at Milford,” Farmers’ Cabinet, 8 July 1879, 2).

New York Chateaugay: The Chateaugay Brass Band led a parade starting from St. Patrick’s Roman Catholic Church (“Chateaugay,” Franklin Gazette, 20 June 1879, 3). Coney Island: Jules Levy, cornetist, played before 20,000 persons at Manhattan Beach; the Red Hussar Band775 performed at West Breighton Hotel and Gilmore’s Band performed “Millard’s March” and “Viva l’Amerique” (“July 4,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 5 July 1879, 2). Ogdensburg: Four bands were scheduled to perform: Montreal Band (27 pieces); St. Albans Brigade Band (24 pieces); Ogdensburg City Band (20 Pieces), La Fayette Band (19 pieces). “They are all handsomely uniformed, and give an aggregate of 90 musicians” (Franklin Gazette, 20 June 1879, 3).

Pennsylvania Harrisburg: A “grand fireman’s parade” included 24 bands and 1 drum corps (“Celebrations in Other Places,” New York Times, 5 July 1879, 3).

England London: At Westminster Palace Hotel, the band of the Coldstream Guards played American patriotic tunes (New York Times, 5 July 1879, 3).

1880 Publications “American Girl Fourth of July! Song.” By Col. Waldron Shear. Arranged by H. M. Bosworth. First line: “Again over Columbia’s domain.” For voice, chorus (SATB) and piano. San Francisco, 1880.

Performances Colorado Fort Collins: The Fort Collins Cornet Band776 participated in a town parade and provided music at Vecelius’ Grove where the exercises were held. The Collins Glee Club also performed that day (“The Coming Celebration,” Fort Collins Courier, 1 July 1880, 3).

District of Columbia Georgetown: “Prof.Hoskins” Band played “national airs, with other choice selections” at a celebration of the Hanco*ck and English Club of Georgetown, near

Goddard’s Hall, the “Headquarters of the Club” (“Political Jubilation,” Washington Post, 6 July 1880, 1).

New York Brooklyn: At Tompkins Park, performances included: the Fort Hamilton Band; a “vocal quartet from Dr. Jeffery’s Church under the lead of Mr. Burns, and Mr. Muir, a skillful cornetist”; a Glee Club singing “The Star-Spangled Banner,” and led by Mr. Muir, and “the whole assemblage joining in the chorus with thrilling effect”; and Mr. Richards who “sang the ‘Red, White and Blue’ in spirit style” (“Speeches,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 6 July 1880, 2); at the Tammany Society meeting, “Star-Spangled Banner” was “sung by the members of the society and audience” and the Tammany Glee Club sang Charles Morton’s rendition of a song titled “A Knot of Blue and Gray” (“The Day Elsewhere,” Washington Post, 6 July 1880, 1; New York Times, 6 July 1880, 8). Coney Island: On the porch of the Manhattan Beach Hotel, three members of “Gilmore’s Band” played selections of “sacred music” and 300 ladies and gentlemen sang “America,” “Come, Thou Almighty King,” and “Old Hundred” directed by Patrick Gilmore, and accompanied by “Mr. Levy,” a cornetist (“A Hot Day by the Sea,” New York Times, 5 July 1880, 8); at West Brighton, Coney Island, L. Conterno and his orchestra of forty instrumentalists, including Adam Seifert and Sig. Camello Cioone (?), clarinetists performed. At the Hotel Ocean Pavilion, the Tyrolean Singers, directed by Hans Lachner performed selections (“Coney Island,” Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 July 1880, 2).

Pennsylvania Philadelphia: “Hail Columbia” sung at the Centennial Building “by the full chorus of church choirs and amateur societies, under the direction of Professor A.R. Taylor.” Miss Anna L. Fuller sang the “StarSpangled Banner”; “Yankee Doodle” was played on a fife and drum at the Centennial Building as a group formed a tableau of “the Spirit of ’76” (“At the Centennial,” Philadelphia Inquirer, 6 July 1880, 1–2).

West Virginia Moundsville: A picnic and celebration was held “in the grove near the Taylor’s Ridge M.E. Church and Calvary M.E. Sunday Schools.” A large platform was erected “which was occupied by two organs, a select choir and those who addressed the a